22“A combination of health education and related organizational, U.S. Department of HealthEducation and Welfare (1979)“A combination of health educationand related organizational,political and economic programmesdesigned to support changesin behaviour and in the environmentthat will improve health.”
23“The process of enabling people to Increase control over the Nutbeam (1985)“The process of enabling people toIncrease control over theDeterminants of health andThereby improve their health.”
24“The process of enabling people to increase control over their health. WHO (1984) (1986')“The process of enabling people toincrease control over their health.‘and thereby to improvetheir health.”
25Health Promotion Targets towards whole population Basically healthy Involvement of community and individual measuresPromotion of healthy lifestyleGoal to enhance state of well being
26Disease Prevention Activity in the medical field Dealing with a disease or environmental threatProtects individuals or groups of population at riskAims to conserve health
27Disease Prevention Primary Prevention Prevention of disorders before they occure.g. vaccination, healthy lifestyles
28Disease Prevention Early diagnosis and treatment Secondary PreventionEarly diagnosis and treatmente.g. screening programmes
29Disease Prevention Tertiary Prevention Reducing burden of disability toindividual and societye.g. treatment and rehabilitation
30Five Priority Actions Of Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Build Healthy Public PolicyCreate supportive environment for healthStrengthen community actions for healthDevelop personal skillsRe-orient health services
31Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion An International Conference on Health PromotionThe move towards a new public healthNovember 17-21, 1986, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
32The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21st Century (1997): Five priorities for actionPromote social responsibility for healthIncrease investments for health developmentExpand partnerships for health promotionIncrease community capacity and empower the individualSecure an infrastructure for health promotion
34The meaning of Mass Media Two key features:Mass audienceMessage is mediatedSource: Health Promotion – effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Keith Tones and Sylvia Telford
35Mass Media in Health Promotion The difference between health marketing and commercial marketing:Health promotion, ethical and professional goalsDifference in size of budgetsHealth education programmes set standard often too high
36Mass Media in Health Promotion The nature of the product in offer is differentThe health education product frequently intangible and gratification seen only at distant futureDeep seated attitudes not easy to change
37Mass Media in Health Promotion Ten key marketing concepts in health promotionMarket philosophyThe “four Ps” of marketing: product, price, place, promotionHierarchy of communication effectsAudience segmentation
38Mass Media in Health Promotion Understand all the relevant marketsFeedbackInterpersonal and mass communication interactionsCommercial resourcesCompetitionExpectations
40‘Public health advocacy’ Sometimes called ‘public health lobbying’Process of over coming major structural barriers to public health goalsSuch barriers could be political, economic or cultural
41Skilled Professionals Partnerships or Coalitions Champions or Leaders What are the components of an effective public health advocacy campaign?InformationHealth ProfessionalsSkilled ProfessionalsPartnerships or CoalitionsChampions or Leaders
42Skills required in effective public health advocacy Competency and understanding of subjects and rolesPolitical science, sociology of mass communicationStructuring of mediaHealth issuesNetworking techniques
43Skills required in effective public health advocacy Community educators and organizersJournalistsLawyers and political analysts / advisersResearchEvaluation
44Does it work?Governments (and organizations) tend to adopt policies only in activities of public headiness, using the principles that Governments (organization) should not move far from what is perceived to be public opinion
45What are the conditions for success in public health advocacy? A recognized constituencyBuilding community agreement that an issue is a priority for action and that the proposed solutions are acceptable
46What are the conditions for success in public health advocacy? Empowered communitiesA feasible solution (a feasible solution is not necessarily based only on, for example, epidemiological evidence. Many different types of “evidence” can be used by politicians, and managers when mainly policy decisions)
47Mass MediaThe mass media, by definition, reach mass audiences, including key political and bureaucratic decision makers. If well informed about the process of news reporting, public health advocates may be in the position of influencing journalist to report issues in ways more consonant with public health objections.
48Advocacy in Health Education and Health Promotion Case Studiesin Public HealthAdvocacy in Health Education and Health Promotion
55The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001 The Asia Pacific Association for the Control of Tobacco (APACT) recognizes that tobacco use is a major cause of death in the Asia-Pacific region:The current pandemic of tobacco-related diseases is causing tremendous harm and an excessive burden on the economy.Everyone, especially children, has the right to live in a tobacco-smoke free environment.
56The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001 Of all the children alive today in Asia, a conservative estimate is that at least 150 million will eventually be killed by tobacco.There is a need for an urgent effort to contain this pandemic of tobacco-related diseases as well as its terrible effects on the environment and the economy. If it is to effectively prevent young people from smoking, it must be a comprehensive programme directed at the entire community.
57The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001 A comprehensive regional tobacco control policy:An end to all tobacco advertisingIncrease in taxesProtection of youthRegulation and control of tobacco products
58The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001 A comprehensive regional tobacco control policy:Cessation programmesStrong public education programmesSupport WHO FCTCHolding tobacco companies accountable
59The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001 In addition, the 432 participants from 34 countries to this 6th APACT Conference on Tobacco or Health give full support to Hong Kong’s current legislative proposals, particularly the recommendations for 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants.
60Promotion of Healthy Cities Case Study 4Promotionof Healthy Cities
61How do we get a Healthy City ? Invite expert to introduce and explain the concept of Healthy Cities and talk about experience on implementationSeek government and community support and participationEstablish a ‘Steering Committee’ to plan and co-ordinate Healthy City programmeIdentify priority health issues (through community diagnosis)Develop an action planSecure potential community and funding supportMonitor and evaluation of the project
62Healthy Cities Eight Healthy Cities in Hong Kong Tseung Kwan O Wan ChaiCentral & WesternKwai TsingTsuen WanSham Shui PoWong Tai SinTai Po
63Tseung Kwan O DistrictKwai Tsing DistrictCentral & WesternDistrict
64Health Promoting Schools and Healthy Schools Award Scheme Case Study 5Health Promoting Schoolsand Healthy SchoolsAward Scheme
65School-Based Approach Involve Kay PersonnelSchool PrincipalsSchool TeachersSchool-based Health CoordinatorsPupilsParents
66School-Based Approach Supportive environment and policy makingCommunity PartnershipParticipation of ParentsNetworking
67Hong Kong Healthy Schools Award Scheme Opening Ceremony 20 May 2001
72Why Canada has been successful in Tobacco Control? Case Study 7Why Canada has been successful inTobacco Control?
73Tobacco industry’s survival strategy Nine D’s Deny the health consequences of smoking.Deceive consumers about the true nature of cigarettes through marketing and PR.Damage the credibility of industry opponents.Direct advertising to women and youth, in addition to men, to maximize sales volume.
74Tobacco industry’s survival strategy Nine D’s Defeat attempts to regulate the industry or control smoking.Delay legislation if it can’t be defeated.Destroy legislation once it passes, either by trying to overturn the law in court, by disobeying the law, or by exploiting loopholes.Defend lawsuits filed against the industry.Develop new markets around the world.
75Factors for success on Tobacco Control Political willBureaucratic support and experienceEffective advocacy outside governmentNO SMOKING
76Political WillTo introduce, implement and enforce tobacco control measuresPolitical support from:Minister of HealthMinister of LabourMinister of FinanceDepartments support
77Advocacy (lobbying) Anti-smoking and health groups Tobacco-control campaignCollaboration between government and NG sectors
78Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success:Health Groups offer the government solutions, not just problemsUnity is strength – advocating coalitions
79Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success:Coalitions include:Public supportHealth organizationProvisional councilsConsumersReligious groupsWomen’s organizationsVolunteers
80Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success:Adequate financial resources and staffHealth groups able to respond quicklyUse a wide array of toolsE.g. letters, phone calls, newspaper advertisements, meetings with government officials
89Conclusion Advocacy is a powerful strategy for promoting health Possible to use political processes to bring about positive changes to healthMedia sector has a very important role to play in health communication
90ConclusionThere should be close working partnership between health and media professionals in promoting healthJoint education and training programmes for both the health and media sectors in health communication would greatly enhance the cooperation and communication between the two sectors
91ConclusionMore workshops, seminars on various subjects of health should be organized and better methods of communication should be developed to enable the media sector to have easy access to health information and a good understanding of the various issues affecting health
92ConclusionThe World Health Organization should be requested to organize more international workshops and seminars for the media in order to acquaint them the major global public health problems which can only be dealt with effectively by joint forces of all countries on a regional and global basis