Presentation on theme: "Why I teach “ why do you teach, Pete? ” My friend asked me questions when I told him that I didn ’ t want to be considered for a university administrative."— Presentation transcript:
Why I teach “ why do you teach, Pete? ” My friend asked me questions when I told him that I didn ’ t want to be considered for a university administrative position. He was puzzled that I did not want to take what was obviously a step toward what all American boys are taught to want when they grow up, money and power. I told him that as a teacher, I had both a decent salary and the only kind of power worth having, the power to change lives. “ Besides, I said ”, I like my job in part because no administrator has even told me how to teach or what to teach or how to treat students, why would I want to be an administrator cut off from the only kind of power that matters in university? ”
But he had stopped listening so I stopped talking. I was not satisfied with that answer anyhow. His question got me thinking, though. This little book is an extended answer to the question, “ why do you teach, Pete? ”
Certainly I don ’ t teach because teaching comes naturally to me. I was about the quietest kid in class all through high school and college. My teachers just couldn`t get me to talk. The last thing I wanted to do for a career was to stand in front of a group of People and jabber. And certainly I don ’ t teach because teaching is easy for me. Teaching is the most difficult of the various ways I have attempted to earn my living: bulldozer mechanic, carpenter, temporary college administrator, writer.
参考文献 Longman Grammar of Spoken and Written -English Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press Success In Advanced English Writing 高级 英语写作指南 祁寿华 上海外语教育出版社 英汉互译测试教程 吴松林 中国电力出版社 英汉翻译教程 吕俊 上海外语教育出版社
pronunciation It goes without saying that an interpreter’s pronunciation of English words must be correct; for a wrong pronunciation of the essential word would, to say the least, create misunderstanding on the part of the listener, what we should like to stress here in the context of interpretation, are 1 that an interpreter should avoid “ swallowing part of the words” or “swallowing syllables” 2 that he should avoid “ an exaggerated effort to be precise”
Intonation A the falling tune B the rising tune C the falling and rising tune
stress Word stress Sentence stress
Word stress English words contain syllables. A word containing a single syllable is a monosyllabic word; one containing two or more syllables is polysyllabic word.
The classification of stress strong stress and weak stress Main stress and secondary stress
Sentence stress stressing － it is generally accepted that “ correct stressing ” is very important in communication in English, as is well known, spoken words do not have the equal value that they seem to have in print. So in spoken English, some words that are deemed important, are given more weight than others. However one should not “ overdo ” it. Over- emphasis can make a speech very difficult to understand, besides making it boring to listen to.
I am going to the post office to send a letter. Question: words are made to stand out from others Another general rule to go by is that when a word is used twice in the same sentence or the text, it generally loses its stress when repeated.
Rhythm Rhythm in spoken English comes from a combination of these other factors, it depends largely upon the balance of phrasing, stressing and intonation, perhaps it is the subtlest part of any language, rhythm e`ludes definition yet it something which vitally affects the success of delivery( of the original speaker and the interpreter alike)
音译简要介绍 音译 1984 年高明凯汉语外来语词典 4400 多个 SARS ， coup 政变泰国 poker humor carnation angel hamburger coco cola pepsi cola hamburger MacDonald ’ s shock shampoo jazz 英语中 kowtow litchi kung fu makjong jiaozi silk 等
形 26 个字母， 48 个发音，用 26 个常用的前 缀， 10 个常用的后缀， 8 中造词的原则就 有 200 万多个英文词汇。（ questionable ） We have reason to hold that----
构词－ 自考 365 Rules themselves are not fixed but undergo changes compounding 合成 28 ％－ 30 ％ conversion 转化 26% derivation 派生 30% － 40 ％ shortening 8%-10% ( clipping and acronym) blending and borrowing and others1%- 5%
Compounding 合成 由两个或更多的词合成一个词，有 的用连词符号，有的直接写在一起，还 有的由分开的两个词语组成 Eg: blackboard sightseeing passer-by maybe up-to-date post office horse riding oil well
Conversion 转化 由一种词性转化为另一种或者 几种词性 Eg: It tastes good. It has not much taste. Clear and clean
prefixes negative prefixes － is in( il ir im) － not non un mis prefixes of degree or size － macro large long micro small short mini sub under ( 分，支，次， 亚 ) super － above over Locative prefixes extra fore inter tele- far away trans Prefixes of time and order ( fore pre post re ) Number prefixes ( bi mono multi semi-half or partly tri)
Suffixes noun suffixes 1 concrete ( er,or ess let ette ant ee ent ) 2 abstract( age dom ery hood ing ism ship some) tion sion ion ence ing ment ity ness ese an ist Others- ed ful ish less like ly y al )
denotation 本义，字面意义 词义的演变 扩大，缩小，词义 褒贬的变化
词义的变化 词义的缩小 deer -disease 丈人 词义的转移 原来词义的消失 naughty a naughty world 万恶的 道德败坏的 现在 意思是淘气的 感情色彩的变化 negro 中性向贬义发展 black
connotation － the meaning of a word Context － 语境 文体 程度 感情色彩
Examples wise & clever A politician is wise(he knows what is good for his people), but this person may not be very clever. Someone may be very clever but he may not be wise or good at all. Live and stay They are synonyms in the sense of “ 居住 ” ， but “ 我在 信阳住了十年 ”is put into “ I have lived in Xinyang for 10 years”; while “ 我要在武汉住一个月 ”is put into “ I am going to stay in Wuhan for a month”. Generally speaking, “live” is used for long period while “stay” for a short period.
一般来讲词语对等就是从词语的指称意义来 谈的。范：但有的对等词义并不完全对等： marry ------cousin--------parent-adoptive parent real parent – natural(biological) father or mother 工厂： factory, plant, mill, works 遗产： legacy （遗产中的动产部分） estate （尚未被继承的全 部遗产） inheritance ( 已经被继承了的遗产 ) 税； tax, 税，税额。 Duty 关税 tariff 进出口货物所怔 之税 local tax, state tax,customs duties
介绍： introduce or recommend, but the word “ introduce” is more limited than “ 介绍 ” in Chinese, the first picture which a native English speaker gets in his mind when he hears the word “ introduce” is to introduce somebody to somebody else. Of course, this does exclude the possibility that someone may introduce himself.
But “ 你能介绍我一本好书吗？ ”if you say “ could you introduce me a book”, the native speakers of English would be surprised to hear that a person could be introduced to a book. ( movie about the strong) is rendered into “ Could you recommend me a good book?” 红包： gift money （婚丧嫁娶所送） bonus （公司所发的奖励） bribe （行贿所 送的现 金）
另外蕴涵意义中，词语的文体特征，感情色 彩也是翻译过程中所要特别注意的。 我们曾经谈到过演讲方面的几中风格： freezing style, consultative style, casual style and intimate style. 这几种不同的风格，常常取决于 1 the addresser 2 the addressee 3 subject matter (the content) 4 form of communication (the way )
slang( spoken, informal, familiar, (regional, dialect) written, formal, polite, (standard, speech) formal & informal, degree, derogatory term and commendatory term wording (diction) syntax (omission of structure words yeah, hi, um, ok, well, etc )
EG: show- demonstrate indicate tell inform acquaint (few) live –reside use -utilize soon –the near future close-end- conclude-complete start-commence so-consequently glad- content real-genuine
EG: try-attempt get-obtain hide-conceal see-behold talk with- converse with about- with reference to after that- thereafter ect Hu caps his US tour with Yale speech Hu Wraps up his visit with Yale speech ( comment)
Happy/pleased-joyful /delighted (very happy)- cheerful (happy and bright) –overjoyed – intoxicated angry-( filled with anger)- annoyed (a little angry)- furious/enraged( full of rage) Blue- sad-depressed/dejected
Tiny-small/little (size, weight, force, importance,etc)- average-big-huge(great, titanic )- enormous. Few/little-a few/a little- many/much-numerous/a great deal of /a plenty of
High/tall-towering (exaggerate-the towering giant of a man who was walking toward us)-lofty( can be used to describe the object-extremely high: Eg, we saw the lofty,snow-capped mountain.) Short-stocky( short and strong in body)-dumpy/squat( deperec short and thick in body)
Fat- stout-plump (pleasant fat)- corpulent (derog)- overwight. Thin-slim (pleasant thin )/slender /(very thin in a pleasant way))-skinny.
slim- thin-skinny fat- corpulent-plump propagate- preach publicize- disseminate ; peasant ( 汉语中一个中性 的词语，而在英语中喻指粗鲁无教养的人 )& farmer; cheap and good ( 物美价廉 )- economical and good or nice and inexpensive; use lame argument or forced argument ( 强 ); willfully make trouble or be deliberately provocative ( 无 ) ， give a dog an evil name and hang him ( 欲 ) getting swollen-headed ( forgetting oneself) to stir or incite anger or resentment); thanks to –due to, owing to, because of- in consequence of, wise and resourceful- a bag of tricks, etc.
The objective and subjective aspect in Paper writing formal, informal,personal, relaxed, impersonal and restrained besides words choosing, using the third person references: the author, the writer, the investigator, it was leaned, and investigation disclosed etc.
Collocation Collocation （指语言系统内各个语言成分的同 现和组合，是语境的重要组成部分） You shall know a word by the company it keeps. 在这 里 company 指的是与某一词语同现的搭配词语。 Begin and start small and little shoulder- head
Exercise 宰客 自学 寒衣 彩票 听电话 抓紧时间 文化程度 学习知识 风凉话 提高英语水平 Swindle (cheat, de`fraud) money from customers self taught warm clothes lottery answer the telephone make the best use of one’s time educational level acquire knowledge irresponsible and sar`castic remarks improve one’s English