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Presentation on theme: "Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Welcome to Presentation Plus! Presentation Plus! Civics Today Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Developed by FSCreations, Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio Send all inquiries to: GLENCOE DIVISION Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240

3 Splash Screen

4 3 Contents Chapter Introduction Section 1Who Can Vote? Section 2Election Campaigns Section 3Paying for Election Campaigns Review to Learn Chapter Assessment Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

5 4 Chapter Intro 1 Chapter Overview In Chapter 10 you learn about voting and elections. Section 1 focuses on voting. Section 2 discusses political campaigns. Section 3 examines how candidates pay for election campaigns.

6 5 Chapter Intro 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to:  Explain who can vote, voter registration, and how to vote.  List steps in the campaign process.  Identify how campaign money is spent and where it comes from.

7 Chapter Intro 3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

8 End of Intro Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

9 8 Section 1-1 Guide to Reading After meeting the qualifications, people who want to vote must register before going to the polling place to cast their ballots.  polling place  Main Idea Key Terms precinct  ballot  absentee ballot  returns  exit poll  electorate  apathy Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

10 9 Section 1-2 Guide to Reading (cont.) Sequencing Information As you read, complete a chart like the one on page 236 of your textbook by listing the steps in the voting process.  How has the right to vote expanded?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn How does the registration and voting process work? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

11 10 Section 1-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Pointing the way to the polling place

12 11 Section 1-4 Qualifying to Vote Voting is the right to choose who will run the government.  It is also a civic responsibility.  If you don’t vote, you hand over your share of political power to other voters who may not share your views.  In the nation’s early years, most voters were white, adult male property owners. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 236–237)

13 12 Section 1-5 Qualifying to Vote (cont.) Today the Constitution forbids any state to deny the right to vote because of race, color, gender, or age (if the person is at least 18 years old).  An exception is a person in prison.  To be eligible to vote, you must be at least 18, a resident of the state for a specified time, and a U.S. citizen.  In most states, you must also be registered to vote. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 236–237)

14 13 Section 1-6 You must register by the deadline set by your state.  You can register in person at a county office.  In some states, you may register by mail.  The National Voter Registration Act allows voters to register when they renew their drivers’ licenses. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Qualifying to Vote (cont.) (pages 236–237)

15 14 Section 1-7 Registration forms ask your name, address, age, and often your party preference.  If you register as a Republican or Democrat, you may participate in primary elections.  You must prove citizenship, address, and age by showing your driver’s license or birth certificate.  You will be assigned to a district. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Qualifying to Vote (cont.) (pages 236–237)

16 15 Section 1-8 When you go to vote, election officials will check for your name on a list of voters registered in the district. Qualifying to Vote (cont.) (pages 236–237)

17 16 Section 1-9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. When you go to the polls, why do election officials look for your name on a list? Your name on the list verifies that you are registered and eligible to vote. It also prevents you from voting more than once. Qualifying to Vote (cont.) (pages 236–237)

18 17 Section 1-10 Steps in Voting To vote, you go to the polling place, a location in your precinct, or voting district.  You fill out and sign an application form at the clerk’s table.  The clerk reads your name aloud and passes your application to a challenger’s table. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 237–239)

19 18 Section 1-11 The challenger looks up your registration form and compares your signature to the one on your application.  If they do not appear to match, the challenger may ask for more identification.  When convinced, the challenger initials your application. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 237–239) Steps in Voting (cont.)

20 19 Section 1-12 Steps in Voting (cont.) You go to the voting booth and hand the application to an election judge, who makes sure everyone can vote in secret and helps people with special needs.  A ballot is the paper you use to cast your vote.  It lists the candidates’ names according to their party and the office they are seeking. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 237–239)

21 20 Section 1-13 You cast your ballot by using a voting machine.  The type of machine varies from state to state.  With one type you punch a hole next to a candidate’s name.  With another type you use a lever. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Steps in Voting (cont.) (pages 237–239)

22 21 Section 1-14 People away from home or too sick to get to the polls on Election Day can vote by absentee ballot.  They mark the ballot and return it by mail.  When polls close, election workers count the votes and take the ballots and returns, or results, to the election board.  The election board compiles the count for the city or county. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Steps in Voting (cont.) (pages 237–239)

23 22 Section 1-15 A few days later, the state canvassing authority certifies the winner.  News media and party workers conduct exit polls–asking voters leaving the polls how they voted.  Specialists use the results to predict winners early.  Television networks may announce winners before voters in Western time zones have voted. Critics charge that early calls may persuade many Westerners not to vote. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Steps in Voting (cont.) (pages 237–239)

24 23 Section 1-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. How can early predictions of winners affect the voting in Western states? Television networks often make early calls when millions of Americans in the Western time zones have yet to vote and the polls are still open. Such early projections may persuade great numbers of Westerners not to vote. This not only reduces overall voter turnout but also may affect the results of local, state, and congressional elections. Steps in Voting (cont.) (pages 237–239)

25 24 Section 1-17 Why Your Vote Matters Sources of information about candidates and issues include newspapers, TV, radio, newsmagazines, and the Internet.  Others include literature distributed by political parties, the League of Women Voters, and interest groups.  All people who are eligible to vote are called the electorate.  Each vote counts. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 239–240)

26 25 Section 1-18 Why Your Vote Matters (cont.) Some people don’t vote because they think no candidates represent their interests or think their vote will not matter.  Another reason is apathy, or lack of interest.  Citizens who vote share common characteristics.  They generally have positive attitudes toward government and citizenship. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 239–240)

27 26 Section 1-19 Regular voters tend to be more educated, be middle-aged, and have higher incomes.  Voting gives citizens a chance to choose their government leaders.  If they are dissatisfied with past performances, they can elect new leaders.  By voting they can also express their opinions on public issues. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 239–240) Why Your Vote Matters (cont.)

28 27 Section 1-20 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why should you read information about candidates and issues carefully? Information in print and other media help you stay informed so that you can vote wisely. However, you must read carefully to separate facts from opinions. Much of the literature comes from political parties and other groups that have an interest in persuading you to vote a certain way. (pages 239–240) Why Your Vote Matters (cont.)

29 28 Section 1-21 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a geographic area that contains a specific number of voters __ 2.all the people who are eligible to vote __ 3.the list of candidates on which you cast your vote __ 4.a lack of interest __ 5.ballots and results of an election A.precinct B.ballot C.returns D.electorate E.apathy Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. D B A E C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

30 29 Section 1-22 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain How did the Motor Voter Act affect voter registration in the United States? The Motor Voter Act allowed people to register to vote when they renewed their drivers’ licenses.

31 30 Section 1-23 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify In the early days of our nation, what was the only group of people eligible to vote? White male property owners were the only people eligible to vote.

32 31 Section 1-24 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Drawing Conclusions Do you think the federal government should prohibit exit polls during presidential elections? Why or why not? Possible answer: Yes, the federal government should prohibit exit polls because exit poll predictions might discourage people in the West from voting.

33 32 Section 1-25 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Infer Examine the photographs on page 239 of your textbook. Why would other Americans encourage you to vote? Voting is a civic duty, and by not voting, a person is giving up his or her political power.

34 33 Section 1-26 Close List reasons people do not vote and choose someone to write them on the chalkboard. Suggest a way to counter each of the reasons for not voting.

35 End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

36 35 Section 2-1 Guide to Reading Every two years for Congress and every four years for the president, voters respond to political campaigns by going to the polls and casting their ballots.  initiative  Main Idea Key Terms proposition  referendum  recall  Electoral College  elector  winner-take-all system Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

37 36 Section 2-2 Organizing Information As you read this section, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 241 of your textbook by listing features of the three types of elections.  What are the types of elections available to voters?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn What are the steps in the presidential election process? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.)

38 37 Section 2-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Senator Durbin

39 38 Section 2-4 Types of Elections Besides primary elections, there are three types of elections in the United States: general elections, elections on issues, and special elections.  After primary races narrow the field, voters choose candidates in a general election that occurs on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 241–242)

40 39 Section 2-5 Types of Elections (cont.) All seats in the House and about one- third of the seats in the Senate are at stake in general elections every even- numbered year.  Presidents are elected every four years.  In all except presidential races, the candidate with the majority of the popular vote wins.  If the count is very close, the loser may demand a recount. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 241–242)

41 40 Section 2-6 If neither candidate for president wins a majority of electoral votes, the House elects the president.  Citizens can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments through an initiative.  If enough voters sign a petition, the proposed law, or proposition, is put on the ballot at the next general election. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Types of Elections (cont.) (pages 241–242)

42 41 Section 2-7 Citizens may petition to have a state or local law referred, or sent back, to the voters as a referendum on the ballot.  The voters can then approve or reject the law.  A runoff is a special election held to determine a winner when none of the candidates wins a majority in the general election.  A recall is a special election in which citizens can vote to remove an official from office. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 241–242) Types of Elections (cont.)

43 42 Section 2-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why might voters recall an official? Voters might recall an official because they do not like his or her position on issues or because the official has been charged with wrongdoing. (pages 241–242) Types of Elections (cont.)

44 43 Section 2-9 Presidential Elections The three steps in a presidential election are nomination, the campaign, and the vote.  Presidential hopefuls start campaigning for their party’s nomination a year before the election.  Past national conventions were full of political dealing to win delegates’ support for a candidate. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 242–244)

45 44 Section 2-10 Presidential Elections (cont.) In recent years the conventions have lost their main purpose–choosing a nominee.  The primaries do that now. Instead, the conventions serve to rally party members for the campaign ahead.  By early September, candidates are already giving speeches, appearing on TV, and holding news conferences.  They may face their opponents in televised debates. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 242–244)

46 45 Section 2-11 Presidents are chosen by the Electoral College, not by direct popular vote.  Each state has a slate of electors pledged to each candidate.  The popular vote chooses the slate of electors. In the winner-take-all system, the candidate who wins the popular vote takes all the state’s electoral votes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

47 46 Section 2-12 The winning electors cast their votes in their state’s capital in December.  Congress counts the votes.  Each state has one elector for each of its U.S. senators and representatives.  To win, a candidate must win 270 of the 538 total electoral votes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

48 47 Section 2-13 The Electoral College system was a compromise.  Some Founders wanted direct popular election of the president.  Others wanted Congress to name the president.  Their compromise was to have the state legislatures choose electors. Now the voters in each state directly choose the electors. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

49 48 Section 2-14 Some critics charge that large states with many electors have too much influence in deciding elections.  Others claim that including votes for senators gives small states unfair power.  Still others point out that under the winner- take-all system, a candidate who loses the popular vote can still win the electoral vote and the presidency. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

50 49 Section 2-15 A third-party candidate could win enough electoral votes to prevent either major- party candidate from receiving a majority and then bargain to release electoral votes.  Also, the winner-take-all system makes it hard for third-party candidates to take any electoral votes. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

51 50 Section 2-16 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why did the Founders create the Electoral College system? Some Founders wanted the people to have direct control over the national government. They wanted direct election. Others believed that the government must be able to function without having to give in to popular whims. They wanted Congress to choose the president. They compromised by having state legislatures choose electors. Presidential Elections (cont.) (pages 242–244)

52 51 Section 2-17 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a system in which the candidate who wins the popular vote in a state usually receives all of the state’s electoral votes __ 2.a way for citizens to vote on state or local laws __ 3.people appointed to vote in presidential elections for the major candidates __ 4.a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president __ 5.a procedure by which citizens can propose new laws or state constitutional amendments A.initiative B.referendum C.Electoral College D.electors E.winner-take- all system Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. B D E C A Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

53 52 Section 2-18 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Explain Why have national political conventions lost the main purpose of choosing nominees? So much campaigning precedes primary elections that one candidate usually already has the nomination before the convention meets.

54 53 Section 2-19 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize How is the total of 538 Electoral College votes determined? What is the purpose of the popular vote in the Electoral College system? The total is arrived by giving one elector for each senator and representative in every state, and three for the District of Columbia. The winner of the state’s popular vote receives all the state’s electors.

55 54 Section 2-20 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Making Judgments Analyze the criticisms of the Electoral College. Do you think it should be eliminated or maintained? Explain your answer. Possible answer: Large states have too much influence and candidates who lose the popular vote can still win the election.

56 55 Section 2-21 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Review Look at the bar graph on page 243 of your textbook. Which president shown on the graph received the largest percentage of popular votes? Electoral votes? Nixon received the largest percentage of popular votes. Reagan received the most electoral votes.

57 56 Section 2-22 Close Discuss if you think the political presidential election process needs to be changed.

58 End of Section 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

59 58 Section 3-1 Guide to Reading Political campaigns in the United States require millions of dollars and, although regulations exist, parties find ways to raise and use soft money to fund their candidates.  propaganda  Main Idea Key Terms soft money  political action committee (PAC)  incumbent Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

60 59 Section 3-2 Comparing and Contrasting Information Use a chart like the one on page 246 of your textbook to compare public and private campaign funding.  How are campaigns financed, both publicly and privately?  Reading Strategy Read to Learn What are possible reforms of the campaign finance system? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Guide to Reading (cont.)

61 60 Section 3-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Cash for campaigns

62 61 Section 3-4 Running for Office A campaign for a major office takes a lot of money.  A campaign organization runs each campaign.  Campaign workers acquaint voters with the candidate’s name, face, and positions on issues.  They try to convince voters to like and trust the candidate. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 246–247)

63 62 Section 3-5 Running for Office (cont.) Candidates and campaign workers canvass neighborhoods asking for votes, handing out literature, and conducting public opinion polls.  Famous people, such as movie stars, may endorse or publicly support a candidate.  If voters like the endorser, they may decide to vote for the candidate.  Endorsements are a kind of propaganda, or attempt to promote a particular person or idea. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 246–247)

64 63 Section 3-6 Much campaign money is spend on political advertising.  Ads help create the candidates’ image, present their views, and attack their opponents.  Local candidates often use newspaper ads, while national candidates use more TV ads. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Running for Office (cont.) (pages 246–247)

65 64 Section 3-7 Campaign funds pay for TV ads, airfares, worker salaries, and professional campaign consultants.  They also pay for computers, phones, postage, and printing costs.  Local races may cost only a few thousand dollars.  Congressional races average about $1.5 million.  A presidential race can cost hundreds of millions of dollars. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Running for Office (cont.) (pages 246–247)

66 65 Section 3-8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why do national candidates advertise on television? Television ads can present quick and dramatic images of a candidate and his or her ideas. Such television images tend to stay in the viewer’s mind. Running for Office (cont.) (pages 246–247)

67 66 Section 3-9 Financing a Campaign In the past, the public wondered if successful candidates would owe special favors to the individuals, businesses, and labor unions that contributed to their campaigns.  The Federal Election Campaign Finance Act of 1971 set some rules.  The Campaign Finance Act required public disclosure of each candidate’s spending and tried to limit the amount an individual or group could donate. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 248–250)

68 67 Section 3-10 Financing a Campaign (cont.) It also created public funding of presidential elections.  Taxpayers can contribute $3 to the Presidential Election Campaign Fund by checking a box on their tax form.  Candidates qualify for a share of these funds if they raise $100,000 on their own.  The two major-party candidates receive an equal share as long as they agree not to accept any other direct donations. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. (pages 248–250)

69 68 Section 3-11 Third-party candidates qualify if their party received more than 5 percent of the popular vote in the previous presidential election.  Most campaign funding comes from private sources–individuals, party organizations, and corporations, plus a wide variety of interest groups. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

70 69 Section 3-12 After presidential candidates receive their federal funds and the modest amounts that individuals and groups give them directly, their fund-raising is supposed to be finished.  However, candidates have found ways around the limits.  One way is soft money–donations given to political parties and not designated for a particular candidate. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

71 70 Section 3-13 By law, parties can raise an unlimited amount of soft money, but they must use it for general expenses.  The parties, however, have found ways to use soft money to support their candidates without giving it to them directly.  Most of it goes to national TV ads.  Soft money provides a way for wealthy people and groups to donate as much as they want. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

72 71 Section 3-14 Another way around the limits is political action committees (PACs).  These are political organizations established by corporations, labor unions, and other special-interest groups designed to support candidates by contributing money.  PACs support candidates who favor their position on issues by contributing to their parties. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

73 72 Section 3-15 In a democracy, government should represent all the people, even those without money or power.  Critics of the current system argue that wealthy donors may receive special favors not available to average citizens.  In 1976, the Supreme Court ruled that it was a violation of free speech to limit how much candidates could spend on their own campaigns. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

74 73 Section 3-16 As a result, wealthy candidates spend huge amounts of their own money to get elected.  Congress continues to debate plans to reform campaign finance.  Because PACs give most of their soft money to incumbents–people currently in office–many lawmakers hesitate to change the rules in ways that could help their opponents. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

75 74 Section 3-17 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Why do many people believe that we should reform our current system of funding campaigns? Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

76 75 Section 3-18 Under the current system, wealthy individuals and groups can donate unlimited amounts of soft money to the parties of their favored candidates. Critics argue that these wealthy donors may later receive special favors not available to average citizens. Also, wealthy individuals may be able to “buy” an election by spending huge amounts of their own money on their campaigns. Financing a Campaign (cont.) (pages 248–250)

77 76 Section 3-19 Checking for Understanding __ 1.a politician who has already been elected to office __ 2.donations given to political parties and not designated for a particular candidate’s election campaign __ 3.to spread certain ideas that may involve misleading messages designed to manipulate people __ 4.political organizations established by corporations, labor unions, and other special interest groups designed to support candidates by contributing money A.propaganda B.soft money C.political action committee (PAC) D.incumbent Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. B A D C Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

78 77 Section 3-20 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Identify What federal agency administers election laws and monitors campaign spending? The Federal Elections Commission (FEC) administers election laws and monitors campaign spending.

79 78 Section 3-21 Checking for Understanding (cont.) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Describe How do presidential candidates qualify for federal election funds? How do third-party candidates qualify for federal election funds? Presidential candidates must raise $100,000 on their own. After the national conventions, major party candidates receive equal shares if they agree not to accept other direct contributions. Third-party candidates qualify if they received at least 5 percent of the vote in the previous presidential election.

80 79 Section 3-22 Critical Thinking Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Making Judgments Explain the two sides in the campaign spending reform issue. With which side do you agree? Explain your position. Possible answer: The average Americans do not have an equal voice with large contributors, but to limit spending is to limit freedom of expression.

81 80 Section 3-23 Analyzing Visuals Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Summarize Review the graphs about funding the congressional campaigns from 1997 to 2000 on page 249 of your textbook. How much money was spent on congressional campaigning in 1999–2000? In 1999–2000, $858 million was spent on congressional campaigning.

82 81 Section 3-24 Close Do you think there should be limits on the amount of money donated to political campaigns?

83 End of Section 3 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

84 83 Review 1 Section 1: Who Can Vote? To vote, you must be registered first. On Election Day, you cast your vote at the polls usually by using some type of voting machine.

85 84 Review 2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2: Election Campaigns There are many types of elections.  The presidential election process includes nomination, the campaign, and the vote.

86 85 Review 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3: Paying for Election Campaigns Running for office costs money. Campaigns are funded privately and publicly.  Many people are concerned about campaign spending.

87 End of Review Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

88 87 Chapter Assessment 1 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Reviewing Key Terms __ 1.the location where voting takes place __ 2.donations to a political party that are supposedly not designated for a particular candidate __ 3.when citizens cast votes for a presidential candidate they are really voting for these people __ 4.when a person votes for candidates from only one party A.electors B.initiative C.precinct D.polling place E.referendum F.soft money G.straight ticket F A D Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. G

89 88 Chapter Assessment 2 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. Reviewing Key Terms (cont.) __ 5.way for citizens to propose new laws or state constitutional amendments __ 6.way for citizens to vote on state or local laws __ 7.a voting district E C B Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. A.electors B.initiative C.precinct D.polling place E.referendum F.soft money G.straight ticket

90 89 Chapter Assessment 3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas What group of citizens can be denied the right to vote even if they meet all the qualifications? People convicted of serious crimes can be denied the right to vote.

91 90 Chapter Assessment 4 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) What law went into effect in 1995 that made voter registration more convenient? In 1995 the National Voter Registration Act or the Motor Voter Act went into effect.

92 91 Chapter Assessment 5 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) Why are national party conventions less important than they used to be? Parties have their nominees before the conventions as a result of primary elections.

93 92 Chapter Assessment 6 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) When do general elections take place? General elections take place the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November.

94 93 Chapter Assessment 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Reviewing Main Ideas (cont.) What do third-party candidates for president have to do to qualify for federal campaign funds? Third-party candidates must receive at least 5 percent of the vote in the previous general election to qualify for federal campaign funds.

95 94 Chapter Assessment 8 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions What is your opinion of the use of soft money in campaign financing? Should the system be reformed? Defend your answer. Possible answer: Soft money is a way around campaign finance laws and it gives big contributors a special advantage. To deny the use of soft money is to limit freedom of expression.

96 95 Chapter Assessment 9 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Analyzing Visuals Study the political cartoon on page 253 of your textbook. What statement is the cartoonist making about campaigning? It is extremely expensive.

97 96 Chapter Assessment 10 Directions: Choose the best answer to the following question. Which of the following statements best describes the Electoral College? FThe candidate who wins the popular vote in each state usually wins all that state’s electoral votes too. GThis primary race helps narrow the field of candidates. HIt is a body of electors, pledged to each candidate, that casts a state’s electoral votes after the popular vote is taken. JIt is a way that citizens can propose new constitutional amendments. Test-Taking Tip Eliminate answers one by one by crossing out answers you know are incorrect. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

98 97 Chapter Assessment 11 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Do you think propaganda is an honest way to win votes? Why or why not? Possible answer: Propaganda is dishonest because it generally shows the candidate in a favorable view.

99 End of Assessment Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

100 Civics Online Explore online information about the topics introduced in this chapter. Click on the Connect button to launch your browser and go to the Civics Today: Citizenship, Economics, & You Web site. At this site, you will find interactive activities, current events information, and Web sites correlated with the chapters and units in the textbook. When you finish exploring, exit the browser program to return to this presentation. If you experience difficulty connecting to the Web site, manually launch your Web browser and go to

101 M&C Contents Charts Presidential Elections, 1976–2000 Funding Congressional Campaigns, 1997–2000 Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

102 M&C 1

103 M&C 2

104 Skillbuilder 1 A politician is behind the podium giving a campaign speech. The speaker probably offers some facts and some opinions. While you may value the speaker’s opinion, you still want to know which is which so you can know whom to support. Distinguishing facts from opinions will help you make a more informed decision–the one that is right for you. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion Click the Speaker button to replay the audio. Why Learn This Skill?

105 Skillbuilder 2 Learning the Skill When learning about candidates, you must determine if they support the things you think are important. To distinguish facts from opinions in this circumstance and others, follow these steps:  Identify statements that can be checked. Could you verify the information in a news or library source, for instance? If so, it is a fact. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

106 Skillbuilder 3 Learning the Skill Identify statements that cannot be verified. These statements may be based on feelings or prejudices. They often make predictions or contain superlative words such as “best” or “worst.” These kinds of statements are opinions.  Look for “clue words.” The speaker or writer may identify opinions with expressions such as “I think,” “in my view,” “we believe,” and so on. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

107 Skillbuilder 4 Practicing the Skill Identify each of the newspaper editorial statements on the following slides as fact or opinion. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

108 Skillbuilder 5 1.Mayor C. T. Hedd has more charisma than any mayor Park City has ever had. Opinion Fact Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 2.During Mayor Hedd’s first term, a total of 12 new corporations moved to the city. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

109 Skillbuilder 6 3.The new jobs created by these corporations are the most important jobs ever offered to the Park City workforce. Opinion Fact Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 4.City tax revenues have risen by 9.6 percent since Mayor Hedd took office. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

110 Skillbuilder 7 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answers. 5.It is the official view of this newspaper that Mayor Hedd’s foresight and charm are directly responsible for Park City’s growth. Opinion 6.Mayor Hedd deserves reelection. Distinguishing Fact From Opinion

111 CC1 Geography Why do states such as Maine and Minnesota consistently turn out 60 percent of their voter in presidential elections when the national average is 50? The answer is because some states make it easy for voters to get on the election rolls. Maine, Minnesota, and Wisconsin permit registration at the voting place on Election Day. North Dakota permits citizens to vote without registering.

112 DYK2 No formal procedure for nominating the president existed from 1789 to Political leaders, working through the Electoral College, unanimously chose George Washington to be the first president.

113 Time1 What is the cartoonist’s view of the Electoral College? What details support your answer? Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

114 Time2 The cartoonist sees the Electoral College as an outmoded institution that slows down modern voters. The cartoon shows the Electoral College as a blindfolded horse trying to propel a modern car.

115 DFT1 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. There will be less voter turnout and smaller groups of people will be determining who runs the government.

116 DFT2 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

117 DFT3 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.

118 End of Custom Show End of Custom Shows WARNING! Do Not Remove This slide is intentionally blank and is set to auto-advance to end custom shows and return to the main presentation.

119 End of Slide Show Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.


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