Presentation on theme: "Organizational Change and Technology Introductory information School reform and the aims of educational reform The tradition of change in American education."— Presentation transcript:
Organizational Change and Technology Introductory information School reform and the aims of educational reform The tradition of change in American education Strategies of planed change Organizational Development Deming and Total Quality Management (TQM) Organizational Health and Self-renewal Basic shifts in beliefs, politics, and practices that are necessary to move ahead with authentic reform Currents of Change Affecting Higher Education Conclusion
Definitions Developmental change- doing something the same way but better Transitional change- finding a new way to do the same thing Transformational change- doing something different by creating new structures and new processes to fit new objectives
Elements that need to be considered for a successful change strategy: The People- Thought should be given to the skills and attitudes of the people involved. The Process- Should be planned and should consider stakeholders, time frame, context, and outcome The Structure- Should be flexible enough to be reconfigured and reshaped as needed with changing circumstances
The belief that society can direct change has been shaped from two principal sources: Marxist political and social theory The empirically based social sciences
Education Viewed as the key to equality in societies Expected to transmit traditional values Expected to be vehicles for change
How can schools be restructured? Can we change educational organizations from the top down? Can we change educational organizations from the bottom up? What approach is more effective?
School Reform Reform efforts have not been effective in altering organizational culture. The nucleus of the core of organizational behavior is power. Dealing with power relationships in school is central to bringing educational change.
Power Relationships and School Restructuring Reform means to give “new form” to a school changing it in fundamental ways. The key to restructuring lies in changing power relationships in the school. Schools can change through different directions: Outside (mandates from the state) Within (involving everyone in the process of change)
What kinds of changes does educational reform seek to bring about in the schools?
Scanlon Plan A method of changing from within involving everyone in the process Two major contributions in our thinking about educational organizational change: It conceptualizes the organization as a whole. It is an educational rationale that seeks to promote the development of everyone.
Sarason listed five aims that most agree would constitute major changes: To reduce the wide gulf between the educational accomplishments of children of different social classes and racial backgrounds. To get students to experience schooling as a process to which they are willingly attracted, not a compulsory one they see as confining and boring.
Sarason listed five aims that most agree would constitute major changes: (cont.) To enable students to acquire knowledge and skills that are not merely memorized abstractions, but are acquired in ways that interrelate the learning and give personal purpose. To engender interest in and curiosity about human accomplishments, past and present. To get students to want to know how the present contains the past. To acquaint students with the domain of career options and how schooling relates to these options in a fast-changing world of work.
The Tradition of Change in American Education Natural diffusion- New ideas and practices arise in some fashion and appear in some unplanned way from school to school and from district to district. Natural Diffusion Processes It typically takes about 15 years for an innovation to spread to three percent of the school systems. It then takes an additional 20 years for an almost complete diffusion into an area the size of an average state.
Planned, Managed Diffusion The strategy by which money is spent may have greater impact on change than things such as per pupil expenditure. One successful strategy involved three phases: Inventing the new curriculum Diffusing knowledge of the new curriculum widely and rapidly among high school science teachers Getting the new curriculum adopted in local schools
Strategies of Planned Change Robert Chin posited that three "strategic orientations" are useful in planning and managing change: Empirical-rational strategies Power-coercive strategies Normative-reeducative strategies
Empirical-Rational Strategies of Change These strategies focus on linking the findings of research to the practices of education by improving communication between researchers and practitioners. Knowledge Production and Utilization (KPU)- The scientific production of new knowledge and its use in daily activities (This is key to planned change).
Assumptions/Implications of KPU New knowledge (product, technique) will be perceived by potential adopters as desirable That adopters (being rational and reasonable) will do what is desirable because it is in their own self interest
Other Empirical-Rational Strategies Personnel Selection and Replacement "Clearing out the dead-wood" & changing the criteria for certification and employment of new people. Utopian Thinking Rational attempts to project what might exist in the future, what the alternatives may be, and what ought to be can lead to planned efforts to direct the course of events toward a desired goal.
Power-Coercive Strategies of Change This differs from an empirical-rational approach in its willingness to use sanctions in order to obtain compliance. Innovations are explained by the characteristics of the organization and the management rather than the nature of the innovation and federal funding.
Schools Successful in Implementing Innovative programs exhibited the following characteristics: Tendency to reject rigidly packaged innovations Strongly involved in developing their own materials Engaged in continuous planning and preplanning Engaged in ongoing training of people Consistent technical assistance was available locally for projects Innovative projects received strong support from key administrators
A Normative-Reeducative Strategy Those who exist in the organization can deliberately shift to more productive norms the organization’s interaction-influence system: Attitudes Beliefs Values
Organizational Development (OD) Organizational Development- A coherent, systematically-planned, sustained effort at self- study & improvement focusing on change using behavioral science concepts. OD is the process for increasing the self-renewal capability of school districts and schools.
Concepts That Characterize OD: 1.The goal of OD 2.System renewal 3.A system approach 4.Focus on people 5.An educational strategy 6.Learning through experience 7.Dealing with real problems 8.A Planned Strategy 9.Change agent 10.Involvement of top-level administration
Findings regarding OD Effectiveness: 1.Success is more likely when faculty senses a readiness to change and welcomes the project. 2.Entering into OD requires a skilled consultant. 3.Open, active support from administrators is critical to success. 4.OD is more likely to be helpful if staff is in agreement on goals. 5.An OD project can be thought of as consisting of four main phases: EntryDiagnosis of organizational problems InstitutionalizationMaintenance
Deming and Total Quality management Deming devoted much time to cooperation in the workplace: Power-sharing Motivating power of a shared organizational vision Transforming leadership Win-win conflict management Growth-enhancing organizational culture He became a powerful advocate of participative management, empowerment, and transforming leadership.
Transforming Change Deming’s Total Quality Management (TQM) deals with the organizations culture. Deming suggested that low-quality work rested on the shoulders of company managers. Transforming change happens when something is changed into something that is very different.
Lessons from Deming’s Work: The concept of Total Quality Management Responsibility Testing is Not the Answer Intrinsic Motivation is Best Emphasize Problem-Solving Eliminate Performance Ratings Emphasize Sensitivity to the Needs of the Customer Kaizen, or the Principle of Continuous Improvement
Organizational Health and Self-Renewal To be affective, an organization must accomplish three essential core activities over time: Achieve its goals Maintain itself internally Adapt to its environment
Good Indicators of Organizational Health: Goal focus (people understand/accept goals) Communication adequacy (vertical/horizontal, internal/external) Optimal power equalization (collaboration) Human resources utilization (effective use of personnel) Cohesiveness (people like the organization)
Good Indicators of Organizational Health: (cont.) Morale (feelings of satisfaction) Innovativeness (new ways of growth) Autonomy (tendency of organization to determine its own behavior) Adaptation (ability to change, correct, and adapt fast) Problem-solving adequacy (sensing & solving problems)
Organizational Self-Renewal Ways of managing the interaction-influence system of an organization to stimulate creativity, promote personal growth, and facilitate solutions to organizational problems. The process of renewal includes the increased capacity to: Sense and identify emerging problems Establish goals, objectives and priorities Generate valid alternative solutions Implement a selected alternative
What are some basic shifts in beliefs, politics, and practices that are necessary to move ahead with reform?
Basic shifts in beliefs, policies, and practices that are necessary to move head with reform: From individual to institutional responsibility for achievement From instrumentality to entitlement From control to empowerment From the inevitability to the interruptability of outcomes From bureaucracy to democracy From commonality to diversity From interconnected services to open, comprehensive child and family services From competition to collaboration From intervention to facilitation
What are some trends affecting higher education as we know it?
Currents of Change Affecting Higher Education Trends of change affecting higher education as we know it: The communications Revolution Shifts in the Intellectual Division of Labor Shifts in the funding streams Demographic Shifts and Accessibility
Conclusion School reform and the aims of educational reform The tradition of change in American education Strategies of planed change Organizational Development Deming and Total Quality Management (TQM) Organizational Health and Self-renewal Basic shifts in beliefs, politics, and practices that are necessary to move ahead with authentic reform Currents of Change Affecting Higher Education
References: Astuto, T., Clark, D., Read, A., McGree, K., & Fernandez, L. (1994). Roots of Reform: Challenging the Assumptions that Control Change in Education. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. Jurow, S. (1999). Change: The Importance of the Process. Educom Review. 34. Owens, R. (1998). Organizational behavior in education. Boston: Alyn & Bacon. Sixth Edition. Ward, D. (2000). Catching the Waves of Change in American Higher Education. Educause Review. Jan/Feb, 23-30.