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Out of Step Unit 3 Out of Step Unit 3 Unit4 Car culture has been a major niche lifestyle in America. In the 1950s, the post-war boom produced a generation.

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Presentation on theme: "Out of Step Unit 3 Out of Step Unit 3 Unit4 Car culture has been a major niche lifestyle in America. In the 1950s, the post-war boom produced a generation."— Presentation transcript:


2 Out of Step Unit 3 Out of Step Unit 3 Unit4

3 Car culture has been a major niche lifestyle in America. In the 1950s, the post-war boom produced a generation of teenagers with enough income to buy their own cars. These cars became so much more than just modes of transportation. They were reflections of a lifestyle. The ability to tune and soup-up muscle cars gave average Joes the opportunity to show off their power, their speed and their style in a way that personified the car as character. 1. 2. Cultural information 1 Cultural Information

4 We dream of cars as we dream of lovers. Americans have always cherished personal freedom and mobility, rugged individualism and masculine force. 3. Cultural information 2 Cultural Information 4. 5. 6. Like Granny in Jan and Dean’s 1964 song “The Little Old Lady from Pasadena,” we can’t keep our foot off the accelerator. We are crazy about our cars — and always have been. “The American,” William Faulkner lamented in 1948, “really loves nothing but his automobile.”

5 Global Reading - Main idea 1 Text Analysis Structural Analysis “Out of Step” is an exposition that presents the absurdity of the Americans’ dependence on cars. The Americans, being so accustomed to using cars, have almost forgotten the existence of their legs. Wherever they go, they go in their cars. As a result, pedestrian facilities are neglected in city planning or rejected by the inhabitants.

6 Structural analysis 1 Text Analysis Structural Analysis ParagraphsMain idea 1-6 7-13 14-20 The writer introduces his idea with an anecdote. In this part, the author presents the fact that the Americans are habituated to using cars for everything. In this part, the author shows that pedestrian facilities are neglected or discarded.

7 After living in England for 20 years, my wife and I decided to move back to the United States. We wanted to live in a town small enough that we could walk to the business district, and settled on Hanover, N.H., a typical New England town — pleasant, sedate and compact. It has a broad central green surrounded by the venerable buildings of Dartmouth College, an old-fashioned Main Street and leafy residential neighborhoods. It is, in short, an agreeable, easy place to go about one’s business on foot, and yet as far as I can tell, virtually no one does. Bill Bryson Out of Step Detailed reading1 Detailed Reading 1 2

8 Detailed reading2 Nearly every day, I walk to the post office or library or bookstore, and sometimes, if I am feeling particularly debonair, I stop at Rosey Jekes Café for a cappuccino. Occasionally, in the evenings, my wife and I stroll up to the Nugget Theatre for a movie or to Murphy’s on the Green for a beer, I wouldn’t dream of going to any of these places by car. People have gotten used to my eccentric behavior, but in the early days acquaintances would often pull up to the curb and ask if I wanted a ride. “I’m going your way,” they would insist when I politely declined. “Really, it’s no bother.” Detailed Reading 3 4

9 Detailed reading3 “Honestly, I enjoy walking.” “Well, if you’re sure,” they would say and depart reluctantly, even guiltily, as if leaving the scene of an accident without giving their name. In the United States we have become so habituated to using the car for everything that it doesn’t occur to us to unfurl our legs and see what those lower limbs can do. We have reached an age where college students expect to drive between classes, where parents will drive three blocks to pick up their children from a friend’s house, where the letter carrier takes his van up and down every driveway on a street. Detailed Reading 5 6 7

10 Detailed reading4 We will go through the most extraordinary contortions to save ourselves from walking. Sometimes it’s almost ludicrous. The other day I was waiting to bring home one of my children from a piano lesson when a car stopped outside a post office, and a man about my age popped out and dashed inside. He was in the post office for about three or four minutes, and then came out, got in the car and drove exactly 16 feet (I had nothing better to do, so I paced it off) to the general store next door. Detailed Reading 8

11 Detailed reading5 Detailed Reading And the thing is, this man looked really fit. I’m sure he jogs extravagant distances and plays squash and does all kinds of healthful things, but I am just as sure that he drives to each of these undertakings. An acquaintance of ours was complaining the other day about the difficulty of finding a place to park outside the local gymnasium. She goes there several times a week to walk on a treadmill. The gymnasium is, at most, a six-minute walk from her front door. 9 10

12 Detailed reading6 Detailed Reading I asked her why she didn’t walk to the gym and do six minutes less on the treadmill. She looked at me as if I were tragically simple- minded and said, “But I have a program for the treadmill. It records my distance and speed and calorie burn rate, and I can adjust it for degree of difficulty.” I confess it had not occurred to me how thoughtlessly deficient nature is in this regard. 11 12 13

13 Detailed reading7 Detailed Reading According to a concerned and faintly horrified 1997 editorial in the Boston Globe, the United States spent less than one percent of its transportation budget on facilities for pedestrians. Actually, I’m surprised it was that much. Go to almost any suburb developed in the last 30 years, and you will not find a sidewalk anywhere. Often you won’t find a single pedestrian crossing. I had this brought home to me one summer when we were driving across Maine and stopped for coffee in one of those endless zones of shopping malls, motels, gas stations and fast-food places. I noticed there was a bookstore across the street, so I decided to skip coffee and head over. 14 15

14 Detailed reading8 Detailed Reading Although the bookshop was no more than 70 or 80 feet away, I discovered that there was no way to cross on foot without dodging over six lanes of swiftly moving traffic. In the end, I had to get in our car and drive across. At the time, it seemed ridiculous and exasperating, but afterward I realized that I was possibly the only person ever to have entertained the notion of negotiating that intersection on foot. 16 17

15 Detailed reading9 Detailed Reading The fact is, we not only don’t walk anywhere anymore in this country, we won’t walk anywhere, and woe to anyone who tries to make us, as the city of Laconia, N.H., discovered. In the early 1970s, Laconia spent millions on a comprehensive urban renewal project, which included building a pedestrian mall to make shopping more pleasant. Esthetically it was a triumph — urban planners came from all over to coo and take photos — but commercially it was a disaster. Forced to walk one whole block from a parking garage, shoppers abandoned downtown Laconia for suburban malls. 18

16 Detailed reading10 Detailed Reading In 1994 Laconia dug up its pretty paving blocks, took away the tubs of geraniums and decorative trees, and brought back the cars. Now people can park right in front of the stores again, and downtown Laconia thrives anew. And if that isn’t sad. I don’t know what is. 19 20

17 What kind of town is it? Detailed reading1--Quesion 1 It is a small, pleasant and agreeable town. The inhabitants are friendly and willing to help. But although the town is compact, few people go about on foot. Detailed Reading

18 Detailed reading1--Quesion 2 What is considered the author’s “eccentric behavior”? Instead of riding a car, the author walks around the city, doing his shopping, going to the movies or visiting the café or bar. To people who are used to going everywhere in a car, he is an eccentric. Detailed Reading

19 Detailed reading1--Quesion 3 Why would drivers “depart reluctantly, even guiltily” when their offer was declined? With cars becoming the basic essentials of their life, people are so habituated to using the car for everything. The scene of somebody walking around seemed so unusual to them that they would naturally show their concern to him. When their offer to give him a ride was declined, they were sorry for not being able to help him out. Detailed Reading

20 Detailed reading1--Quesion 4 Why did the author say “Actually, I’m surprised it was that much”? When the author found that the newly planned suburbs totally overlooked pedestrian needs, he assumed there was no budget for pedestrian facilities at all. So he says he was surprised to learn that there actually was less than one percent of budget on it. Here the author writes with a touch of irony. Detailed Reading

21 Detailed reading1--Quesion 5 Why did Laconia change its downtown pedestrian mall to one with parking lots? Although the pedestrian mall was well decorated, shoppers were unwilling to walk to the stores from a parking garage. As a result, it was a commercial failure. The government had to compromise with the public preference. Detailed Reading

22 Detailed reading1– Activity 1 Class Activity Group discussion: What does the title mean? With the use of this title, the writer seems to suggest Detailed Reading people no longer walk in America; the few people who do walk seem to be old-fashioned and “eccentric”.

23 sedate a. calm, serious and formal Detailed reading1– sedate e.g. She is a sedate old lady; she is caring but never talks much. The fight against a nuclear power station site has transformed a normally sedate town into a battlefield. Derivation: sedately (ad.), sedation (n.), sedative (a., n.) v. make calm or sleepy, esp. with a drug e.g. The patient was heavily sedated and resting quietly in bed. Detailed Reading

24 Detailed reading1– eccentric eccentric a. (of people or behavior) unconventional and slightly strange e.g. The old gentleman, who lived alone all his life, was said to have some eccentric habits. n. a person of unconventional and slightly strange views or behavior e.g. The old gentleman enjoyed a colorful reputation as an engaging eccentric. Detailed Reading

25 curb n. (British English: kerb) a line of raised stones separating the footpath from the road v. / n. (place) a control or limit on sth. undesirable Detailed reading1– curb e.g. Poor nutrition can curb a child’s development both physically and mentally. There will be curbs on drunk-driving from next month. Detailed Reading

26 Detailed reading1-- habituate habituate v. accustom by frequent repetition or prolonged exposure e.g. You must habituate yourself to reading aloud. By the end of the school term, the students had been habituated / accustomed / used to rising at five o’clock. Detailed Reading

27 Detailed reading1– contortion 1 contortion n. a twisted position or movement that looks surprising or strange e.g. The spectators cannot but admire the contortions of the gymnasts. Derivation: contort (v.) cause sth. to twist out of its natural shape and looks strange or unttractive Detailed Reading

28 The human understanding is like a false mirror, which, receiving rays irregularly distorts and discolors the nature of things by mingling its own nature with it. (Francis Bacon). Detailed reading1– contortion 2 e.g. Comparison: distort, twist, deform, contort, warp These verbs mean to change and spoil the form or character of sth. To distort is to alter in shape, as by torsion or wrenching; the term also applies to verbal or pictorial misrepresentation and to alteration or perversion of the meaning of sth. distort: Detailed Reading

29 Great erosion deformed the landscape. The earlier part of his discourse was deformed by pedantic divisions and subdivisions. Detailed reading1– contortion 3 a mouth twisted with pain He accused me of twisting his words to mean what I wanted them to. e.g. Comparison: twist: Twist applies to distortion of form or meaning. e.g. deform: If you deform sth., or if it deforms, its usual shape changes so that its usefulness or appearance is spoiled. Detailed Reading

30 The floorboards had warped over the years. e.g. Detailed reading1– contortion 4 a face contorted with rage a contorted line of reasoning e.g. Comparison: contort: If you contort sth., or if it contorts, it twists out of its normal shape and looks strange or unattractive. warp: Warp can refer to a turning or twisting from a flat or straight form. Detailed Reading It also can imply influencing sb. in a way that has a harmful effect on how they think or behave. Prejudice warps the judgment. e.g.

31 Detailed reading1– bring sth. home to sb. 1 bring sth. home to sb. make sb. realize sth. e.g. The professor drove home to them that they must finish the writing assignment by Friday. Comparison: drive sth. home to sb., hit / strike home drive sth. home to sb.: make sb. realize sth., esp. by saying it often, loudly, angrily, etc. e.g. The news report has brought home to us all the plight of the prisoners of war. Detailed Reading

32 Detailed reading1– bring sth. home to sb. 2 e.g. You could see from his expression that her sarcastic comments had hit / stricken home. Comparison: hit / strike home: (of remarks, etc.) have the intended (often painful) effect Detailed Reading

33 Detailed reading1-- entertain entertain v. consider an idea, etc. or allow yourself to think that sth. might happen or be true e.g. He refused to entertain our proposal. entertain ideas, doubts, etc. Detailed Reading

34 Detailed reading1– negotiate 1 negotiate v. get over or past (an obstacle, etc.) successfully; manage to travel along a difficult route e.g. The only way to negotiate the path is on foot. Frank Mariano negotiates the dessert terrain in his battered pickup. Detailed Reading

35 Detailed reading1– negotiate 2 那攀登者得攀越一陡峭岩石。 那马轻易跳过了栅栏。 Practice: The climber had to negotiate a steep rock face. The horse negotiated the fence with ease. Detailed Reading

36 Detailed reading1– coo coo v. speak in a soft, gentle, and loving way, esp. when expressing surprise e.g. “How wonderful to see you again, darling,” she cooed. The little girl is always cooing over those parrots of hers. Detailed Reading

37 Detailed reading1– anew anew adv. (fml.) again or one more time, esp. in a different way e.g. The scientists started the experiment anew. The film tells anew the story of her rise to stardom. Detailed Reading

38 Detailed reading1– In the United States … In the United States we have become so habituated to using the car for everything that it doesn’t occur to us to unfurl our legs and see what those lower limbs can do. Paraphrase: People in the United States tend to drive for basically every purpose, so much so that they have forgotten that they still have legs and about what their legs can do. Detailed Reading

39 Detailed reading1– I confess it … I confess it had not occurred to me how thoughtlessly deficient nature is in this regard. Paraphrase: I admit that I have never realized I had been so stupid. Detailed Reading

40 Detailed reading1– I was possibly … … I was possibly the only person ever to have entertained the notion of negotiating that intersection on foot. Paraphrase: … I was likely to be the only person who had ever attempted to cross that intersection on foot. Detailed Reading

41 Consolidation Activities- Vocabulary main Word Derivation Phrase Practice Synonym / Antonym VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar

42 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 1 1) agree v. → agreeable a. → agreement n. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar I agree with his analysis of the situation. 我同意他对情况的分析。 I found him most agreeable. 我觉得他极易相处。 An agreement with the employers was finally worked out. 与雇主们的协议终于达成了。 e.g.

43 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 2) eccentric a./n. → eccentricity n. The club seemed to be full of eccentrics. 这个俱乐部里好像都是怪人。 One of his eccentricities is sleeping under the bed instead of on it. 他的怪僻之一是睡觉睡在床底下而不睡在床上。 e.g.

44 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 3) acquaint v. → acquaintance n. → acquainted a. The lawyer acquainted himself with the details of his client’s business affairs. 那位律师了解委托人生意上的详情。 He has a wide circle of acquaintances. 他交友甚广。 Are you acquainted with the works of Shakespeare? 你对莎士比亚的作品熟悉吗 ? e.g.

45 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 4) ridicule v. / n. → ridiculous a. The opposition ridiculed the government’s proposals, saying they offered nothing new. 反对派揶揄政府的建议,把它的说成是老调重弹。 You look ridiculous in those tight jeans. 你穿上那紧身牛仔裤样子真可笑。 e.g.

46 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 5) triumph n. → triumphant a. → triumphal a. The winning team returned home in triumph. 获胜的队奏凯而归。 a triumphant cheer 胜利的欢呼声 a triumphal arch 凯旋门 e.g.

47 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 6) deficient a. → deficiency n. Our knowledge of the matter is deficient. 我们对此事了解不足。 Deficiency in vitamins / Vitamin deficiency can lead to illness. 身体缺乏维生素就会生病。 e.g.

48 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 7) woe n. → woeful a. → woefully ad. She told him all her woes. 她把自己的不幸遭遇都告诉他。 woeful ignorance 可悲的无知 The preparations were woefully inadequate. 准备工作未免太不够了。 e.g.

49 Consolidation Activities- Phrase practice 8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 8) contort v. → contortion n. Her face contorted / was contorted with pain. 她的脸因疼痛而走了样。 the contortions of a yoga expert 瑜伽高手的柔软动作 e.g.

50 4) If you a distance, you measure it by walking from one end of it to the other. 3) When he opened the lid of the box, a clown. Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 1) She wanted to refuse his proposal, but was not sure what was the best way of it. going about _____________ 2) The country was a period of irreversible change. going through _______________ popped out _____________ pace off _________ Fill in the blank in each sentence with an appropriate phrasal verb or collocation from the text.

51 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar go about: When you are “going about” your normal activities, you are doing them. e.g. 尽管战争一触即发,人们仍像平时一样工作。 Despite the threat of war, people go about their work as usual.

52 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar go through: If you “go through” an experience or a period of time, especially an unpleasant or difficult one, you experience it. e.g. 鉴于他经历过的种种遭遇,他的乐天达观令人惊叹。 He’s amazingly cheerful considering all that he’s gone through.

53 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar pop out: come out suddenly e.g. 我们一打开兔箱,兔子就突然跑出来了。 The rabbits popped out as soon as we opened the hutch. 他一看到自己赢得的东西,顿时两眼瞪得大大的。 His eyes nearly popped out of his head when he saw what he had won.

54 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1.6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar pace off: measure sth. by taking regular steps across it e.g. 我步测出那座木桥长约 100 英尺。 I paced off the wooden bridge and found it was about 100 feet long.

55 old, time-worn, antique Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym1 1. We wanted to live in a town small enough that we could walk to the business district, and settled on Hanover, N.H., a typical New England town — pleasant, sedate and compact. Antonyms:bustling, exciting 2. It has a broad central green surrounded by the venerable buildings of Dartmouth College, an old- fashioned Main Street and leafy residential neighborhoods. Synonyms: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar

56 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym2 3. Nearly every day, I walk to the post office or library or bookstore, and sometimes, if I am feeling particularly debonair, I stop at Rosey Jekes Café for a cappuccino. Antonyms: depressed, downhearted, low-spirited 4. We will go through the most extraordinary contortions to save ourselves from walking. Sometimes it’s almost ludicrous. Synonyms: absurd, ridiculous Vocabulary TranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Grammar

57 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym3 5. According to a concerned and faintly horrified 1997 editorial in the Boston Globe, the United States spent less than one percent of its transportation budget on facilities for pedestrians. Antonyms:indifferent, unconcerned VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 6. At the time, it seemed ridiculous and exasperating, but afterward I realized that I was possibly the only person ever to have entertained the notion of negotiating that intersection on foot. Synonyms:infuriating, irritating

58 Consolidation Activities- Synonym / Antonym4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 7. Esthetically it was a triumph — urban planners came from all over to coo and take photos — but commercially it was a disaster.. Antonyms:failure, defeat 8. Now people can park right in front of the stores again, and downtown Laconia thrives anew. Synonym:again

59 Consolidation Activities- Grammar main VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Past Perfect vs. Past Perfect Progressive shall, should, will, would Adverbs

60 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.1 Past Perfect vs. Past Perfect Progressive VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Past perfect We use the past perfect to talk about a past event or situation that occurred before a particular time in the past. Past perfect progressive We use the past perfect progressive when we talk about a situation or activity that happened over a period up to a particular past time, or until shortly before it. Before her sixth birthday, Jane had never been to the zoo. Example:

61 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.2 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting the action taking place before a certain time in the past Use sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple putting emphasis on the course or duration of an action

62 1. For years we (talk) about buying new carpets, and last weekend we finally went out and ordered some. 2. She (work) for the same company before she retired. 3. He finally (work) his way up from the shop floor to a management position. 4. She (apply) for jobs, without success, since leaving university. Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.3 Complete the sentences with the past perfect or past perfect progressive of the verbs in brackets. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar had been talking __________________ had been working ___________________ had worked _____________ had been applying ____________________

63 Consolidation Activities- Grammar1.4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 5. When the old lady returned to her flat, she saw at once that burglars (break) in during her absence, because the front door was open and everything in the flat was upside down. 6. Curiously enough, when I moved my foot, I found that I (stand) on a 50p piece. 7. A woman came in with a baby, who she said (swallow) a safety pin. 8. It was the first time he (be) abroad. had broken ____________ had been standing ____________________ had swallowed ________________ had been __________

64 and the auxiliary will should be used in the second person and third person (you, he / she / it, they). shall, should, will, would shall — will Shall and will are both modal verbs primarily used to express the future tense. In informal English, the Simple Future is usually conjugated entirely with the auxiliary will, particularly in American English. In more formal English, there is a rule which states that, the auxiliary shall should be used in the first person (I /we), Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingGrammar VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar ♦ ♦

65 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar However, shall currently tends to be falling out of use, but it continues to be used with I and we for offers and suggestions. Shall we dance?e.g.

66 Should is used: — to give advice: — in hypothetical situations: — to give tentative opinions: You should take regular exercise. Should you need any help, just call me. I should think the cost will be about £100. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar should — would Should is the conditional form of shall. Would is the conditional form of will. In informal English today, the conditional tense is usually conjugated entirely with would. If I had enough money, I would buy a new car.e.g.

67 1. Please tell George that he receive our final decision on the matter on Friday at the latest. 2. As nobody seems to have understood, we repeat this lesson? 3. ministers decide to instigate an inquiry, we would welcome it. 4. Who ever believe that actress was seventy? She doesn’t look a day over thirty. 5. I do as I like; nothing and nobody is going to stop me. Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.4 Complete the following sentences with shall, should, will or would. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar will ____ shall _____ Should ________ would _______ will ____

68 Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar No bills be stuck on these hoardings. By order. I be obliged if you would send them to me. From the description of the hotel in the brochure, it be very comfortable. A: Mary is in hospital again. B: Well, she not listen to the doctor. A: I’m broke at the moment, so I can’t afford to come to the cinema with you. B: Well, you spend all your money at the casino. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. shall _____ should _______ should _______ would _______ would _______

69 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Should ministers decide = If ministers should decide

70 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Will expresses strong intention.

71 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar When shall is used with the third person, it suggests strong determination.

72 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here, we use would not to say that Mary is unwilling to or refuses to listen to the doctor.

73 Consolidation Activities- Word derivation 5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Stressed would is used to criticize. It means “It is typical of you …”

74 This type of adverb shows how something is done, such as a man “driving carefully” or a song being “passionately sung.” Adverbs Adverbs are used to modify verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. Time adverbs that connect the past to the present, such as recently, lately, for weeks, are often used with the present perfect. Adverbs that refer to the definite past are used with the past tense. There are several types of adverbs: Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated skillsOral activitiesWritingGrammar VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Adverbs of manner

75 This type of adverb shows how often something happens, as in “I usually take the bus around 7” or “I often lose track of time.” This type of adverb provides information on the timing and occurrence of an event, such as when you promise to “send the reports in an hour” or “attend a function next week.” This type of adverb tells the reader “how much” of something is done or experience, as in “We eat out a lot” or “The beer was extremely cold.” Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Adverbs of degree Adverbs of time Adverbs of frequency

76 This type of adverb provides an opinion on a situation, such as when remarking that, “Unfortunately, Christmas isn't happening this year.” Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Adverbs of comment

77 Consolidation Activities- Grammar2.4 Fill in each blank with a word or phrase taken from the box. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 1. The lake was very popular for holidays once. But the seaside is more fashionable. 2. A: Have you heard from Joan? B: No, I got a letter from her — when was it? — oh, it must have been. nowadays ___________ eventually immediately ages ago once just nowadays lately soon after a long time for weeks recently ages ago __________

78 Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar A: Have you read any good books ? B: Well, I’ve finished the latest Graham Greene novel. Michael left for America in the 1980s. He found a job and got married. It was only that he managed to come back to Europe. 3. 4. eventually immediately ages ago once just nowadays lately soon after a long time for weeks recently lately ______ just ____ soon _____ after a long time ___________________

79 As soon as my father retires, he will move to his country cottage. he will sell his town flat and settle in the country. I’ve only seen the mayor, when he visited the local hospital. He’s been working at night. John has been working hard on the project and hasn’t seen a film. Consolidation Activities- Grammar3.1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 5. 6. 7. 8. eventually immediately ages ago once just nowadays lately soon after a long time for weeks recently immediately ______________ Eventually ____________ once ______ recently _________ for weeks ___________

80 Consolidation Activities- Translation1 1. 这所大学是世界上历史最悠久的高等学府之一。 (venerable) The university is one of the most venerable institutions of higher learning in the world. VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Venerable means deserving respect because of age, character, associations, etc.

81 Consolidation Activities- Translation2 Practice : 大寺院令人肃然起敬的遗迹 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar the venerable ruins of the abbey

82 Consolidation Activities- Translation3 2. 本周内我必须完成这篇专题文章,但老是被打断,火冒 三丈。 (exasperate) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar I felt exasperated by constant interruptions, for I had to finish writing the monograph by the end of this week. If someone or something exasperates you, they annoy you and make you feel frustrated or upset.

83 Consolidation Activities- Translation4 Practice : 她因为他愚笨而发怒。 那孩子真让我生气 ! VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar She was exasperated at / by his stupidity. That child exasperates me!

84 Consolidation Activities- Translation5 3. 他认为用旧文体来写一个当代的主题是滑稽可笑的。 (ludicrous) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar He feels that it is ludicrous to write on a contemporary theme in an ancient style. If you describe something as ludicrous, you are emphasizing that you think it is foolish, unreasonable, or unsuitable.

85 Consolidation Activities- Translation6 Practice : 他的裤子短得可笑。 荒谬的想法 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar His trousers were short and ludicrous. a ludicrous idea

86 Consolidation Activities- Translation7 4. 上海的外滩在上世纪七八十年代是年轻情侣喜欢来的谈 情说爱之地。 (coo) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar The Bund in Shanghai was a place where young couples liked to come to coo in the 70s and the 80s of the last century. When someone coos, they speak in a very soft, quiet voice which is intended to sound attractive.

87 Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Practice : “ 就会好起来的, ” 她轻柔地安慰说。 “It will be all right,” she cooed soothingly.

88 Consolidation Activities- Translation7 5. 当第一抹阳光洒向大地的时候,这对情人手拉手,在乡 村的大道上散步。 (stroll) VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar The couple strolled hand-in-hand along the country road when the sun in its first splendor steeped the earth. If you stroll somewhere, you walk there in a slow, relaxed way.

89 Consolidation Activities- Translation8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Practice : 他随意地闲逛,出出进进。 He strolls in and out as he pleases.

90 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Dictation Cloze

91 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Dictation You will hear a passage read three times. At the first reading, you should listen carefully for its general idea. At the second reading, you are required to write down the exact words you have just heard (with proper punctuation). At the third reading, you should check what you have written down.

92 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Recently in the United States, / there has been a debate concerning old drivers. / There have been a series of accidents / committed by elderly drivers / and they have given rise to new debates on the old issue: / how old is too old to drive? / Some people point to statistics/ showing that older drivers are safer than teenagers, / at least until they reach seventy-five. / Moreover, elderly drivers are less likely to drive drunk / than other drivers. / However, at least twenty-one states / have special requirements on older drivers: / Dictation

93 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar those over sixty-five and older / are required to renew their driving license every year / and undertake vision tests. / Taking away a license can rob older people of their independence / and force them to rely on others / for trips to the grocery store or doctor’s office. / Some people argue / whether someone continues to drive or not / should be based on performance / not just simply age.

94 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills4 When Kylie Galliani started at the University of New England, she was given a key to her dormitory, a class timetable and something (1) unusual: a $480 bicycle. “I like this free bike,” said Ms. Galliani, 17, a freshman from California. “It’s really a good way to get (2) the campus.” Now, more and more students have the same feeling as Kylie Galliani. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar more ______ Fill in each blank in the passage below with ONE word you think appropriate. around ________

95 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills5 The University of New England and Ripon College in Wisconsin are giving (3) bikes to freshmen who promise to (4) their cars at home. Other colleges are setting up free bike sharing or rental (5). The goal is to (6) shortages of parking spaces and to change the influence of car culture on campus. At Ripon, officials say that giving students a bike of their own might encourage them to be more responsible. The college offered $50,000 to the program and plans to continue (7) with next year’s freshmen. About 180 freshmen (8) up for the program. “We did it VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar free _____ leave ______ programs __________ ease _____ it ___ signed _______

96 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills6 as a means of reducing the need for parking,” Dr. Joyce said, “but from the point of view of health and (9) protection, we realized we have the opportunity to create a change.” The University of New England has a similar problem: too many cars, not enough space and a desire to make the campus greener. So it copied the Ripon program, (10) out 105 bikes in the first week of school. Because of the program, (11) 25 percent of freshmen brought their cars with them this year. VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar environmental ________________ handing ________ only _____

97 Consolidation Activities- Integrated skills7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar “I don’t have to fill it with gas, and it doesn’t harm the environment,” said a student. “(12) a car, you need a parking permit and gas. Now I needn’t worry about that.” With _____

98 Consolidation Activities- Hints1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here an adverb is needed to modify unusual.

99 Consolidation Activities- Hints2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Between the verb get and the noun university a preposition is needed to indicate the direction of the movement.

100 Consolidation Activities- Hints3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar According to context, a modifier is needed here to modify “bikes” and we have known these bikes are free.

101 Consolidation Activities- Hints4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar After the infinitive marker “to”, the basic form of a verb is naturally expected. According to context, the verb means put.

102 Consolidation Activities- Hints5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar After the adjective rental, a noun is needed which means something like plans or projects.

103 Consolidation Activities- Hints6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar After the infinitive marker “to”, the basic form of a verb is naturally expected. Here this verb means making the shortage less.

104 Consolidation Activities- Hints7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here obviously a pronoun is needed to replace the noun that has been mentioned before.

105 Consolidation Activities- Hints8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar A verb is needed. And according to collocation, this verb collocating with “up” means putting your name on a list for something because you want to take part in it.

106 Consolidation Activities- Hints9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here a modifier is needed to modify “protection”. Based on common sense, riding bike is good for our health and our environmental protection.

107 Consolidation Activities- Hints10 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here a verb in its present participle is needed to form an adverbial phrase. In terms of meaning, it means giving out.

108 Consolidation Activities- Hints11 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar A modifier is needed to show the degree or intensity of that figure.

109 Consolidation Activities- Hints12 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Here a preposition is needed.

110 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Giving a Talk Having a Discussion

111 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities1 1. Giving a Talk Topic: Traffic Problems and Solutions Words and phrases for reference: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar expressway, commuter, infrastructure, one-way, rush hour Solutions: a) Traffic police department must use technology for controlling and monitoring the movement of vehicles at important and busy crossroads.

112 Consolidation Activities- Oral activities2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Solutions: b) Drives should be launched to educate masses to drive in their respective lanes only and to follow traffic signals strictly. If the offence is found to be repeated, then the driving license of the driver should be cancelled. c) Check on minor-driving and parents of such minors should be punished.

113 d) Public transport, should be increased to deal with the rising number of private vehicles on roads. e) Pollution check of vehicles by the owners on regular intervals can contribute a lot in saving the environment from air pollution. f) We must encourage our children to ride bicycles and walk short distances. g) Finally, the government must give encouragement to battery bikes, autos and cars to handle the growing demand for oil. Consolidation Activities- For your reference1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Solutions:

114 Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion2 2. Having a Discussion Topic: Car Culture in China Viewpoints: VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar For many Chinese people, owning a car has become a symbol of success and personal freedom. Private cars don’t provide a measure of convenience or control over one’s daily life. Dependence on automobiles is nothing to celebrate — especially in our cities.

115 Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion3 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Certainly the pollution cars create is a serious issue — in Shanghai, for example, some 80% of urban air pollution comes from car exhaust. The impact on public health is severe and profound. When cities are built to accommodate cars, they are no longer designed to accommodate people. Much of Beijing was built before the massive explosion of private car ownership. The infrastructure is simply not designed to carry as many cars as are present today.

116 Consolidation Activities- Having a discussion4 VocabularyGrammarTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWriting Although private cars can provide a refuge of sorts for their owners, they also add immeasurably to the stress and alienation of urban life. Car culture is extremely seductive but ultimately it isn’t a healthy — or happy — culture.

117 Consolidation Activities- Writing main VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 1. Essay writing: How to Write the Introduction of an Essay The quality of an essay introduction often determines whether the essay gets read in the first place. The main task of the introduction is to give the reader a clear idea of the essay’s focal point. It must get the reader’s attention as it is the part when he decides if the essay is worth reading till the end or not.

118 Consolidation Activities- Writing1 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar The introduction should be written according to the following scheme: 1. General information 2. Attention grabber 3. Information on the topic leading to the thesis statement 4. Thesis statement Analysis of three samples:

119 Last summer while working at a construction site, I met a lot of guys who were going to college. They knew I would be attending Indiana State in the fall, so when we would take a break from pouring concrete or framing houses, they would always try to impress me by telling me how hard college was. They spoke of impossibly difficult tests, hours upon hours of homework, and stern professors who cared nothing for their students. I must admit that they had me scared, but now that I have been at Indiana State for a year, I know that students can do well in their Consolidation Activities- Writing2 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Sample 1: With an anecdote (a brief story from your personal experience)

120 This introduction starts with an anecdote, or an incident. The write narrates the incident generally at first, and then goes to the focus: college would be very hard. That is the information of the topic. And then, the writer argues to the contrary that, as his experience at Indiana State University proves, students can do very well on some conditions, which as we predict would be an important task of elaboration. Consolidation Activities- Writing3 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar studies if they discipline themselves to study regularly, take good class-notes, and miss class only for illness and emergencies. Sample Analysis

121 Consolidation Activities- Writing4 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar So there is the topic and the thesis, and the contradiction between what people have told him and what he has experienced in person can be an attention grabber. Sample Analysis

122 Consolidation Activities- Writing5 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar Did you ever see a soft drink commercial that talked about soft drinks? Well, some might tell us that the drink being advertised will quench our thirst, or that a particular diet pop has only so many calories or contains no caffeine. But most of the time the emphasis in soft drink ads is on the people — surfers on the beach, slim sexy women doing aerobic dances, carloads of preppies waving pop cans, or breakdancers hip-hopping down a city street. These ads are not selling pop; they are selling images. Most soft drink companies want us to believe that if we drink their product we will be part of a happy crowd. Sample2: With a question

123 Consolidation Activities- Writing6 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar This introduction starts with a curious question: Did you ever see a soft drink commercial that talked about soft drinks? And the answer, or the reality, is even more curious and contrary to common sense: such advertisements do not appeal to the drink, but images of surfers, sexy women, and young and fashionable people. This is a funny and curious situation indeed, and would naturally take all of our attention. On that basis, the writer finally presents his thesis: the aim of soft drink commercials is to let us believe that the product would place us among the happy people. Sample Analysis

124 Consolidation Activities- Writing7 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar It is successful in that it presents a familiar but unexpected landscape by dint of a strange question, and that the thesis is a natural summary of the description of the landscape. Sample Analysis

125 Consolidation Activities- Writing8 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar The American philosopher John Dewey once said that the job of the educational system in a democracy is “to teach students how to think, not what to think.” Dewey’s point, however, is not always upheld in our schools as teachers sometimes impose their own political and even religious beliefs on unsuspecting students. Sample 3: With a famous quotation

126 Consolidation Activities- Writing9 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar This introduction starts by quoting John Dewey, an education authority whose words are therefore authoritative and generally true. The problem, then, is that the quoted idea is not upheld in teaching practices. Instead, teachers are not teaching students how to think; they are imposing their political and even religious beliefs on their students. It would be much plainer if the thesis is consistent with the quotation. But in this introduction, the case is different: the popular belief as represented by the famous quotation is breached. That is outrageous and Sample Analysis

127 Consolidation Activities- Writing10 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar curious enough. So the topic is clear, and the thesis is unequivocal. Sample Analysis

128 Consolidation Activities- Writing11 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar 2. Practice Write an introductory paragraph of an essay on the following topic: True Democracy in terms of Women’s Equality Hillary Rodham Clinton once said that “There cannot be true democracy unless women's voices are heard.” In 2006, when Nancy Pelosi became the nation’s first female Speaker of the House, one woman’s voice rang out clear. With this development, democracy grew to its truest level ever in terms of women’s equality. Sample

129 Consolidation Activities- Writing12 VocabularyTranslationIntegrated SkillsOral ActivitiesWritingGrammar The historical event also paved the way for Senator Clinton as she warmed her own vocal chords in preparation for a presidential race. Sample

130 Section Five Further Enhancement Text IIMemorable Quotes Lead-in Questions Text Questions for Discussion

131 It is almost impossible to evacuate people from a skyscraper in case of emergency. The 9/11 tragedy in New York can only prove it. Do you prefer to live in a skyscraper? Why? A human being loses highly important ties with the ground at the height of the 8th floor. It is psychologically hard for a person not to be able to see the ground, the yard and the people. Lead-in questions Text II Viewpoints: Memorable Quotes To crown it all, people may spend up to 40 minutes waiting for elevators every morning and evening as they leave and return home.

132 Those engaged in discovering America often begin by discovering the Manhattan skyline, and here as well as elsewhere they discover apparently irreconcilable opposites. They notice at once that it doesn’t make any sense, in human or aesthetic terms. It is the product of insane politics, greed, competitive ostentation, megalomania, the worship of false gods. Its products, in turn, are traffic jams, bad ventilation, noise, and all the other ills that metropolitan flesh is heir to. And the net result is, illogically enough, one of the most exaltedly beautiful things man has ever made. Text1 Text II Skylines and Skyscrapers John A. Kouwenhoven 1 Memorable Quotes

133 Text2 Text II Perhaps this paradoxical result will be less bewildering if we look for a moment at the formal and structural principles which are involved in the skyline. It may be helpful to consider the skyline as we might consider a lyric poem, or a novel, if we were trying to analyze its aesthetic quality. Looked at in this way, it is clear that the total effect which we call “the Manhattan skyline” is made up of almost innumerable buildings, each in competition (for height, or glamour, or efficiency, or respectability) with all of the others. Each goes its own way, as it were, in a carnival of rugged architectural individualism. And yet as 2 3 Memorable Quotes

134 Text3 Text II witness to the universal feeling of exaltation and aspiration which the skyline as a whole evokes out of this irrational, unplanned, and often infuriating chaos, an unforeseen unity has evolved. No building ever built in New York was placed where it was, or shaped as it was, because it would contribute to the aesthetic effect of the skyline-lifting it here, giving it mass there, or lending a needed emphasis. Each was built, all those now under construction are being built, with no thought for their subordination to any over-all effect. Memorable Quotes

135 Text4 Text II What, then, makes possible the fluid and ever- changing unity which does, in fact, exist? Quite simply, there are two things, both simple in themselves, which do the job. If they were not simple, they would not work; but they are, and they do. One is the gridiron pattern of the city’s streets — the same basic pattern which accounts for Denver, Houston, Little Rock, Birmingham, and almost any American town you can name, and the same pattern which, in the form of square townships, sections, and quarter sections, was imposed by the Ordinance of 1785 on an almost continental scale. Whatever its shortcomings when compared with the “discontinuous street patterns” of 4 5 Memorable Quotes

136 Text5 Text II modern planned communities, this artificial geometric grid-imposed upon the land without regard to contours or any preconceived pattern of social zoning — had at least the quality of rational simplicity. And it is this simple gridiron street pattern which, horizontally, controls the spacing and arrangement of the rectangular shafts which go to make up the skyline. The other thing which holds the skyline’s diversity together is the structural principle of the skyscraper. When we think of individual buildings, we tend to think of details of texture, color, and form, of surface ornamentation or the lack of it. But as elements in Manhatten’s skyline, 6 Memorable Quotes

137 Text6 Text II these things are of little consequence. What matters there is the vertical thrust, the motion upward; and that is the product of cage or skeleton, construction in steel — a system of construction which is, in effect, merely a three- dimensional variant of the gridiron street plan, extending vertically instead of horizontally. The aesthetics of cage, or skeleton, construction have never been fully analyzed, nor am I equipped to analyze them. But as a lay observer, I am struck by fundamental differences between the effect created by height in the RCA building at Radio city, for example, and the effect 7 Memorable Quotes

138 created by height in Chartres cathedral or in Giotto’s campanile. In both the latter (as in all the great architecture of the past) proportion and symmetry, the relation of height to width, are constituent to the effect. One can say of a Gothic cathedral, “This tower is too high”; of a Romanesque dome, “This is top-heavy.” But there is nothing inherent in cage construction which would invite such judgments. A true skyscraper like the RCA building could be eighteen or twenty stories taller, or ten or a dozen stories shorter without changing its essential aesthetic effect. Once steel cage construction has passed a certain height, the effect of transactive upward motion has been established; from there on, the point at which you cut it off is arbitrary and makes no difference. Text7 Text IIMemorable Quotes

139 Text8 Text II Those who are familiar with the history of the skyscraper will remember how slowly this fact was realized. Even Louis Sullivan — greatest of the early skyscraper architects — thought in terms of having to close off and climax the upward motion of the tall building with an “attic” of cornice. His lesser contemporaries worked for years on the blind assumption that the proportion and symmetry of masonry architecture must be preserved in the new technique. If with the steel cage one could go higher than with load-bearing masonry walls, the old aesthetic effects could be counterfeited by dressing the façade as if one or more buildings had been piled on top of 8 Memorable Quotes

140 Text9 Text II another — each retaining the illusion of being complete in itself. You can still see such buildings in New York: the first five stories perhaps a Greco-Roman temple, the next ten a neuter warehouse, and the final five or six an Aztec pyramid. And that Aztec pyramid is simply a cheap and thoughtless equivalent of the more subtle Sullivan cornice. Both structures attempt to close and climax the upward thrust, to provide something similar to the Katharsis in Greek tragedy. Memorable Quotes

141 But the logic of cage construction requires no such climax. It has less to do with the inner logic of masonry forms than with that of the old Globe-Wernicke sectional bookcases, whose interchangeable units (with glass-flap fronts) anticipated by fifty years the modular unit systems of so-called modern furniture. Those bookcases were advertised in the nineties as “always complete but never finished” — a phrase which could with equal propriety have been applied to the Model-T Ford. Many of us remember with affection that admirably simple mechanism, forever susceptible to added gadgets or improved parts, each of which was interchangeable with what you already had. Text10 Text IIMemorable Quotes 9

142 Text11 Text II Here, then, are the two things which serve to tie together the otherwise irrelevant components of the Manhattan skyline: the gridiron ground plan and the three- dimensional vertical grid of steel cage construction. And both of these are closely related to one another. Both are composed of simple and infinitely repeatable units. 10 Memorable Quotes

143 Text2 – About the Author and the Text Text II About the Author and the Text: John A. Kouwenhoven (1909–1990) was an associate editor of Harper’s Magazine, and a professor at Barnard College. The text is an excerpt from a collection of essays The Beer Can by the Highway: Essays on What’s American about America. First published in 1961, The Beer Can by the Highway takes a provocative, wide-ranging look at America’s ever-changing physical and intellectual landscapes, from advertising and jazz to Manhattan’s skyline and the prairies of the Midwest. Memorable Quotes

144 Manhattan (Paragraph 1): Manhattan is one of the five boroughs of New York City, located primarily on Manhattan Island at the mouth of the Hudson River. It is also one of the wealthiest counties in the United States, the third- largest in population but smallest in area of the five boroughs. Manhattan is a major commercial, financial, and cultural center of both the United States and the world. Text2 – Manhattan Text IIMemorable Quotes

145 all the other ills that metropolitan flesh is heir to (Paragraph 1): all other problems which are inherent in metropolitan cities Text3 – all the other Text IIMemorable Quotes

146 Text4 – a carnival of rugged Text II a carnival of rugged architectural individualism (Paragraph 3): Carnival is a festive season that typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, masque and public street party. People often dress up or masquerade during the celebrations, which mark an overturning of daily life. A carnival of rugged architectural individualism suggests that buildings there take dramatically different forms and styles. Memorable Quotes

147 Text4– RCA Building Text II RCA Building (Paragraph 7): RCA Building, a Magnificent structure of 70 stories, is the tallest building in the Rockefeller Center. There are 27 radio studios in the building, among them the largest in the world. Memorable Quotes

148 Text4– Chartres cathedral Text II Chartres cathedral (Paragraph 7): Partly built starting in 1145, and then reconstructed over a 26-year period after the fire of 1194, Chartres Cathedral marks the high point of French Gothic art. The vast nave, in pure ogival style, the porches adorned with fine sculptures from the middle of the 12th century, and the magnificent 12th- and 13th-century stained-glass windows, all in remarkable condition, combine to make it a masterpiece. Memorable Quotes

149 Text4– Giotto Text II Giotto (Paragraph 7): Giotto di Bondone (1267–1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance. Memorable Quotes

150 Text4– Aztec pyramid Text II Aztec pyramid (Paragraph 8): one of a number of monumental structures built by the Aztec civilization in the shape of a pyramid with a rectangular base Memorable Quotes

151 They are likely to notice at once the seemingly incongruous opposites about the Manhattan skyline. They may conclude that it is not sensible from either human or aesthetic angle and that it is the result of insane politics, greed, deliberate intention to impress others and megalomania. The ill effects of the result are, in turn, traffic jams, bad ventilation, noise and all the other problems any metropolitan city can hardly avoid. Questions for discussion1 1. What are those engaged in discovering America likely to notice at once about the Manhattan skyline? What do they possibly conclude from their discovery? Text IIMemorable Quotes

152 2. How do you understand the author’s idea when he says that it would be helpful to consider the skyline in the way we might consider a lyric poem or a novel when we analyze its aesthetic quality? The total effect which is termed as “the Manhattan skyline” is made up of numerous buildings, each competing with all of the others in height, or glamor, or efficiency, or respectability. Though each goes its own way, the skyline as a whole evokes the universal feeling of exaltation and aspiration out of all this irrational, unplanned, and often infuriating chaos. There actually exists an unforseen unity. Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable Quotes

153 It is achieved mainly by means of two elements, namely the gridion ground plan and the vertical grid of steel cage construciton, both of which are composed of simple and infinitely repeatable units. So far as the first element is concerned, the artificial geometric grid imposed upon the land without regard to contours has one important quality of rational simplicity. The second element, the vertical thrust or the motion upward, is, in effect, only a three- dimensional variant of the gridion street plan. Questions for discussion3 Text II 3. How could the fluid and ever-changing unity be achieved? Memorable Quotes

154 Memorable Quotes2 Text IIMemorable Quotes All cities are mad: but the madness is gallant. All cities are beautiful: but the beauty is grim. — Christopher Morley

155 Cities forth growth, and make men talkative and entertaining, but they make them artificial. — Ralph Waldo Emerson Memorable Quotes3 Text IIMemorable Quotes

156 Memorable Quotes4 Text II A Question for Discussion Do you like prefer living in a small town or a big city? Tip Making a decision that is right for you and your family can be tough when it comes to where to locate. Though small towns and big cities both have desirable qualities, they each also possess less appealing attributes. Memorable Quotes

157 Big cities often have multiple places to work. Grocery stores, gas stations, and fast food chains are also present, and in greater numbers. Memorable Quotes5 Text II Transportation Jobs Small towns rarely have a formal public transportation system. Big cities almost always have multiple forms of public transportation available. These include taxi cabs, busses, and subway systems. There are very limited local jobs available in small towns. Memorable Quotes

158 Memorable Quotes6 Text II Working for a large company can have great perks such as better benefit packages than a small town business could offer and the opportunities to meet new and interesting people throughout your employment. There are also job opportunities that involve special training and higher education, creating a chance for higher wages and more promotions such as headquarters for corporations. Memorable Quotes

159 Memorable Quotes7 Text II Family Life The population in a big city is large, giving some people the feeling of being lost or unimportant. With this erratic lifestyle of people constantly on the go, it is less likely that you will see your family on a regular basis. For instance, big cities offer tons of activities, and it is easy for one to get involved with too many of them and miss out on “home time”. Memorable Quotes

160 Christopher Morley (May 5, 1890 – March 28, 1957) was an American journalist, novelist, essayist and poet. He also produced stage productions for a few years and gave college lectures. Questions for discussion1 Text IIMemorable Quotes

161 Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American lecturer, essayist, and poet, best remembered for leading the Transcendentalist movement of the mid- 19th century. He was seen as a champion of individualism and a prescient critic of the countervailing pressures of society, and he disseminated his thoughts through dozens of published essays and more than 1,500 public lectures across the United States. Questions for discussion2 Text IIMemorable Quotes

162 Notation type here

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