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The Role of Media in Public Health Professor SH Lee Emeritus Professor of Community Medicine The Chinese University of Hong Kong.

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Presentation on theme: "The Role of Media in Public Health Professor SH Lee Emeritus Professor of Community Medicine The Chinese University of Hong Kong."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Role of Media in Public Health Professor SH Lee Emeritus Professor of Community Medicine The Chinese University of Hong Kong

2 What is Public Health?

3 Definition of Public Health ‘The science and art of promoting health, preventing disease, and prolonging life through the organized efforts of society.’ (Acheson Report, London, 1988 )

4 The New Public Health Movement

5 “ Up-stream ” Approach

6 Determinants of Health

7 Personal health practices and coping skillsPersonal health practices and coping skills Biological and genetic endowmentBiological and genetic endowment Environmental risk factorsEnvironmental risk factors Social and economic factorsSocial and economic factors Health ServicesHealth Services

8 Personal health practices and coping skills Smoking Diet Obesity Lack of exercise Stress Alcohol abuse Drug misuse Sexual practices

9 Tobacco

10 Source: HKCOSH

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12 Population

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15 Biological and genetic endowment Gender differences Physiological, anatomical and mental capacities

16 Environmental risk factors Physical environment Radiation exposure Workplace hazards Infectious agents Home hazards Traffic Product design

17 Social and Economic factors Income and social status Social support networks Education Employment and working conditions Social disintegration Overpopulation Geography and Transportation

18 Health Services Accessible preventive and primary care services Healthy child development services e.g.Personal health services e.g. –Student health –Women health –Elderly health

19 Social, Economic Cultural & Environmental Conditions Lifestyle Health and Medical Services Genetic Influences The Health Field Concept HEALTH

20 The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the Jakarta Declaration

21 Definition of Health Promotion

22 “A combination of health education and related organizational, political and economic programmes designed to support changes in behaviour and in the environment that will improve health.”

23 “The process of enabling people to Increase control over the Determinants of health and Thereby improve their health.”

24 “The process of enabling people to increase control over their health. ‘and thereby to improve ‘and thereby to improve their health.”

25 Health Promotion Targets towards whole populationTargets towards whole population Basically healthyBasically healthy Involvement of community and individual measuresInvolvement of community and individual measures Promotion of healthy lifestylePromotion of healthy lifestyle Goal to enhance state of well beingGoal to enhance state of well being

26 Disease Prevention Activity in the medical fieldActivity in the medical field Dealing with a disease or environmental threatDealing with a disease or environmental threat Protects individuals or groups of population at riskProtects individuals or groups of population at risk Aims to conserve healthAims to conserve health

27 Disease Prevention Prevention of disorders before they occur e.g. vaccination, healthy lifestyles Primary Prevention

28 Disease Prevention Early diagnosis and treatment e.g. screening programmes Secondary Prevention

29 Disease Prevention Reducing burden of disability to individual and society e.g. treatment and rehabilitation Tertiary Prevention

30 Five Priority Actions Of Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion Build Healthy Public PolicyBuild Healthy Public Policy Create supportive environment for healthCreate supportive environment for health Strengthen community actions for healthStrengthen community actions for health Develop personal skillsDevelop personal skills Re-orient health servicesRe-orient health services

31 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion An International Conference on Health Promotion The move towards a new public health November 17-21, 1986, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

32 The Jakarta Declaration on Leading Health Promotion into the 21 st Century (1997): Five priorities for action Promote social responsibility for health Increase investments for health development Expand partnerships for health promotion Increase community capacity and empower the individual Secure an infrastructure for health promotion

33 Mass Media and Public Health

34 The meaning of Mass Media Two key features: Mass audienceMass audience Message is mediatedMessage is mediated Source: Health Promotion – effectiveness, efficiency and equity, Keith Tones and Sylvia Telford

35 A.The difference between health marketing and commercial marketing: Health promotion, ethical and professional goals Difference in size of budgets Health education programmes set standard often too high

36 The nature of the product in offer is different The health education product frequently intangible and gratification seen only at distant future Deep seated attitudes not easy to change

37 B.Ten key marketing concepts in health promotion Market philosophyMarket philosophy The “four Ps” of marketing: product, price, place, promotionThe “four Ps” of marketing: product, price, place, promotion Hierarchy of communication effectsHierarchy of communication effects Audience segmentationAudience segmentation

38 Understand all the relevant marketsUnderstand all the relevant markets FeedbackFeedback Interpersonal and mass communication interactionsInterpersonal and mass communication interactions Commercial resourcesCommercial resources CompetitionCompetition ExpectationsExpectations

39 Mass Media and “Public Health Advocacy”

40 Sometimes called ‘public health lobbying’ Process of over coming major structural barriers to public health goals Such barriers could be political, economic or cultural ‘Public health advocacy’

41 What are the components of an effective public health advocacy campaign? InformationInformation Health ProfessionalsHealth Professionals Skilled ProfessionalsSkilled Professionals Partnerships or CoalitionsPartnerships or Coalitions Champions or LeadersChampions or Leaders

42 Skills required in effective public health advocacy Competency and understanding of subjects and rolesCompetency and understanding of subjects and roles Political science, sociology of mass communicationPolitical science, sociology of mass communication Structuring of mediaStructuring of media Health issuesHealth issues Networking techniquesNetworking techniques

43 Community educators and organizersCommunity educators and organizers JournalistsJournalists Lawyers and political analysts / advisersLawyers and political analysts / advisers ResearchResearch EvaluationEvaluation Skills required in effective public health advocacy

44 Does it work? Governments (and organizations) tend to adopt policies only in activities of public headiness, using the principles that Governments (organization) should not move far from what is perceived to be public opinion

45 What are the conditions for success in public health advocacy? A recognized constituency Building community agreement that an issue is a priority for action and that the proposed solutions are acceptable

46 What are the conditions for success in public health advocacy? Empowered communities A feasible solution (a feasible solution is not necessarily based only on, for example, epidemiological evidence. Many different types of “evidence” can be used by politicians, and managers when mainly policy decisions)

47 The mass media, by definition, reach mass audiences, including key political and bureaucratic decision makers. If well informed about the process of news reporting, public health advocates may be in the position of influencing journalist to report issues in ways more consonant with public health objections.

48 Case Studies in Public Health Advocacy in Health Education and Health Promotion

49 SmokelessTobacco

50 Tobacco advertising in printed media and outdoor advertising

51 Prohibition of smoking in restaurants and other public indoor premises

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53 The Asia Pacific Association for the Control of Tobacco (APACT)

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55 The Asia Pacific Association for the Control of Tobacco (APACT) recognizes that tobacco use is a major cause of death in the Asia-Pacific region:The Asia Pacific Association for the Control of Tobacco (APACT) recognizes that tobacco use is a major cause of death in the Asia-Pacific region: The current pandemic of tobacco-related diseases is causing tremendous harm and an excessive burden on the economy.The current pandemic of tobacco-related diseases is causing tremendous harm and an excessive burden on the economy. Everyone, especially children, has the right to live in a tobacco-smoke free environment.Everyone, especially children, has the right to live in a tobacco-smoke free environment. The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001

56 Of all the children alive today in Asia, a conservative estimate is that at least 150 million will eventually be killed by tobacco.Of all the children alive today in Asia, a conservative estimate is that at least 150 million will eventually be killed by tobacco. There is a need for an urgent effort to contain this pandemic of tobacco-related diseases as well as its terrible effects on the environment and the economy. If it is to effectively prevent young people from smoking, it must be a comprehensive programme directed at the entire community.There is a need for an urgent effort to contain this pandemic of tobacco-related diseases as well as its terrible effects on the environment and the economy. If it is to effectively prevent young people from smoking, it must be a comprehensive programme directed at the entire community. The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001

57 A comprehensive regional tobacco control policy: 1.An end to all tobacco advertising 2.Increase in taxes 3.Protection of youth 4.Regulation and control of tobacco products The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001

58 A comprehensive regional tobacco control policy: 5.Cessation programmes 6.Strong public education programmes 7.Support WHO FCTC 8.Holding tobacco companies accountable The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001

59 In addition, the 432 participants from 34 countries to this 6 th APACT Conference on Tobacco or Health give full support to Hong Kong’s current legislative proposals, particularly the recommendations for 100% smoke-free workplaces and restaurants. The Hong Kong Declaration APACT 2001

60 Promotion of Healthy Cities

61 How do we get a Healthy City ? 1.Invite expert to introduce and explain the concept of Healthy Cities and talk about experience on implementation 2.Seek government and community support and participation 3.Establish a ‘Steering Committee’ to plan and co- ordinate Healthy City programme 4.Identify priority health issues (through community diagnosis) 5.Develop an action plan 6.Secure potential community and funding support 7.Monitor and evaluation of the project

62 Eight Healthy Cities in Hong KongEight Healthy Cities in Hong Kong –Tseung Kwan O –Wan Chai –Central & Western –Kwai Tsing –Tsuen Wan –Sham Shui Po –Wong Tai Sin –Tai Po Healthy Cities

63 Tseung Kwan O District Kwai Tsing District Central & Western District

64 Health Promoting Schools and Healthy Schools Award Scheme

65 Involve Kay Personnel –School Principals –School Teachers –School-based Health Coordinators –Pupils –Parents School-Based Approach

66 Supportive environment and policy making Community Partnership Participation of Parents Networking School-Based Approach

67 Hong Kong Healthy Schools Award Scheme Opening Ceremony 20 May 2001 Hong Kong Healthy Schools Award Scheme Opening Ceremony 20 May 2001

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69 Healthy Workplace

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72 Why Canada has been successful in Tobacco Control?

73 Tobacco industry’s survival strategy Nine D’s Deny the health consequences of smoking.Deny the health consequences of smoking. Deceive consumers about the true nature of cigarettes through marketing and PR.Deceive consumers about the true nature of cigarettes through marketing and PR. Damage the credibility of industry opponents.Damage the credibility of industry opponents. Direct advertising to women and youth, in addition to men, to maximize sales volume.Direct advertising to women and youth, in addition to men, to maximize sales volume.

74 Tobaccoindustry’s survival strategy Nine D’s Tobacco industry’s survival strategy Nine D’s Defeat attempts to regulate the industry or control smoking.Defeat attempts to regulate the industry or control smoking. Delay legislation if it can’t be defeated.Delay legislation if it can’t be defeated. Destroy legislation once it passes, either by trying to overturn the law in court, by disobeying the law, or by exploiting loopholes.Destroy legislation once it passes, either by trying to overturn the law in court, by disobeying the law, or by exploiting loopholes. Defend lawsuits filed against the industry.Defend lawsuits filed against the industry. Develop new markets around the world.Develop new markets around the world.

75 Factors for success on Tobacco Control Political will Bureaucratic support and experience Effective advocacy outside government NO SMOKING

76 Political Will To introduce, implement and enforce tobacco control measuresTo introduce, implement and enforce tobacco control measures Political support from:Political support from: –Minister of Health –Minister of Labour –Minister of Finance Departments supportDepartments support

77 Advocacy (lobbying) Anti-smoking and health groups Tobacco-control campaign Collaboration between government and NG sectors

78 Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success: –Health Groups offer the government solutions, not just problems –Unity is strength – advocating coalitions

79 Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success: –Coalitions include: Public supportPublic support Health organizationHealth organization Provisional councilsProvisional councils ConsumersConsumers Religious groupsReligious groups Women’s organizationsWomen’s organizations VolunteersVolunteers

80 Use of effective advocacy techniques Factors for success: –Adequate financial resources and staff –Health groups able to respond quickly –Use a wide array of tools E.g. letters, phone calls, newspaper advertisements, meetings with government officialsE.g. letters, phone calls, newspaper advertisements, meetings with government officials

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84 Atypical Pneumonia Epidemic, Hong Kong Impact of Community, NGOs, Professionals Involvement

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86 給我們的醫生、護士及所有醫護人員: 面對非典型肺炎的危機, 您們表現的專業精神、毅力和勇氣,我們十分敬佩。 我們和全港市民一樣,衷心感謝您們﹗ 在這艱難的時刻,我們要關心自己, 關心身邊的人,互勵互勉。 關懷從這一分鐘開始。

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88 Conclusion

89 Conclusion Advocacy is a powerful strategy for promoting healthAdvocacy is a powerful strategy for promoting health Possible to use political processes to bring about positive changes to healthPossible to use political processes to bring about positive changes to health Media sector has a very important role to play in health communicationMedia sector has a very important role to play in health communication

90 Conclusion There should be close working partnership between health and media professionals in promoting healthThere should be close working partnership between health and media professionals in promoting health Joint education and training programmes for both the health and media sectors in health communication would greatly enhance the cooperation and communication between the two sectorsJoint education and training programmes for both the health and media sectors in health communication would greatly enhance the cooperation and communication between the two sectors

91 Conclusion More workshops, seminars on various subjects of health should be organized and better methods of communication should be developed to enable the media sector to have easy access to health information and a good understanding of the various issues affecting healthMore workshops, seminars on various subjects of health should be organized and better methods of communication should be developed to enable the media sector to have easy access to health information and a good understanding of the various issues affecting health

92 Conclusion The World Health Organization should be requested to organize more international workshops and seminars for the media in order to acquaint them the major global public health problems which can only be dealt with effectively by joint forces of all countries on a regional and global basisThe World Health Organization should be requested to organize more international workshops and seminars for the media in order to acquaint them the major global public health problems which can only be dealt with effectively by joint forces of all countries on a regional and global basis

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95 THANK YOU


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