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Unit 5 Network Designer — Tim Berners-Lee. Quiz: how many words do you know about the Internet? log on/out, search engine, type in, click, point-and-click,

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Network Designer — Tim Berners-Lee. Quiz: how many words do you know about the Internet? log on/out, search engine, type in, click, point-and-click,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5 Network Designer — Tim Berners-Lee

2 Quiz: how many words do you know about the Internet? log on/out, search engine, type in, click, point-and-click, scroll up/down, browse, I mouse, modem, screen, keyboard, www, http, html, log on/out, search engine, type in, click, point-and-click, scroll up/down, browse, Internet access, homepage, blog, twitter/weibo, BBS, social networking sites (SNS), facebook, upload/download, hack/hacker, username, password, nickname, lurk, spam, polarization, emoticon

3 Internet acronyms AAMOF AAMOF A/S/L A/S/L BRB BRB BTW BTW COS COS CU CU CUL8R CUL8R G2CU G2CU F2T F2T FYEO FYEO G2R G2R GR8 GR8 HF HF MUSM MUSM NP NP NW NW TC TC OMG OMG OTFL OTFL ROFL ROFL WB WB WAM WAM As a matter of fact As a matter of fact Age/sex/location Age/sex/location Be right back Be right back By the way By the way because because See you See you See you later See you later Good to see you Good to see you Face to face Face to face For your eyes only For your eyes only Got to run Got to run Great Great Have fun Have fun Miss you so much Miss you so much No problem No problem No way No way Take care Take care Oh my God Oh my God On the floor rolling On the floor rolling Rolling on floor laughing Rolling on floor laughing Welcome back Welcome back Wait a minute Wait a minute

4 Background introduction World Wide Web (WWW): computer-based network of information resources that combines text and multimedia. The Web started to become a popular resource after 1993 when the first widely distributed browser provided a convenient way to access a variety of information on the Internet. The Web started to become a popular resource after 1993 when the first widely distributed browser provided a convenient way to access a variety of information on the Internet. The Web uses multimedia, which means that information can be displayed in a wide variety of formats. Users can read text, view pictures, watch animation, listen to sounds, and even explore interactive virtual environments on the Web. The Web uses multimedia, which means that information can be displayed in a wide variety of formats. Users can read text, view pictures, watch animation, listen to sounds, and even explore interactive virtual environments on the Web. The information on the World Wide Web can be accessed and searched through the Internet, a global computer network. The information on the World Wide Web can be accessed and searched through the Internet, a global computer network. The World Wide Web is often referred to simple as ‘ the Web ’. The World Wide Web is often referred to simple as ‘ the Web ’.

5 Sir Tim Berners-Lee (Father of the Web )

6 Berners-Lee was born in south west London, in 1955, the eldest child of two renowned mathematicians within the computer industry. Berners-Lee was born in south west London, in 1955, the eldest child of two renowned mathematicians within the computer industry. A graduate of Oxford University, England. A graduate of Oxford University, England. Queen Elizabeth II dubbed ( 授予称号) Tim Berners-Lee, the computer wizard/genius a knight with a sword in recognition of his contributions to the World Wide Web in 2004. As a British citizen, Berners-Lee will be able to use the title ‘ Sir Tim ’. Queen Elizabeth II dubbed ( 授予称号) Tim Berners-Lee, the computer wizard/genius a knight with a sword in recognition of his contributions to the World Wide Web in 2004. As a British citizen, Berners-Lee will be able to use the title ‘ Sir Tim ’.

7 Berners-Lee told the press he was notified of the honor a few days ago via the telephone, and not through the Internet or e-mail.---"I am humbled by this great honor," Berners-Lee said. "The Web came about through an ongoing collaboration with my fellow investors and developers worldwide. Everyone in the Internet community should be recognized by this honor." Berners-Lee told the press he was notified of the honor a few days ago via the telephone, and not through the Internet or e-mail.---"I am humbled by this great honor," Berners-Lee said. "The Web came about through an ongoing collaboration with my fellow investors and developers worldwide. Everyone in the Internet community should be recognized by this honor." The "father of the World Wide Web" received a knighthood for services to the Internet, but it is just one of the many honors and awards that Berners-Lee has received for his efforts. He has also been honored with the Millennium Technology Prize from the Finnish Technology Award Foundation and awarded by Prince Philip the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts. The "father of the World Wide Web" received a knighthood for services to the Internet, but it is just one of the many honors and awards that Berners-Lee has received for his efforts. He has also been honored with the Millennium Technology Prize from the Finnish Technology Award Foundation and awarded by Prince Philip the Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts.

8 The modest, publicity-shy physicist, now based in the U.S., is at pains to point out that he did not invent the Internet itself and insists he is "quite an ordinary person." But without his creation, there would be no www computer addresses and the Internet might still be the exclusive domain of a handful of computer experts. The modest, publicity-shy physicist, now based in the U.S., is at pains to point out that he did not invent the Internet itself and insists he is "quite an ordinary person." But without his creation, there would be no www computer addresses and the Internet might still be the exclusive domain of a handful of computer experts. Currently he is also engaged in developing his second big idea: the Semantic Web, which adds definition tags to information in Web pages and links them in such a way that computers can discover data more efficiently and form new associations between pieces of information, in effect creating a globally distributed database. Currently he is also engaged in developing his second big idea: the Semantic Web, which adds definition tags to information in Web pages and links them in such a way that computers can discover data more efficiently and form new associations between pieces of information, in effect creating a globally distributed database.

9 The father of the World Wide Web shared his concerns and dreams during an interview: Q: Besides the Semantic Web, do you have any other dreams or wishes for the future of the Web? B-L: Oh, lots and lots! I have always wanted the Web to be a more creative, flexible medium. I’m excited about the new portable devices we can use for the Web, about speech-based technology, and a lot of other things. Once you start with the basic Web idea, so much stuff becomes possible. Q: Besides the Semantic Web, do you have any other dreams or wishes for the future of the Web? B-L: Oh, lots and lots! I have always wanted the Web to be a more creative, flexible medium. I’m excited about the new portable devices we can use for the Web, about speech-based technology, and a lot of other things. Once you start with the basic Web idea, so much stuff becomes possible.

10 Text comprehension Read the text in 20 minutes and Task 1: Underline the key words or sentences in each paragraph. At the same time, mark the new words and expressions for later treatment. Task 2: Find out what is the text type of this article Narration: biography (p.88) Narration: biography (p.88) Task 3: Divide the text into six parts, and summarize the main idea of each part. (p.84)

11 Part 1 (Para 1-2): You can get any information you want as long as you have access to the Internet. Part 2 (Para 3-4): World Wide Web, which began as a little computer program nearly 20 years ago, was the work of Tim Berners-Lee alone. Part 3 (Para 5-7): Berners-Lee designed a kind of “hypertext” notebook which linked various kinds of information on his own computer, and then decided to open it up to everyone and make it a global link of all information.

12 Part 4 (Para 8-9): Berners-Lee devised HTML, URL and HTTP, all of which finally gave rise to the debut of World Wide Web in 1991, and to its exponential growth ever since. Part 5 (Para 10-11): Brought up as a quitessential child of the computer age, Berners-Lee created a most significant global system. Part 6 (Para 12): In spite of his Gutenbergian creation of the WWW, Berners-Lee chose the non-profit road, both for himself and for his creation.

13 Vocabulary exercises Read the text for the third time, and try to guess the rough meanings of new words and expressions in text (p. 84 -85 ). Read the text for the third time, and try to guess the rough meanings of new words and expressions in text (p. 84 -85 ). You may rely on the context of the words, or, if still in a puzzle, turn to an English- English dictionary. You may rely on the context of the words, or, if still in a puzzle, turn to an English- English dictionary.

14 Language points 1. acquaint v. acquaint sb. with sb./sth. (1) To cause to come to know personally 认识 e.g. Let me acquaint you with my family. Let me acquaint you with my family. I am already acquainted with him. I am already acquainted with him. (2) To make familiar 使熟悉,了解 e.g. acquainted myself with the rules and regulations of the new company (3) To inform 通知,告知 e.g. Please acquaint us with your plans. Please acquaint us with your plans. My mother acquainted him with my intention. My mother acquainted him with my intention.

15 acquaintance n. (1) A person whom one knows 熟人 e.g. a nodding/bowing acquaintance 点头之交 a nodding/bowing acquaintance 点头之交 a speaking acquaintance 泛泛之交 a speaking acquaintance 泛泛之交 He has a large circle of acquaintances. He has a large circle of acquaintances. (2) Knowledge of a person acquired by a relationship less intimate than friendship 对一个不像朋友那样亲密的人的了解 make the acquaintance of sb., make sb. ‘ s acquaintance 结识某人 drop/cut sb.'s acquaintance, drop/cut an acquaintance with sb. 和某人绝交 (3) Knowledge or information about something or someone 认 识,了解 have a passing/no/little/some acquaintance with sth. e.g. I have no acquaintance with this book. I have no acquaintance with this book. I have some acquaintance with English, but I do not know it well. I have some acquaintance with English, but I do not know it well.

16 2. launch a search engine: set a search engine in motion 启动搜索器 NOTE: “ Launch ” can be used to refer to different things, and should be translated in different ways. Translate: launch a guided missile/a rocket launch a guided missile/a rocket launch an fatal attack on the enemy launch an fatal attack on the enemy launch a new enterprise launch a new enterprise launch an aircraft carrier launch an aircraft carrier launch a new movie named Alice in Wonderland launch a new movie named Alice in Wonderland

17 3. inquire (AmE)/enquire (BrE) vi. & vt. (1) To seek information by asking a question 打听,通过提问题打听信息 inquire sth., inquire about sth., inquire out sth. e.g. We inquired about prices/trains to London. We inquired about prices/trains to London. He inquired the way. He inquired the way. He has inquired out the deployment of the enemy troops. He has inquired out the deployment of the enemy troops. (2) To make a formal inquiry or investigation 正式询问或调查 e.g. ICAC inquired into the corruption of TVB officials. (3) To ask about the health or condition of sb. 问候,询问健康或状况 inquire after e.g. The lady inquired after your health.

18 enquiry/inquiry n. (1) [U] asking; inquiring 询问,探问 learn sth. by inquiry e.g. He learned the news by ~. He learned the news by ~. We got the information by ~. We got the information by ~. a court of inquiry 调查庭 a court of inquiry 调查庭 (2) [C] make an inquiry/inquiries about 询问,质询 e.g. The School Personnel made an ~ about the applicant ’ s previous jobs. The School Personnel made an ~ about the applicant ’ s previous jobs. I have to make inquiries about his name and address. I have to make inquiries about his name and address. You can make your ~ about the matter. You can make your ~ about the matter. (3) [C] investigation 调查 an inquiry into e.g. There will be an ~ into the murder case. There will be an ~ into the murder case. They hold an official ~ into the incident. They hold an official ~ into the incident. The report called for a public ~ into it. The report called for a public ~ into it.

19 4. hit vi. & vt. (1) hit (out) at 朝 … 打去;攻击 e.g. He ~ at me, but missed. He ~ at me, but missed. Many people ~ out at hippie culture. Many people ~ out at hippie culture. The back-bencher ’ s speech ~ at government spending. The back-bencher ’ s speech ~ at government spending. (2) hit back (at sb.) (向 … )回击 e.g. She was entitled to ~ back at the rumour spreader. She was entitled to ~ back at the rumour spreader. The Prime Minister ~ back at those who sought to undermine the government ’ s tax code. The Prime Minister ~ back at those who sought to undermine the government ’ s tax code. (3) hit on/upon 想到,发现,碰上 e.g. John ~ on the idea of doing it. John ~ on the idea of doing it. I hope someone ~ upon a way out of the difficulty. I hope someone ~ upon a way out of the difficulty.

20 (4) hit it off (be on good terms with) 相处得好, 合得来 e.g. The newly-married couple ~ it off. The newly-married couple ~ it off. Tom and Terry hit off with each other. Tom and Terry hit off with each other. (5) hit sb./sth. off (imitate very well) 模仿很像 e.g. The boy pretended to be the teacher and he ~ her off to perfection. (6) hit below the belt 做事不公道 e.g. The teacher ~ below the belt for he blamed the students without evidence. (7) hit a/the nail on the head 击中要害,一语中的 e.g. The mayor ’ s talk on race relations ~ the nail on the head.

21 5. access n. [U] (1) way (in) to a place 通入之路;通路 access to e.g. ~ to the town was across a narrow bridge. ~ to the town was across a narrow bridge. Switzerland has ~ to the sea via the River Rhine. Switzerland has ~ to the sea via the River Rhine. There is no ~ to that house. There is no ~ to that house. (2) right, opportunity, or means of reaching or using, approaching 接触、使用或接近的权利、机会,或方法 have/get/gain/obtain access to e.g. Students must have easy ~ to good books/computer facilities. Students must have easy ~ to good books/computer facilities. Only high officials had ~ to the Emperor. Only high officials had ~ to the Emperor. be of easy access 平易近人 e.g. Prof. Lee, though well-established, is of easy access. (3) attack (of fever etc); sudden attack, outburst (of anger, rage, despair etc) 疾病(高烧)袭击;(愤怒等)突然发作 an access of e.g. She is suffering from an ~ of asthma ( 哮喘 ). She is suffering from an ~ of asthma ( 哮喘 ). He felt a fresh ~ of annoyance. He felt a fresh ~ of annoyance.

22 accessible adj. (1) able to be reached or entered 可达到的,可进入的 e.g. Facts are ~ to all. Facts are ~ to all. The headmaster is always ~ to students. The headmaster is always ~ to students. A doctor must have a phone ~ to patients. A doctor must have a phone ~ to patients. Medicine should not be kept ~ to children Medicine should not be kept ~ to children (2) understandable 可理解的 e.g. Though he sometimes seems obsessed with numbers, his speeches are otherwise ~. 尽管有时他特别喜欢引用数字, 他的演说还是易懂的。 (3) easily influenced 易受影响的 be accessible to He is ~ to flattery. 爱听奉承话 He is ~ to flattery. 爱听奉承话 He is not ~ to pity. 他没有同情心 He is not ~ to pity. 他没有同情心

23 6. unencumber 不受 … 所累 encumber v. (1) To get in the way of, hamper, be a burden to 阻碍,妨害,牵累 encumber oneself with 使自己受 … 所累 e.g. He ~ed himself with unnecessary luggage on the journey. He ~ed himself with unnecessary luggage on the journey. Many people ~ themselves with their marriages. Many people ~ themselves with their marriages. encumber sb. with e.g. Don ’ t ~ your children with so much housework. (sb.) be encumbered with e.g. He is ~ed with a large family. He is ~ed with a large family. His estate is ~ed with a mortgage. ( 他的房产被抵押 ) His estate is ~ed with a mortgage. ( 他的房产被抵押 ) (2) To crowd, fill up 堆满 be encumbered with e.g. His room is ~ed with old and useless furniture. His room is ~ed with old and useless furniture. What is your drawer ~ed with? What is your drawer ~ed with? My wallet is ~ed with big notes. My wallet is ~ed with big notes. encumbrance n. [C] thing that encumbers, burden 阻碍物, 累贅, 负 担 e.g. An idle grown-up daughter may be an encumbrance to her parents.

24 7. tariff n. (1) list of fixed charges, esp. for meals, rooms, etc. at a hotel; price-list 价格表,价目表 e.g. a refreshment-room ~ a refreshment-room ~ When you go to a restaurant, you ’ ll first look at the ~. When you go to a restaurant, you ’ ll first look at the ~. (2) list of taxes on goods imported or exported 进口或 出口税(关税) impose ~ on sth. e.g. There is a very high ~ imposed on jewelry/luxury goods. There is a very high ~ imposed on jewelry/luxury goods. It is a common practice to raise ~ walls against foreign goods so as to protect domestic industries. 建立关税壁垒以 抵制外来商品 It is a common practice to raise ~ walls against foreign goods so as to protect domestic industries. 建立关税壁垒以 抵制外来商品 ~ reform 关税改革 ~ reform 关税改革 tariff-walled adj. tariff-free adj.

25 8. entry n. (1) coming or going in (进入) the entry of … into e.g. The ~ of China into the WTO is a great event. make an entry into e.g. The army made a triumphal ~ into the town. (2) place of entrance 入口 the entry to e.g. the ~ (cf. exit) to the cinema (3) item in a list: dictionary entries 字典中列出之字 (4) 比赛名单,人数等 e.g. There is a large ~ for the 100 metres race.

26 9. credit n. (1) [U] honour, approval that comes to a person because of what he is or does 功绩,光荣,荣誉 do sb. credit/do credit to sb. 让 …… 增光 e.g. The work does you ~. The work does you ~. His smart appearance does ~ to his tailors. 他 的英俊使他的裁缝们技艺生色 His smart appearance does ~ to his tailors. 他 的英俊使他的裁缝们技艺生色 to sb. ’ s credit …… 的莫大光荣 e.g. It ’ s greatly to your ~ that you have passed such a difficult exam. get/take credit for sth. 以 … 作为自己的光荣 e.g. It is dishonest to get ~ for work that is done by others.

27 (2) [U] belief of others that a person, business company etc. can pay debts, etc. or will keep a promise to pay 信用,信誉,赊账 buy/sell sth. on ~ e.g. He bought a car on ~. He bought a car on ~. No ~ is given at this shop. (Payment must be in cash.) No ~ is given at this shop. (Payment must be in cash.) His ~ is good for only £ 50. 他的信用只限 50 磅。 His ~ is good for only £ 50. 他的信用只限 50 磅。 ~ sales 赊卖 ~ sales 赊卖 ~ account 赊账 / 欠帐 ~ account 赊账 / 欠帐 letter of ~/LC 信用证 : letter from one bank to another giving authority for a stated payment letter of ~/LC 信用证 : letter from one bank to another giving authority for a stated payment

28 (3) [U] belief; trust; confidence 相信,信托,信任 e.g. They deserve some degree of ~. They deserve some degree of ~. Do you give ~ to his story of what happened? Do you give ~ to his story of what happened? It is unwise to place/put too much ~ in hearsay. It is unwise to place/put too much ~ in hearsay. The rumour is gaining ~. The rumour is gaining ~. lend credit to 证实 … 是可靠的 e.g. The latest news lends ~ to the earlier reports. (4) good name, reputation 名誉,名声,名望 be of high credit 名声很好 He is a man of the highest ~. He is a man of the highest ~. be in high credit with sb. 在 … 中享有高的威望 e.g. Professor Liu is in high ~ with his students.

29 (5) person, thing, act, circumstance etc. which adds to the good name of someone responsible for him or it be a credit to 为 … 增光的人、事物,行为,环境等 e.g. The pupils are a ~ to their teachers. The pupils are a ~ to their teachers. I hope you will be a ~ to your school. I hope you will be a ~ to your school. credit title (cinema films, TV) names of persons responsible for directing, producing etc. 影片,电视剧前后所映导演,制片人等的姓名 表

30 10. protocol n. (1) [C] first or original draft of an agreement (esp. between states) signed by those making it (条约)草案,议定书 e.g. Kyoto ~ Kyoto ~ The two rivalry nations finally agreed to act according to the ~. The two rivalry nations finally agreed to act according to the ~. (2) code of behaviour; etiquette as practised as on diplomatic occasions 礼规,外交礼仪 e.g. academic ~ academic ~ The seating arrangement for the dinner party is according to ~. The seating arrangement for the dinner party is according to ~.

31 11. proprietary (1) adj. owned or controlled by sb., private 所有的, 专利的,私人所有的 e.g. ~ right 所有权 ~ right 所有权 ~ medicines/drugs 专卖药品 ~ medicines/drugs 专卖药品 a ~ name 专利商标名 a ~ name 专利商标名 a ~ hospital/school a ~ hospital/school a ~ air 业主所特有的架子 a ~ air 业主所特有的架子 (2) n. owner. 业主,所有权 e.g. the land ~ 土地拥有者 proprietor/proprietress n. owner 业主,所有人 e.g. the ~ of the hotel

32 12. debut (1) vi. make one ’ s first appearance 初次登台 (esp. woman actor) The girl ~ed last month. The girl ~ed last month. The national edition of the newspaper ~ed last summer. The national edition of the newspaper ~ed last summer. Her new series will ~ next March on network television. Her new series will ~ next March on network television. (2) vt. e.g. The network will debut her new series next March. (3) n. (esp. of a young woman) first appearance e.g. the debut of a new foreign policy the debut of a new foreign policy Their debut album was recorded in 2000. Their debut album was recorded in 2000. to make one ’ s debut e.g. She made her ~ in Broadway last month.

33 13. chaos n. [U] complete absence of order or shape; confusion 混乱,不整齐, 一团糟 e.g. There was complete/utter/absolute ~ when the pilots came out on strike. There was complete/utter/absolute ~ when the pilots came out on strike. The classroom is in a state of ~. The classroom is in a state of ~. The desk was a ~ of papers and unopened letters. The desk was a ~ of papers and unopened letters. chaotic adj. in a state of chaos e.g. Traffic conditions tonight are ~.

34 14. compromise (1) n. [C,U] an agreement between two people that is achieved by both people accepting less than they wanted at first 妥协 e.g. Compromise is an inevitable part of marriage. Compromise is an inevitable part of marriage. Can we effect/reach a compromise ? Can we effect/reach a compromise ? Everybody has to be prepared to make compromises. Everybody has to be prepared to make compromises. (2) n. [C] an idea or thing that is the result of an agreement between two people or groups who want different things 妥协的结果 a compromise between e.g. The treaty represents a political compromise between the two nations.

35 (3) vi. & vt. To settle a dispute by making a compromise 以折衷办法解决争端 e.g. If they agree to compromise, the matter will be settled. If they agree to compromise, the matter will be settled. We managed to compromise on a price for the car. We managed to compromise on a price for the car. Can ’ t you compromise with each other? Can ’ t you compromise with each other? (4) vt. To bring (sb./sth./oneself) under suspicion by unwise behaviour 由于不智的行为使 … 受牵连; 连累,损害 compromise sb./sth./oneself e.g. You ’ ll compromise your reputation if you spend much time with these rogues ( 流氓 ). You ’ ll compromise your reputation if you spend much time with these rogues ( 流氓 ). The position of the army was compromised by the general ’ s poor judgment. The position of the army was compromised by the general ’ s poor judgment.

36 15. juncture n. (1) place where things join 接合处,接 合点 交界处, also: junction e.g. at the ~ of four fields 在四块田地的交 界处 (2) particular point in time 时机,关头 e.g. at this/that ~ at this/that ~ at an important historical ~ at an important historical ~ an important juncture in a man's career an important juncture in a man's career

37 16. cash in on : take advantage of or make a profit from a situation (usually in a way that is unfair) 利用, 捞一把 e.g. Let ’ s cash in on the fine weather and go out for the day. 趁天气好出去玩. Let ’ s cash in on the fine weather and go out for the day. 趁天气好出去玩. He ’ s just cashing in on the fact that his father is a senior government official. He ’ s just cashing in on the fact that his father is a senior government official. Some unscrupulous ( 不择手段的 ) businessmen cashed in on the market demand for disinfecting liquid soap by putting up prices during the outbreak of SARS. Some unscrupulous ( 不择手段的 ) businessmen cashed in on the market demand for disinfecting liquid soap by putting up prices during the outbreak of SARS.

38 Key phrases Correspond with Correspond with At home or abroad At home or abroad In a matter of seconds In a matter of seconds Give an account of Give an account of Figure out Figure out Make a guess Make a guess Log on/in Log on/in Log out/off Log out/off Type in Type in Specialize in Specialize in Nuts and bolts Nuts and bolts So what? So what? Access to Access to Scroll up/down Scroll up/down Get credit for Get credit for Noodle around Noodle around Improve on/upon Improve on/upon Keep track of Keep track of Build A on B Build A on B Build A out of B Build A out of B Cobble sth. together Cobble sth. together At exponential rate At exponential rate Compromise between Compromise between At every juncture At every juncture By/in contrast By/in contrast Head off Head off Hold back sb./sth. Hold back sb./sth. Cash in on sth. Cash in on sth. In the background In the background

39 Exercise 1: blank filling 1. 1.You need a password to log ____to the Internet. 2. 2.If you type ___the word ‘ enquire ’, you will get thousands of hits. 3. 3.Does your computer have an access ___the Internet? 4. 4.Thomas Edison got credit ___the light bulb with the help of others working ___it. 5. 5.Scientists are trying to improve ___that machine. 6. 6.‘ Enquire ’ is short ___ ’ Enquire Within Upon Everything ’. 7. 7.Berners-Lee cobbled _______HTML for the WWW.

40 8. 8.After 1991, the Internet and the WWW grew ____ exponential rates. 9. 9.Berners-Lee built his own working electronic computer ___ of spare parts and a TV set. 10. 10. Berners-Lee regards physics as a compromise _______ maths and electronics. 11. 11.Berners-Lee, ____contrast, chose a different road from his co-workers. 12. 12. She wanted to cry, but she held ____her tears. 13. 13. Paparazzi is always trying to cash ____ ____ some trivial news of famous people.

41 Exercise 2: Rew Exercise 2: Rew rite the sentences in the other way with the words given in the brackets 1. 1.She was praised for her remarkable discovery. (credit) 2. 2.His family was accused of taking advantage of his death. (cash in on) 3. 3.When I was in distress, my mother gave me most support. (more than anybody else) 4. 4.He chose an ugly toy as my present among so many things! (of all things)

42 Translation exercises 1. 我们每一个人都有途径上网 (access) ,而且可以不受时空的限制。 (encumber) 2. 可以这么说,英语是通行全球的语言,对于使用电脑的人们来说 更是如此。 (lingua and franca) 3. 李先生是一位很坚定的人,当他认为自己的意见是对的时候,他 是不会对别人的意见妥协的。 (make compromise with) 4. 我的朋友在一个跨国公司工作而且已经成为公司的骨干。 (multi- national corporation) 5. 我们随时都可以找到我们的校长。 (accessible) 6. 公司的总经理出国了, Smith 暂时代理总经理工作。 (act for) 7. 这种药开始对他的病起作用了。 (act on/upon) 8. 我突然想到要尽快起草一个计划做实验。 (hit on/upon) 9. 当你见到我们中学的语文老师时请代我问候他。 (enquire after) 10. 她在演讲比赛中讲得很精彩,一举成功。 (make a hit)

43 Suggested key to translation exercises 1. Everyone of us can have access to the Internet, unencumbered by time or space. 2. We may well say that English is the lingua franca of the world; it is even more so with people who use computers. 3. Mr. Li is such a firm person that he never makes compromise with others when he thinks himself is right. 4. My friend works for a multi-national corporation and has become the backbone there. 5. Our headmaster is always accessible to us. 6. At the moment, Smith acts for the General Manager who has gone abroad. 7. The medicine begins to act upon his disease. 8. In a flash, I hit upon drafting a plan for the experiment as soon as possible. 9. Please enquire after our middle school Chinese teacher when you meet him. 10. She made a hit in the speech contest with her excellent performance.


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