Connecting Words and Phrases Repeating Key Words or Mixing Nouns and their Pronouns Parallelism
What Is Parallelism? Repetition of grammatical form to express a series of equivalent ideas. It adds rhythm and balance.
Engage Audience Announce Topic and Briefly Acquaint Reader with It May Directly State Thesis Can Map Out the Way the Writing Will Progress Usually Single Paragraph for Short Essay, may be more for a longer essay
Engage the reader! Set the tone What Is Tone? Tone is author’s attitude towards the topic. Tone of voice is conveyed through word choice, syntax, punctuation, rhythm, sentence length.
Anecdote or Brief Personal Experience Arresting Statement Definition Interesting Details/Description Question Quotation
Stating What You Are Doing Stating a Cliché Making a Sweeping Generalization
Summarize Previous Ideas Repeat the Thesis Point to Ideas to Follow
Summary Question Ironic Twist or Surprising Observation Clever or Light- Hearted Ending Personal Challenge Hope or Recommendation Book End Technique
Don’t Introduce New Materials Don’t Tack on an Ending Don’t Apologize Don’t Moralize
Independent clause—subject + verb Inverted order (questions) Expletive constructions (there and it begin sentence)
Position of moveable modifiers (beware of misplaced or dangling modifiers) modifiers after main statement modifiers before main statement modifiers within main statement
Parallelism—same grammatical construction Balance—parallel constructions divided by pivot point (word or punctuation)
Active voice (subject active) Passive voice (subject has something done to it)
Word meanings Concrete versus Abstract Words Specific and General Terms Use Dictionary Level of Diction—depends on writer’s purpose and audience Formal Informal Technical writing Colloquial or slang
Denotation Connotation Objective tone
Figurative language—use of concrete words in a non-literal way to create images that catch and hold reader’s attention ◦ Simile and Metaphor ◦ Personification ◦ Overstatement/hyperbole ◦ Understatement