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Pre-reading Activities Word Study Exercises Text Analysis Warm-up Questions Useful words and phrases All the exercises for the text Main idea and Structure Unit 8 Daydream a Little
Before Reading_1 Phrases Related to the Topic Directions: The topic of this text is “dream”. Please put the following words or phrases into English. 1. 噩梦 a nightmare 2. 白日梦 a daydream 3. 黄粱美梦 4. 痴心妄想 5. 一直以来的梦想 6. 纯朴的梦想 7. 长期的梦想 8. 虚无飘渺的梦想 a fond dream an idle dream a long-cherished dream a simple dream a longstanding dream a distant dream 9. 做梦 10. 实现某人的梦想 11. 解梦 have a dream achieve / realize one’s dream interpret a dream
Before Reading_3_5_POP 1. Definitions of “dream” About Dream 1) sequence of scenes or feelings occurring in the mind during sleep. 2) state of mind in which things happening around seem unreal. 3) a wish to do or have something. 3. Freud and his theories about dream 4. Discussion 2. A poem about dream Warm-up
Directions: Before Reading_3_5_POP Langston Hughes: Langston Hughes (1902-1976) was an American poet who wrote jazz poetry and was probably the first to pitch his verse in conjunction with musicians in the late 1930s. Read and appreciate “DREAMS” written by Langston Hughes then explain the meaning of the word “dream” in this poem. DREAMS Hold fast to dreams For if dreams die Life is a broken-winged bird That cannot fly Hold fast to dreams For when dreams go Life is a barren field Frozen with snow In this poem “dream” refers to a wish to do or have something.
Before Reading_3_5_POP Freud and his theories about dream Sigmund Freud (1865-1939) --- He was an Austrian physician who revolutionized ideas on how the human mind works. --- He established the theory that unconscious motives control a lot of behavior. --- His work has helped millions of patients who are mentally ill. --- His theories have brought new approaches in child rearing, education, and sociology and have provided new themes for many authors and artists. --- Most people in Western society view human behavior at least partially in Freudian terms.
Before Reading_3_5_POP Discussion 1.Do you ever daydream? If so, what do you daydream about? 2. Is daydreaming a good thing or a bad thing? Why? 3. Can daydreaming lead to success?
Article Daydreaming has always had a bad reputation, but now scientific research has revealed that daydreaming may actually improve your mental health and creativity. It can even help you achieve your desired goals. Daydream a Little
I. Fast reading Acquaint yourself with some relevant information 1.Why do people take a hostile attitude towards daydreaming? 2. What happens if a person is not allowed to dream in his sleep? 3. What are the benefits of daydreaming according to researchers? 4. How is creative daydreaming going? back
Acquaint yourself with some relevant information Key to question 1 ： Because they think that daydreaming is a waste of time, an escape from real life and its duties. Key to question 2 ： He becomes tense and anxious. He becomes irritable. He has trouble concentrating and his mental health is temporarily damaged. In short, he cannot get the benefits of rest. back 1.Why do people take a hostile attitude towards daydreaming? 2. What happens if a person is not allowed to dream in his sleep?
Acquaint yourself with some relevant information Key to question 3 ： 1. It’s a good means of relaxation and important to mental health; 2. It contributes to intellectual growth; 3. It improves concentration, attention span, and the ability to get along with others; 4. It leads children to pay more attention to detail; 5. It makes children feel happier and work together better. 6. It seemed to produce improved self-control and creative abilities. back 3. What are the benefits of daydreaming according to researchers?
Acquaint yourself with some relevant information Key to question 4 ： 1. Choose a time when you can be alone and undisturbed; 2. Close your eyes; 3. Let your imagination soar freely; 4. Picture yourself as vividly as possible the way you want to be; 5. Picture your desired goals as if you had already attained them; 6. Go over all the details of the picture; 7. See them clearly and sharply; 8. Impress them strongly on your memory. back 4. What is the procedure of creative daydreaming?
II. Part Division of the Text Part 1 (Paras. 1-3) Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing. (Para. 4-12) Daydreaming is as important as nighttime dreams to mental health. Experiments show that it has a lot of benefits. (Paras. 13-14) Daydream a little each day but not be too dependent on it. back Part 2 Part 3
Ⅲ. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure What is the text mainly about? Daydreaming has always had a bad reputation, but now scientific research has revealed that daydreaming may actually improve your mental health and creativity. It can even help you achieve your desired goals.
Ⅲ. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure How is the text organized? The passage is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author makes it clear that people’s former attitudes towards daydreaming are changing. The second part serves as a explanation part, relating that daydreaming may also be important to mental health. The third part comes to the suggestion. The author tells people how to use daydreaming in the right way.
Ⅲ. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure Part I (Paras. 1-3) Part II Part III Main idea? Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in the same way that attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. Devices for developing it? Analogy ( 类比法 )
Ⅲ. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure Part II (Para. 4-12) Part I Part III Main idea? Now researchers are finding that daydreaming may also be important to mental health. It contributes to intellectual growth. It also improves concentration, attention span, and the ability to get along with others. Devices for developing it? illustration ( 例证法 )
Ⅲ. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure Part III ( Para. 13-14) Part I Part II Main idea? Daydream a little each day but not be too dependent on it. Devices for developing it? Specific-general( 分总法 )
Article1_S 1. “Daydreaming again, Barb? You’ll never amount to anything if you spend your time that way! Can’t you find something useful to do?”amount to 2. Many youngsters have heard words like those from their parents. And until recently this hostile attitude towards daydreaming was the most common one. Daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time. Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties. But now some people are taking a fresh look at daydreaming. Some think it may be a very healthy thing to do. Daydream a Little Eugene Raudsepp 以一种新的见解看待 ……
amount to: 1) develop into 达到 2) if figures, sums, etc. amount to a particular total, they equal that total when they are added together 等于 他的建议等于是说工作还有改进的余地。 His suggestion amounts to saying that there is still room for improvement in the work. 他懒于用功学习，恐怕将会一事无成。 He is lazy when he should study hard. I’m afraid he will amount to nothing. His yearly income amounts to a five-figure sum. 3) if an attitude, remark, situation, etc. amounts to sth., it has the same effect; be equal to 相当于 back
1. What does the expression “an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties” mean? 白日做梦被视为浪费时间，或被看成是逃避现 实生活及其责任的一种不健康的倾向。 Getting away from real life and its duties which was harmful to a person’s character or moral health. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. Daydreaming was viewed as a waste of time. Or it was considered an unhealthy escape from real life and its duties. back
Article2_S 3. Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that attitudes towards night dreaming have changed. Once it was thought that nighttime dreams interfered with our needed rest. But then researchers tried interrupting the dreams of sleepers. They learned that sleepers who aren’t allowed to dream lose the benefits of rest. They become tense and anxious. They become irritable. They have trouble concentrating. Their mental health is temporarily damaged. To feel well again, they must be allowed to dream. interfered with benefits 4. Now researchers are finding that daydreaming may also be important to mental health. Daydreaming, they tell us, is a good means of relaxation. But its benefits go beyond this. A number of psychologists have conducted experiments and have reached some surprising conclusions.go beyond 进行实验
1. What is the grammatical function of “that” in this sentence? in much the same way that = in much the same way in which When used to introduce a restrictive attributive clause, the relative pronoun “that” sometimes means “in which”, “at which”, “for which” or “on which”. Example: 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 人们对白日做梦的态度正在改变，这与人们对夜间做梦的看法 的变化有非常相似之处。 I went to see him in the hotel lobby the day that / on which he arrived. Attitudes towards daydreaming are changing in much the same way that attitudes towards night dreaming have changed.
Structure-2-P202 1. My brother, a young chemist, is conducting experiments in much the same way that his instructor used to do. 3. Mrs. Lu, born and brought up in France, does cooking in much the same way that the French do. back
Article2_W_interfere with interfere with: interrupt; hinder, affect 干扰、妨碍 I hope that this misunderstanding will not interfere with our friendship. Don’t allow pleasure to interfere with duty. back
Article2_W_benefit1 benefit: n. an advantage, improvement, or help that you get from sth. 益处 The discovery of oil brought many benefits to the town. CF: benefit, advantage & profit 这三个名词均有 “ 利益、好处 ” 之意。 benefit 普通用词，指通过正当手段从物质或精神方面得到的任何 好处或利益。 advantage 指因某方面占优势或利用某机会以及对方弱点而获得利 益与好处。 profit 着重收益，尤指从物质、钱财等方面获得的利益。
Article2_W_benefit2 从 …… 中获益 损人利己 互利 失业津贴 Collocations: derive / get benefit from hurt sb. for one’s own benefit mutual benefit unemployment benefit back
Article2_W_go beyond go beyond: The results of the experiment have gone beyond their expectations. 一听到我们的决定，他就愤怒得失去理智了。 On hearing our decision, his anger went beyond all reasons. 1) be much better, worse, more serious, etc. than sth. else 超出 2) be too difficult for (someone) to do or understand The control of the children is going beyond my power.
Article3_S 5. Dr. Joan T. Freyberg has concluded that daydreaming contributes to intellectual growth. It also improves concentration, attention span, and the ability to get along with others, she says. In an experiment with school children, this same researcher found that daydreaming led the children to pay more attention to detail. They had more happy feelings. They worked together better. Another researcher reported that daydreaming seemed to produce improved self-control and creative abilities. contributes to span 6. But that’s only part of the story. The most remarkable thing about daydreaming may be its usefulness in shaping our future lives as we want them to be. Industrialist Henry J. Kaiser believed that much of his success was due to the positive use of daydreaming. He maintained that “you can imagine your future.” Florence Nightingale dreamed of becoming a nurse. The young Thomas Edison pictured himself as an inventor. For these notable achievers, it appears that their daydreams came true.shapingmaintainedpictured
Article3_W _contribute to contribute to: 1) help to make sth. happen 使发生，有助于 Plenty of fresh air contributes to good health. 2) give money, help, ideas, etc. to sth. that a lot of other people are also involved in 捐献 你的及时帮助大大有助于我们的成功。 Your timely help contributed greatly to our success. Her family have contributed $50, 000 to the fund. back
Article3_W _span1 span: 1. n. a period of time between two dates or events 一段时间 Over a span of three years, the new government has transformed the country's economic prospects. 2. v. include all of a period of time; if a bridge spans an area of water, especially a river, it goes from one side to the other 跨越, 穿越, 贯穿 Her acting career spanned almost six decades. 他不能长时间集中注意力。 He has a short attention / concentration span.
Article3_W _span2 寿命 记忆力持续时间 在一段时间中 Collocations: 注意力持续集中的时间 a life span a memory span in a span an attention span back
Article3_W _shape shape: v. 我的学生时代决定了我的前途。 My time at school shaped my future. influence sth. such as a belief, opinion, etc. and make it develop in a particular way; make sth. have a particular shape, especially by pressing it Collocations: shape sth. from / out of sth. else shape sth. into sth. 用 …… 做成 …… 把 …… 做成 …… 的形状 back
Article3_W _maintain maintain: v. 他的健康状况仍在继续好转。 The improvement in his health is being maintained. 1. make sth. continue in the same way or at the same standard as before 维持，保持 Despite living in different countries, the two families have maintained close links. 2. to continue to argue for an opinion 主张，断言 Eg: He maintained his right to enter the building. back
Article3_W _picture picture v. imagine sth. by making an image in your mind Eg: I really can’t picture her as a football player. She is so clumsy. Collocations: picture sb. (as) doing sth. picture sb. / sth. as + n. / a. 想象某人做（某事） 把 …… 想象成 ……, 把 …… 描绘成 …… back
Article4_S 7. Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick believed that the way we picture ourselves is often the way we turn out. He offered this advice: “Hold a picture of yourself... in your mind’s eye, and you will be drawn toward it. Picture yourself vividly as defeated, and that alone will make victory impossible. Picture yourself as winning, and that will contribute immeasurably to success. Do not picture yourself as anything, and you will drift...” 8. The experiences of some athletes seem to confirm this belief. For instance, John Uelses, a former pole-vaulting champion, used daydreaming techniques before each meet. He would imagine himself winning. He would vividly picture himself clearing the bar at a certain height. He would go over all the details in his mind. He would picture the stadium and the crowds. He’d even imagine the smell of the grass and the earth. He said that this exercise of the imagination left memory traces in his mind that would later help his actual performance.
Article4_S_I tied What’s the implied meaning of the sentence? If you do not form a picture of what you are going to be in the future, you will go along without a definite purpose in life… Do not picture yourself as anything, and you will drift...”
Article4_S_I t Paraphrase the sentence. Dr. Harry Emerson believed what we imagine ourselves to be was often what we became in the end. Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick believed that the way we picture ourselves is often the way we turn out. 哈里 埃莫森 福斯迪克博士相信，我们相信自己成为什么样的 人，结果往往成为什么样的人。
Article5_S 9. Why would a mental vision of success help produce real success? Dr. Maxwell Maltz, a surgeon and author, says this: “Your nervous system cannot tell the difference between an imagined experience and a real experience. In either case it reacts automatically to information that you give it... It reacts appropriately to what you think or imagine to be true.” 10. He believes that purposeful daydreaming builds new “memories” in the brain. These positive memories improve a person’s self-image. And self-image has an important effect on a person’s actions and accomplishments. 11. Can you use purposeful daydreaming to shape your own future? Why not try? Here is how those who believe in creative daydreaming recommend going about it. Choose a time when you can be alone and undisturbed. Close your eyes, to permit your imagination to soar more freely. Many people find that they get best results by pretending that they are sitting before a large screen. They project the desired image of themselves onto that screen.recommendgoing about
Article5_W _recommend1 recommend: v. Can you recommend a good dictionary to me? 1) say that sth. or sb. is good, or suggest them for a particular purpose or job 推荐, 介绍 Pattern: recommend sb. to sb. else recommend sb. sth. recommend sb. (sth.) for… 2) advise someone to do sth., especially because you have special knowledge of a situation or subject 劝告, 建议 My doctor recommended taking an early morning walk. 老师建议我们考试时遇到生词要沉着冷静。 The teacher recommended us to remain calm when we met with new words in an exam.
Article5_W _recommend2 Pattern: recommend sb. to do. sth. recommend doing sth. recommend + that-clause (should be / be) NB: “It is recommended that…” 结构后面的从句需要用虚拟 语气。类似的结构还有： It is suggested / requested / proposed / important / necessary that… 等。
go about: start working on, do 着手做 To learn English well is no easy matter. We must go about it earnestly. 如果你采用正确的方法做，这是一件容易的事儿。 It’s an easy job if you go about it in the right way.
Article5_S 12. Now picture yourself — as vividly as possible — the way you want to be. Remember to picture your desired goals as if you had already attained them. Go over all the details of this picture. See them clearly and sharply. Impress them strongly on your memory. The resulting memory traces will supposedly start affecting your everyday life. They will help lead you to the attainment of your goals. 13. Of course daydreaming is no substitute for hard work. If it’s athletic achievement you want, you also have to get lots of practice in your sport. You have to work hard to develop skills. If it’s school success you’re after, you can’t neglect studying. Daydreaming alone can’t turn you into your heart’s desire. But in combination with the more usual methods of self- development, it might make a critical difference. It could be the difference between becoming merely good at something and becoming a champion.substituteafterturn you into 起关键作用 与 …… 结合起来
Article5_W _substitute1 substitute: Tofu can be used as a meat substitute in vegetarian recipes. 1. n. a person or thing acting in place of another 代替者 [ 物 ], 代用品 Can you substitute for me at the meeting? 2. v. take the place of another; use sth. new or different instead of sth. Else 代替, 替换 substitute & replace 这两个动词均含 “ 替代、取代 ” 之意。 substitute 指某人因故不在时，由别人代理其职，有时也可指由一物 去代替另一物。 replace 最普通用词，指任何形式的替代，尤指以新的替代旧的、老的 和坏的等，指人指物都可以。 substitute for: 代替...; 替换..., 取代... substitute sth. [sb.] for: 用某物 [ 某人 ] 来代替
Article5_W _be after be after: I know what you’re after — a comfortable and well-paid job, but I must warn you that it will be a waste of your talent. be in pursuit of, seek, try to obtain; be looking for sb. or sth. 追求, 寻找
Article5_W _turn into turn…into…: cause sb. or sth. to become sb. or sth. different 他正在试着发明一种把太阳能转换成电的仪器。 He is trying to invent a device to turn the solar energy into electricity.
Article5_S_I’m not … 1. What the author’s attitude towards daydreaming can be inferred from this sentence? By daydreaming alone without working hard you cannot become what you want to be. 2. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 单是白日做梦不能使你功成名就，如愿以偿。 Daydreaming alone can’t turn you into your heart’s desire.
Article6_S 14. If what researchers are saying is true, a life lived without fantasies and daydreams isn’t as rich and rewarding as life can be. So they suggest setting aside a few minutes each day for daydreaming. By so doing, you may improve your physical and mental well-being. By taking a ten- or fifteen-minute “vacation” into the realm of imagination each day, you may add much to the excitement and enjoyment of your life. And who knows: You might see your own daydreams come true. 身心健康
Before Reading_3_5_POP Main idea of his interpretation of night dreams: 1)Dreams express the subconscious mind. 2) Dreams are absurd because our conscious mind won’t acknowledge our subconscious ideas thus disguises them. 3) In our dreams, we return to the modes of thinking of childhood. Our thinking becomes concrete, pictorial and illogical, and expresses ideas and wishes we are no longer conscious of.
Reading aloud and memorizing 13. Of course daydreaming is no substitute for hard work. If it’s athletic achievement you want, you also have to get lots of practice in your sport. You have to work hard to develop skills. If it’s school success you’re after, you can’t neglect studying. Daydreaming alone can’t turn you into your heart’s desire. But in combination with the more usual methods of self-development, it might make a critical difference. It could be the difference between becoming merely good at something and becoming a champion.substituteafterturn you into
Enriching your word power-2 1. covered 2. made 3. good 4. cutting 5. minded 6. willed 7. day 8. minute 9. class 10. out 11. built 12. matter 13. forgotten 14. well
Usage 1. affect my decision 2. the effect of the sleeping pills 3. had a serious effect on the growth of crops 4. will have an effect on his eyesight 5. was affected by the rain 6. didn’t have any effect 7. effect a complete change 8. had an almost immediate effect on his thinking
Translation 1. 我们不赞成他认为自己应得到特殊待遇的态度。 2. 即使你是班上最好的学生之一，我保住成绩也得常常温习功课 才行。 4. 情况确实是如此，有些人一生中很早就获得成功，而另一些人 则要工作很长时间方能实现自己的目标。 6. 如今研究人员提倡我们应该每天花些时间将自己想要达到的目 标投射到心灵的屏幕上。 1. We didn’t like his attitude that he deserved special treatment. 4. It is true that some people achieve success very early in life, while others must work a long time before attaining their goals. 2. Even if you are one of the best students in class, in order to maintain your grades you must review your lessons often. 6. Researchers now recommend that we take time every day to project our desired goals onto the screen in our minds.
Structure-1 1. Give us the tools and we will finish the job in two days. 2. Turn over the page and you will see what I mean. 3. Think of the difficulties that face us, and you will realize why progress is slow. 4. Give them an inch and they will take a mile. 5. Follow my instructions and you won’t get lost. 6. Take a ten-or fifteen-minute “vacation” into the realm of the imagination each day, and you will probably add much to the excitement and enjoyment of your life.
Cloze-1 1. hostile 2. interfere with 3. amount to 4. fantasy 5. benefit 6. contribution 7. recommend 8. picture 9. vision 10. supposedly 11. neglect 12. substitute 13. attain
Cloze-2 1. open 2. singing 3. window 4. what 5. sitting 6. in 7. say 8. so 9. that 10. not 11. daydreaming 12. same 13. thoughts