3 Introduction This orientation is concerned with SAFETY IN THE OILFIELD,not the mechanical aspects ofoilfield work.This orientation includes:SAFETY PROGRAM,INSPECTIONS/AUDITS,SAFETY MEETINGS,HAZARD AWARENESS,HAZARD ABATEMENT,ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION,ACCIDENT REPORTINGPERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
5 This orientation is to help acquaint those personnel with oilfield safety rules, regulations and/or procedures, particular to this company.
6 SAFETY…. is part of everyday living SAFETY…..is part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways – wherever he/she goes.Safe operating practices and procedures are vital in the drilling business because the work is hazardous, involving massive machinery, heavy tools and great physical strength.When accidents do occur, the work can be a serious danger to life and limb. Drilling personnel must know how to work safely on a rig in order to protect themselves, costly rig equipment, and the expensive hole being drilled.
7 Everyone loses from an accident Everyone loses from an accident. Injuries result in pain and suffering and may leave a person disabled or handicapped for life. Even minor injuries may cause loss of time from work and lost pay.Insurance benefits are helpful, but compensation payments cannot restore a life, hand, eye or leg. Damaged machinery and equipment can usually be repaired but almost always at considerable cost, particularly if down time is taken into account.An expensive well may be lost because of the oversight of the incompetence of one person. Blowouts and fires cause losses of life and equipment and waste precious oil and gas from underground reservoirs.
8 More than 90 % of all accidents are avoidable, being caused by human error rather than by mechanical failure.It is extremely important that every person on a drilling rig develop a sense of safety in drilling operations.That person must use this sense in combination with the kind of good judgment it takes to drive a car safely, or to do anything else in a safe manner.
9 Vocabulary Listing of select vocabulary words ANSI – American National Standards Institute.Approved – Sanctioned, endorsed, accredited, certified, or accepted by a duly constituted and recognized authority or agency.Authorized Person – A person approved or assigned by the employer to perform a specific type of duty or duties or to be at a specific location or locations at the job site.
10 Vocabulary – cont’dCompetent Person – One who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surround or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employers and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, or who can recommend directly to persons in authority that such corrective measures be taken.
11 Vocabulary – cont’dGuarded – Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, or casings, barrier rails, safety bars, or screens to eliminate the possibility of accidental contact with, or dangerous approach by persons or objects.Hazard – Any occupational condition or circumstance which is likely to cause death, injury or illness.
12 Vocabulary – cont’dHazardous Substance – one by reason of being explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause occupational death, injury or illness.Qualified–one who by possession of a recognize degree certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience has successfully demonstrated ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
13 Vocabulary – cont’d Should – means recommended. Suitable – that which fits, and has the qualities or qualifications to meet a given purpose, occasion, condition, function or circumstance.Supervisor – person who has been given control, direction and/or supervision of work provided by one or more employees.
14 Vocabulary – cont’dVariance – an exception to a promulgated standard, rule or regulation granted by the Department of Labor, or appropriate agency.Well Servicing – any action or work other than the original drilling of the well, related, but not limited to the completion, re-completion, down hold maintenance, or termination of the well.
15 Oil Company/Operator – Has control of the casing and the mud program being followed drilling the well.Drilling Contractor – Head of drilling operation. Determines the overall safety practices/policies and the manner in which a safety program is carried out by the various supervisors.Drilling Superintendent – Represents top management of the drilling contractor. Supervises the operations of several rigs in the area.Tool pusher – Directly responsible to the drilling superintendent for carrying out work assigned to the rig. Supervise all personnel, ensures machinery is in a safe operating condition. Investigates each accident or injury to determine its cause.
16 Driller – Works directly under the tool pusher Driller – Works directly under the tool pusher. Responsible for work of the crew and operation of the rig. The driller sets the pump speed and pressure, operates the draw works and rotary and manipulates the controls to operate the rotary and drill stem to make hole.Crew Members – Must work for safety as a team! Must kne his/her job and stay constantly alert to what is going on. Use PPE. Use proper tools. Learn to foresee and prevent accidents. Use stairs and ladders as intended.
17 A Sampling of OSHA Violations & Standards Cited Employee riding the traveling blocks – 5(a)(1)2. No geronimo line from monkey board – 5 (a)(1)3. Floor holes in rig floor/crown walk around (a)4. Safety goggles not clean and in good repair5. Break Out Tongs – wire clips had U-bolt on live end of line. 5(a)(1)6. Kelly hose not secured with chains 5(a)(1)7. V-Door opening not guarded
18 OSHA STANDARDSOSHA’s general industry standards do not adequately address a number of hazards unique to the industry. Yet, OSHA is issuing citations for hazards under the GENERAL DUTY CLAUSE (Sec 5(a)(1)
20 UNIQUE HAZARDS TO THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Poor Machine GuardingCatheadsRotary TablesFallsGasesTrippingSlippingHigh Pressure Hoses
21 Health and Safety Procedures Always give careful consideration to:Man…..Machine…..Environment…..And, the interaction of each with the other!!
22 Health and Safety Procedures Some elements of a GOOD safety program Management policy Employee selection/placement Employee orientation/training Educational activities Employee meetings Inspections Accident reporting Safety responsibilities
26 Hazards are generally grouped into two (2) broad categories: Safety and Injury HazardsHealth and Illnesses Hazards.Always remember to include hazards that involve propertyand Environmental damage.
27 TONGS – SPINNING CHAINCut off fingers, thumbsSmashed fingers, hands etcTEAM WORK !!Be a Team,Work TogetherWatch out for each other
28 What Causes Injuries? 20% 78 % UNSAFE CONDITIONS UNSAFE ACTS Acts ofGodUnsafe2%Conditions20%20%78 %UnsafeBelieve it or not only 2% of all accidents are caused by Acts of God; such as lightning etc.Unsafe conditions which accounts for 20% of all accidents includes items such as unguarded equipment, liquids on floors, frayed electrical cords etc.The majority of all accidents, 78 % are caused by Unsafe Acts or Unsafe Behaviors. The important thing to remember is that behaviors can be changed ----through trainingAn unsafe behaviors may include not implementing corrective actions in a timely fashion. Unsafe conditions are identified, but management does not act on correcting the hazard.Acts78%UNSAFE CONDITIONSUNSAFE ACTSACTS OF GODTexas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
29 Recognition of Hazards Identify unsafe acts and conditionsDetermine the corrective actionsImplement corrective actionsFor the next few slides, we would like to have some fun ---- lets have everyone in the audience be the Loss Prevention Consultant and pretend you are surveying or auditing a jobsite and with the intention of identifying the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions.Lets discuss the corrective actions that could be taken to eliminate the potential hazards.Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund 2001
30 Hazard Identification: (examples) Danger of striking against, being struck by, or making contact with an object?Are rotating equipment or other projections exposedNip points, such as a belt, sheave, chain, gear?Reciprocating movement to be caught on or between ?Hand/arm contact with moving parts at the point of operation?
31 Material kick back or ejection from the point of operation? Machine controls safeguarded ?Do machines vibrate, move, or walk while in operation?Parts to become loose or lodged during operation.Guards positioned or adjusted ?Bypass guard or lockout device?
32 Machines/equipment receive regular maintenance? Machines operations sufficient for safe work?Room for maintenance operations?Materials being handled adequately for work?Are tools, jigs, work fixtures stored not to interfere with work?Work area well illuminated.Ventilation adequate.PPE used ?Housekeeping satisfactory?Energy sources controlled for maintenance?
33 Can you find the hazard(s)? 4231This is a lumber mill. Note the unguarded belt and pulley; the unguarded chain and sprocket; and the unguarded saw blade.
43 How Hazards are Controlled At its source.Along its path. (erect a barricade between the hazard and the worker.)At the worker. (remove the worker from the exposure, such as automated/remote controls, worker rotation, providing PPE when all options have been exhausted.)Monitoring activities (locate new hazards and assess the effectiveness of existing controls.)
44 Preventative and Corrective Measures The implementation of Control Measures:1. Administrative (through personnel, management, monitoring, limiting worker exposure, measuring performance, training and education, housekeeping and maintenance, purchasing.)Engineering (isolation of source, lockout procedure, design, process or procedural changes, monitoring and warning equipment, chemical or material substitution.)3. PPE (body protection, fall protection.)
45 IT’S THE LAW !In the State of Texas, all persons working in the oil field where H2S concentrations are known MUST complete a H2S certification course annually.The objective is to educate employees about the physical & chemical properties, toxicity, concentration levels, personal protective equipment use, detection measures, rescue and first aid.The best way way to reduce the chance of employee exposure to H2S is to provided the best possible training, provide appropriate personal protective equipment, and ensure employs follow the correct work procedures, rules and requirements.
46 COMMON SOURCES OF H2SNaturally in natureOil Fields – Mines – Volcanoes –Geothermal ExplorationThrough decay of organic matterFishing industry – Tanneries - Manure ProcessingMunicipal sewers - Brewery Industry – LandfillsChemical ProcessesBy Product – Catalyst – Felt Making – Asphalt Roofing
47 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Hydrogen Sulfide – characterized by an odorof rotten eggs. A very small concentrationcan be fatal. When encountered, employees must wearapproved type masks when their work requires them to beexposed to the gas,in any way.
48 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Hydrogen Sulfide is highly toxic, colorless, and heavierthan air. It has the odor of rotten eggs, initially.Most frequently encountered in the production and refining of high sulfurpetroleum and in natural gas. It burns with a blue flame and produces SulfurDioxide.It forms an explosive mixture with air. The LFL is 4.3%and the UFL is 45.5%.
49 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure Its odor is NOT a reliable warning signal becausehigher concentrations of the gas temporarilydestroys the sense of smell. This is the primaryreason for employees not detecting the presenceof H2S and consequently inhaling a lethalamount. The only positive means is by testingwith an approved H2S detector. DO NOT RELYSOLELY ON THE SENSE OF SMELL!
50 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General ProceduresAny area where H2S has been reported orencountered, or where the is insufficient oxygen,there should be NO entry until sufficient testshave bee made to determine the extent of thehazard and the area is purged to reduce thehazard to allowable concentrations.
51 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General Procedures-cont’dToxic atmospheres, the employer should require properrespiratory equipment to be used by a trained employee,required to enter the area.Employees required to enter should be required to wear asafety harness with tail line for emergency retrieval. Arescue watch, stationed outside of the hazard area withproper rescue equipment is also required to assist in caseof emergency.
52 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General Procedures-cont’dCanister-type filter masks should not be used.Employees should be required to wear selfcontained respirators (SCBA) in thoseatmospheres where tests indicated oxygen contentis less than necessary to sustain life.
53 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General Procedures-cont’dAll employees should be trained and periodicallyrefreshed in the use and operation of breathingequipment available on the job.Medical personnel readily available for consulton matters of occupational health. Emergencynumbers should be conspicuously posted.
54 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure General Procedures-cont’dAt least one employee, if not more, per shifttrained in 1st aid and CPR, and be on-site.Where harmful chemicals are being used, readilyaccessible facilities should be available for rapidflushing of the eyes and/or skin areas.
55 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure GENERAL FIRST AID CONSIDERATIONS-Fresh air ! (Rescuers must exercise caution!)-If unconscious/not breathing – immediately provide rescuebreathing.-Summons a doctor ASAP!-Give oxygen after cleaning oil from the injured employee’sface.
56 H2S or Toxic Gas Exposure NEVER FORGET THAT HYDROGENSULFIDE IS A DEADLY GAS.TAKE NO CHANCES WITH IT!KNOW WHAT CONCENTRATION OF THE GAS IS PRESENT BEFORE DOING ANY WORK IN IT.
57 EMERGENCY RESCUEIn an emergency, the first thing to remember, is to get to a safe place, then…….Call for emergency services2. Put on the proper rescue personal protective equipment3. Locate victims and move to safe fresh air areas. Always move upwind or crosswind to safe areas.4. Administer rescue breathing or CPR if necessary.5. Seek medical attention immediately.
58 The Control of Hazardous Energy LOCKOUT/TAGOUTThe Control of Hazardous Energy
59 Lockout/tagout procedures are for your safety Lockout/tagout procedures are for your safety. They are designed to prevent accidents & injuries caused by the accidental release of energy. These procedures prevent workers from being accidentally exposed to injuries and even life threatening situations with energized equipment.
60 The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulates lockout/tagout through the Control ofHazardous Energy standard, found at 29CFR
61 Before the standard went into effect in 1984, OSHA estimated the failure to controlhazardous energy sources caused:10 percent of serious industrial accidents33,000 lost workdays each yearLoss of about 140 lives each year
62 Scope and ApplicationGeneral Industry employees covering the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected start-up or the release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. (If employees are performing service or maintenance tasks that do not expose them to the unexpected release of hazardous energy, the standard does not apply.)
63 The standard does not apply in the following situations: While servicing or maintaining cord and plug connected electrical equipment.(The hazards must be controlled by unplugging the equipment from the energy source; the plug must be under the exclusive control of the employee performing the service and/or maintenance.)
64 Normal Production Operations The lockout/tagout rule may apply duringnormal operations in some instances.If a servicing activity - such aslubricating, cleaning, or un-jamming theproduction equipment - takes placeduring production, employees performingthe servicing are covered bylockout/tagout when any of the followingconditions occurs:
65 The employee must either remove or bypass machine guards or other safety devices The employee is required to place any part of his or her body in contact with the point of operation of the operational machine or piece of equipment; or
66 The employee is required to place any part of his or her body into a danger zone associated with a machines’ operating cycle.In the above situations, the equipmentmust be de-energized and locks ortags must be applied to the energy-Isolation devices.
67 What is Lockout?The process of preventing the flow of energy from a power source to a piece of equipment, and keeping it from operating.Is accomplished by installing the lockout device at the power source so that equipment powered by the source cannot be operated.
68 What is Tagout?The placement of a tag on the power source. It acts as a warning, not to restore energyIt is not a physical restraint. Tags mustclearly state: DO NOT OPERATE or thelike, and must be applied by hand.
69 Energy-Isolating Device Mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy. Such as manually-operated electrical circuit breakers, disconnect switches, line valves, and blocks.
70 Energy-Isolating Devices Guards against accidental machine or equipment start-up or the unexpected re-energizing of equipment during servicing or maintenance.These include things such as, manually operated electrical circuit breakers, disconnect switches, line valves, and blocks.
71 Energy-Isolating Devices (cont’d) When the energy-isolating device cannot be locked out, the employer must use tagout or modify or replace the device to make it capable of being locked.When using tagout, employers must train their employees in the limitations of tags.
72 Energy-Isolating Devices (cont’d) Whenever major replacement, repair, renovation or modification of machines or equipment is performed and whenever new machines or equipment are installed or purchased, the energy-isolating devices for such machines or equipment must be lockable.
73 Authorized EmployeesAuthorized employees physically lock or tag out equipment for servicing or maintenance. Note that these individuals are not necessarily the people who normally operate the equipment.
74 Affected EmployeesAre those workers whose job requires them to operate equipment subject to lockout/tagout, or those employees who work in areas where lockout/tagout is used. Your employer will inform you if you are an affected employee.An affected employee becomes an “authorized” employee whenever he or she performs servicing or maintenance functions on machines or equipment that must be locked or tagged.
75 Some of the energy sources that require Lockout/Tagout ElectricalMechanicalPneumatic(involving gases, especially air)Hydraulic(involving fluids, especially water)ChemicalThermalWater Under Pressure (or steam)GravityPotential
76 Employee TrainingThe employer must provide effective initial training and retraining as necessary and must certify that such training has been given to all employees covered by the standard. The certification must contain each employee’s name and dates of training.
77 The employer’s training program for authorized employees (those who are charged with the responsibility for implementing the energy control procedures and performing the service and maintenance) must cover, at minimum, the following areas;> details about the type and magnitude of the hazardous energy sources present in the workplace.> the methods and means necessary to isolate and control those energy sources (that is, the elements of the energy control procedure)
78 Affected employees (usually the machine operators or users) and all other employees need only be able to (1) recognize when the control procedure is being implemented, and (2) understand the purpose of the procedure and the importance of not attempting to start up or use equipment that has been locked or tagged out.
79 Every training program must ensure that all employees understand the purpose, function and restrictions of the energy control program and that authorized employees possess the knowledge and skills necessary for the safe application, use and removal of energy controls.
80 Retraining must be provided, as required, whenever there is a change in job assignments, a change in machines, equipment or processes that present a new hazard, or a change in energy control procedures.
81 Additional retraining must be conducted whenever a periodic inspection reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations from or inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use of the energy control procedure.
82 Other ConcernsOutside Contractors - They must be informed of your lockout/tagout procedure in full detail so that their employees understand the meaning of locks or tags that they may come across during the course of their work. In addition, if the contractor will be using locks or tags, they should inform your employer so that everyone affected may be notified.
83 Other Concerns (cont’d) Shift and Personnel Changes - In general, if a piece of equipment is locked out at shift change, the person on the next shift must apply his/her lock before the employee who is leaving can remove his/her lock.
84 Other Concerns (cont’d) Group Lockout/Tagout - Procedures used must be as effective as that provided by utilizing a personal lockout/tagout device. Your employer can assign one person primary responsibility for the group servicing or maintenance operation. This person will verify shutdown and isolation, application of member lockout/tagout devices, completion of group member job assignments prior to removal of lockout/tagout devices, etc...
86 Hazard CommunicationHave you prepared a written list of all the hazardouschemicals present in the workplace ?Are you prepared to update your hazardous chemical list ?Do you have up-to-date MSDS for those materials on yourhazardous chemicals listIs the list of hazardous chemicals cross-referenced orindexed so that identifies on the list refer to the MSDS andwarning labels?
87 Have you developed a system to ensure that all incoming hazardous chemicals are received with proper labels and MSDS ?Do you have procedures in your workplace to ensure proper labeling or warning signs for building storage orsecondary usage containers that hold hazardous chemicals?Do you have a complete list of the chemicals hazards and precautions that you can give to outside contractors ?Have your employees been informed of the hazards associated with performing non-routine tasks ?
88 On multi-employer work-sites, are all employees with potential exposure to chemicals provided with information on labeling systems and precautionary measures?Do you have a written procedure on how you willinform your employees of the chemical hazards associated with unlabeled pipes ?Is your hazard communication program in writing and available to your employees and their designated representatives?
89 Hazard CommunicationDoes the training cover all types of harmful chemicals withwhich the employee may come into contact under normalusage and unforeseeable emergencies?Are your workers familiar with the different types ofchemicals and the major hazards associated with them ?Are your employees aware of the specific requirements inthe Hazard Communication Program ?Does your program train employees in (a) operations wherehazardous chemicals are present; (b) location, andavailability of your written hazard communication programincluding lists of chemicals and MSDS ?
90 Does your training program include the explanation of labels and warnings that have been established intheir work areas?Is it posted at proper locations ?Do your employees understand methods to detect presence or release of chemicals in the workplace ?Does your training program provide information on the appropriate first aid procedures in the event of anemergency ?
91 Are employees trained in the proper work practices and personal protective equipment in relation to the hazardous chemicals in the work area ?Does the training include explanation of the labeling system and MSDS the employees can obtain and use?Have you worked out a system to ensure that new employees are trained ?Do you use the references in the appendices to the Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR , to evaluate new chemicals in question ?
92 Have you developed a system with purchasing or other staff to make sure that additional training is provided if a new hazardous substance is introduced in the work area?Do you have a system to ensure that the current (up to date) MSDS are in work areas where the chemicals are used ?If you become aware of new hazards relating tothe chemical in use, do you have a system for informing the employees ?
93 Inspection Points - Administrative Have job specific safety rules been established?Are monthly safety meetings completed?Are daily tailgate safety briefings completed at the field site?Are employees required to attend producer/customer sponsoredsafety meetings?Is Hydrogen Sulfide training completed annually?Is the rig equipped with a fixed Hydrogen Sulfide monitor &audible alarm?
94 Does procedure call for the SCBA units to be placed diagonally outside the guy wires of the rig? Is each rig or dog house equipped with a wind sock & appropriate warning signs?Hazard Communication program in place and MSDS maintained?Lock-out/Tag-out procedures established and utilized?Are weekly rig safety inspections completed & documented?Is each rig equipped with multiple SCBA units & Fire Extinguishers?
95 Fall protection requirements established & training completed? Rescue procedures established to address derrick climbing activities?Is the work-over rig and its components inspected annually by a certified vendor?Is a First Aid kit provided in the dog house?Is the Hydrogen Sulfide monitor calibrated on a monthly basis?Is CPR & First Aid training completed?
99 What is he standing on?Why?Is he tied off?What do you think would happen if he falls??
100 OSHA requires certain PPE based on the hazards employees are exposed to. OSHA also requires training for employees in the proper selection, use, and maintenance of PPE.After this training session, should you have any questions regarding PPE, please contact your supervisor.
101 PPE Personal protective equipment should not be used as a substitute for engineering, work practice, and/or administrativecontrols.Personal protective equipment should be used inconjunction with these controls to provide for employee safetyand health in the workplace.Personal protective equipmentincludes all clothing and other work accessories designed tocreate a barrier against workplace hazards.
102 Selection of the proper personal protective equipment for a job is important. Employers and employees must understand the equipment's purpose and its limitations. The equipment must not be altered or removed even though an employee may find it uncomfortable.(Sometimes equipment may be uncomfortable simply because it does not fit properly.)
103 The basic element of any management program for personal protective equipment should be an in‑depth evaluation of the equipment needed to protect against the hazards at the workplace.Management dedicated to the safety and health of employees should use that evaluation to set a standard operating procedure for personnel, then train employees on the protective limitations of personal protective equipment, and on its proper use and maintenance.
104 Using personal protective equipment requires hazard awareness and training on the part of the user. Employees must be aware that the equipment does not eliminate the hazard. If the equipment fails, exposure will occur.To reduce the possibility of failure, equipment must be properly fitted and maintained in a clean and serviceable condition.
105 This discussion is about those types of equipment most commonly used for protection of the head, including eyes and ears, and the torso, arms, hands, and feet.The use of equipment to protect against life‑threatening hazards also is discussed.Information on respiratory protective equipment may be found in Title 29, CFR, Part
106 TrainingBefore doing work requiring use of personal protective equipment, employees must be trained to know; when personal protective equipment is necessary; what type is necessary: how it is to be worn; and what its limitations are, as well as know its proper care, maintenance, useful life, and disposal.In many cases more than one type of personal protective equipment will provide adequate protection. In those instances employees should be given a choice.Employers are required to certify in writing that training has been carried out and that employees understand it. Each written certification shall contain the name of each employee trained, the date(s) of training, and identify the subject of the certification.
107 This happens on a daily basis. Yes, its just a picture, but what if it was YOUR hand.Could you work again? What could you do? Play with your kids, on your computer, drive????THINK–THINK -THINK
108 EYE PROTECTIONEye protection comes in different types. Goggles are designed for solid or liquid hazards that are airborne and in a quantity that there is a greater likelihood of contact with or near the eye. Safety eyeglasses with protective side shields are designed for eye protection when the hazard is more casual by nature and the hazard(s) is of low quantity and likelihood.
109 EYE PROTECTIONEyes may need protection from hazards other than those that include a physical contact with the eye. For example, UV light can cause permanent damage to vision.
110 EYE / FACE PROTECTIONFor more severe hazards, full face protection is needed. Examples of this are heavy grinding and heavy spraying or splashing. The full face shield not only protects the eyes, but the entire facial area as well. The face shield affords extra protection against hazards involving temperature extremes or hazardous chemicals. Due to the wide opening on the sides and bottom of the face shield, protective eyewear must be worn along with the face shield.
111 COMMON EYE / FACE HAZARDS IMPACTChipping, grinding machining, masonry work, woodworking, sawing, drilling, chiseling, powered fastening, riveting, and sanding.HEATFurnace operations, pouring, casting, hot dipping, welding, chemicalsLIGHT AND/OR RADIATIONElectric arc welding, gas welding, gas cutting, and soldering.NUISANCEIrritating mists, dusts.
112 EVERYONE WHO HAS SUFFERED AN EYE INJURY: A. Thought it would never happen to them.Would wear eye protection if they had it to doover again.Do you have anything in common with them?
113 HEAD PROTECTIONHard hats are necessary to protect workers against hazards that include falling objects and overhead hazards in general. There are different types of hard hats. Some hats are designed to protect only against bumps (low overhead hazards), while others afford protection against falling objects. Metal hard hats should not be worn when there is a potential for contact with anything electrical. Hard hats must conform with the requirements of ANSI Z Check the label on the hat for compliance with this standard.
114 TYPES OF HEAD PROTECTION CLASS “A” HELMETSFor impact, penetration, and electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (tested to 2,200 volts).CLASS “B” HELMETSFor impact, penetration, and electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (tested to 20,000 volts).CLASS “C” HELMETSFor impact and penetration hazards hazards only. Usually made of aluminum, which conducts electricity, and should not be worn around electrical hazards.
115 FOOT PROTECTIONProper footwear can afford a level of protection for the feet and toes. Steel-toed boots or shoes protect toes against the crushing hazard of falling objects, such involved with pipe moving or heavy material handling. Rubber boots protect the feet against chemical hazards. For chemical hazards, check with your MSDS’.Footwear should also be selected based on protection from the walking/working surface. Construction sites with nails, or rough terrain including sharp rocks will require shoes or boots with sturdy, puncture-resistant soles.
116 HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS REQUIRING FOOT PROTECTION IMPACTCarrying or handling materials such as packages, objects, parts or heavy tools which could be dropped.COMPRESSIONWork activities involving skid trucks (manual material handling carts, around bulk rolls, around heavy pipes.PUNCTURESharp object hazards such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples, scrap metal, etc.CHEMICALCheck with MSDS for proper protection.
117 HAND PROTECTIONGloves should be selected according to the hazard. Handling hot materials usually requires leather gloves. Heavy cotton glove usually afford ample protection against scratch and abrasive hazards. Rubber gloves are usually necessary for electrical and chemical hazards. There are gloves designed to protect against cut hazards, as in the meat industry. Check with your MSDS’ and/or your glove supplier for more information.
118 OTHER PROTECTIONOther PPE may be required to protect against chemicals, cuts, abrasions, heat, etc.
119 WHAT IS NOT COVEREDRespiratory and hearing protection, if required, will be covered separately. A specific policy will be provided for each/either if the use of this protective equipment is required.
120 EMPLOYEE RIGHTS * RIGHT to a safe and healthy workplace * RIGHT to have questions regarding safety and healthaddressed* RIGHT to receive and have access to allinformation regarding workplace hazards* RIGHT to refuse to perform an unsafe act
121 EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES RESPONSIBILITY to comply with all policies and proceduresRESPONSIBILITY to report all unsafe acts and conditionsRESPONSIBILITY to be a team member - to assist others in complianceRESPONSIBILITY to offer suggestions that may have a positive impact on safety
135 Inspection “Reasoning ????? Well-planned safety inspections help in detecting hazardsbefore an accident occurs.Before an inspection, analyze past accidents to determinespecific causes and high hazard areas or operations.Both unsafe conditions and unsafe acts are contributingFactors in most industrial accidents. An unsafe condition, inaddition to being a direct cause of accident itself, oftenrequires, or suggests, an unsafe act.
136 All inspections should be conducted on an ongoing basis, Why Inspect ?????Removing hazards increases operating efficiency, becausesafety and efficiency go hand in hand. A documented selfinspection of all facilities/equipment allows you to detect oridentify unsafe conditions or hazards, initiate correctiveactions as soon as possible and control hazards on anongoing basis.All inspections should be conducted on an ongoing basis,without interruption
137 Necessities !!!!!Management must allocate adequate time and resources to perform the surveys.Each location should develop and maintain an inspection checklist specific to their operation.Lists should be developed utilizing a general inspectionchecklist, and be evaluated and updated with hazards that are identified during the inspections and other pertinent data as it is acquired.
138 Gotta Have !!!!!Each checklist should indicate the location or specific site or areas surveyedName and title of the inspectorDate of inspectionCorrective action taken for identified hazards, or violations.The inspection report will be used in trend analysis and recordkeeping.
139 A “MUST”Employees must be notified of hazards that pose an immediate threat of physical harm or property damageInformed of measures or steps that will be taken to eliminate, correct or control the hazards
140 Inspection Points Is the rig cab clean and free of loose material? Is the rig properly guyed? Has the appropriate distance (10’) been maintained form overhead power linesAre guards in place on all moving parts of the motor, draw works & accessory equipment such as a reversedrilling unit, BOP, mud pumps, etc.? Are guardrails provided around the rig floor when heights exceed 6’ Are the access stairs equipped with a handrail system Are the power tongs in good condition? Is a counterweighted climbing device provided with full body harness? Is the derrick man tied-off 100% of the time when working from the rod basket & tubing platform. Is an emergency escape line (Geronimo) provided for the derrick man & equipped with a functional hand brake? Is the emergency escape line adequately secured and fixed at an appropriate angle? Are all hand tools (rod wrenches, pipe wrenches, etc.) maintained in good condition? Is the rig equipped with a functional Hydrogen Sulfide monitor? Is the monitor calibrated as outlined by the manufacturer? Are SCBA units provided and positioned outside opposite guy wires of the rig? Are fire extinguishers provided and positioned outside opposite guy wires of the rig? Are employees required to utilize appropriate PPE (hard hat, eye protection, gloves steel toe boots, fall protection,Hydrogen Sulfide Monitors)? Is the dog house in good condition? Are local emergency numbers posted in the dog house? Are Material Safety Data Sheets maintained in the dog house? Is the dog house equipped with a phone or radio for emergency purposes?
143 ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE LIFE THREATENING SITUATIONGet to the nearest emergency room for proper medical attention.A doctor we use is:John W. Humorous, MD123 Jackson Street, Suite 201Wrench head, Texas 78222Notify the main office as soon as possible (915)NON-LIFE THREATENINGNotify your supervisorCall and make arrangements with our company doctor.Assist your supervisor with details to fill out the “First Report of Injury”All accidents must be reported and investigated. It is YOUR responsibility to report all accidents or incidents (near misses) without regard to severity.
145 Emergency Medical Treatment If you sustain a severe injury requiring emergency treatment:Call for help and seek assistance from a co-worker.Use the emergency telephone numbers and instructions posted next to the telephone in your work area to request assistance and transportation to the local hospital emergency room/clinic etc.Provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report.
146 Non-Emergency Medical Treatment For non-emergency work-related injuries requiring professional medical assistance, management must first authorize treatmentIf you sustain an injury requiring treatment other than, first aid:Inform your supervisor.Proceed to the posted medical facility. Your supervisor will assist with transportation, if necessary.Provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report.
147 Minor First-Aid Treatment If you sustain an injury or are involved in an accident requiring minor first aid treatment:Inform your supervisor.Administer first aid treatment to the injury or wound.If a first aid kit is used, indicate usage on the accident investigation report.Access to a first aid kit is not intended to be a substitute for medical attention.Provide details for the completion of the accident investigation report.
148 Reporting of Accidents/Incidents As a general rule, all accidents, no matter how minor, should be reported immediately and investigated as soon as possible.Employees must be made aware of their responsibility, to report the incident as soon as possible after it occurs. They must also be aware that when/if they report an incident, the incident will be discussed with them, as to When-Where-Who-What-Why-How. They will be expected to cooperate with the investigation, as the goal is to develop the root cause of the incident and abate it so it does not occur again.REMEMBER: Failure to comply with a company policy, such as the requirement to report ANY/All accidents/incidents equals violating company policy. That could result in disciplinary actions up to and including termination. Since companies are different, check your company policies to be sure!In numerous businesses, when there is an incident, there is also a drug test as part of policy. Employees should know this and expect this as a routine occurrence.
154 MOST ACCIDENTS WERE CAUSED BY BOTH: UNSAFE ACTS, andUNSAFE CONDITIONS
155 UNSAFE CONDITION (Hazard): Is a physical condition or circumstance that permits, or is likely to cause an accident.
156 UNSAFE ACT (Work Practice): Is any violation of (or departure from) an accepted normal, or correct, procedure or practice.
157 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION Accident: An unplanned, undesired event, not necessarily resulting in injury,but damaging to property and/.or interrupting the activity in process.Incident: An undesired event that may cause personal harm or other damage. (OSHA specifies incidents of a certain severity be recorded.)With proper hazard identification and evaluation, management commitment and support, preventive and corrective procedures, monitoring, evaluation and training, unwanted events can be prevented.
158 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION The ultimate purpose of investigations is to prevent future incidents.Investigations must produce factual information leading to corrective actions that prevent or reduce the number of incidents.Investigations must be FACT FINDING not FAULT FINDING
159 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION The investigation concentrates on the fact surrounding the incident. After the incident is fully investigated, responsibility will be fixed where personal fault has caused the injury.No person should be excused from theconsequences of their actions.Disciplinary actions must not be from the investigating individual or committee, but from management, for violating company policies/procedures.
160 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION The purpose of an incident investigation is twofold.Identify facts about each injury and the incident that produced it and to record those facts.2. Determine a course of action to eliminate a recurrence.The investigation includes the entire sequence of eventsleading to the injury, as far back in time as the investigatorfeels is relevant.
161 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION As a rule of thumb, use the “5-W” principle!Simply ask “Why” five (5) times.Why did you slip and Fall in the hall by the water cooler ? <answer> Because the floor was wet.Why was the floor wet? <answer> Because there was water on it.Why was their water on the floor? <answer>I don’t know. It was coming out from underneath the water cooler.Why was water coming out from under the water cooler?<answer> I don’t know. Let’s look. There is a hole in thedrain pipe.Why is there a hole in the drain pipe? <answer>It appears as if it rusted out.Was this an UNSAFE ACTIVITY or UNSAFE CONDITION?
162 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION It was an Unsafe Condition, caused by an Unsafe Activity.The rusted pipe was caused by lack of preventative maintenance, which was an unsafe activity. If there is “blame” where does it lie? Was there a preventative maintenance program?, Who was in charge of it. Why was it not checked? Should this be subject to disciplinary actions?
166 What is a properly performed incident investigation What is a properly performed incident investigation? * Does not seek to blame or find fault * Finds underlying causes * Gathers factual information * Develops corrective action
167 Five Steps to Incident Investigation. Manage the Incident Site Five Steps to Incident Investigation * Manage the Incident Site * Collect Information * Analyze the Facts * Recommend Corrective Action * Corrective Action Follow-up
168 MANAGE THE INCIDENT SITE 1. Assist the Injured Employee(s) 2 MANAGE THE INCIDENT SITE 1. Assist the Injured Employee(s) 2. Eliminate or Control the Risk of Further Injury 3. Preserve the Accident Scene a. shut down equipment b. barricade the site
169 COLLECT INFORMATION 1. Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How 2 COLLECT INFORMATION Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How Physical Evidence Witness Statements Documentation
170 PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 1. Photographs 2 PHYSICAL EVIDENCE 1. Photographs 2. Physical Conditions of Equipment and the Environment 3. Sketch of Site 4. Records 5. Witness Statements
171 WITNESS STATEMENTS 1. Explain the Purpose of the Investigation 2 WITNESS STATEMENTS 1. Explain the Purpose of the Investigation 2. Listen Attentively 3. Ask Open Ended Questions 4. Safely Reenact the Incident 5. Get Signed Witness Statements 6. Solicit Recommendations
172 DOCUMENTATION 1. Training Records 2. Maintenance Records 3 DOCUMENTATION Training Records Maintenance Records Job Descriptions Job Safety Requirements
173 ANALYZE THE FACTS Purpose: Find the Underlying Causes Examples: 1 ANALYZE THE FACTS Purpose: Find the Underlying Causes Examples: 1. Equipment 2. Methods 3. Personnel 4. Environment
177 Recordable Accidents What is Recordable (according to OSHA) ? All work-related deaths and illnesses, and those work-related injuries which result in:Loss of consciousnessRestriction of work or motionTransfer to another jobRequire medical treatment beyond first aid
178 Recordable AccidentsWhat is an occupational illness (according to OSHA) ?Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.
179 Recordable AccidentsWhat is an occupational injury (according to OSHA) ?Any injury such as a severe laceration, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc. which results from a work accident or from a single instantaneous exposure in the work environment.
180 Recordkeeping Requirements Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA)Texas Workers’ Compensation Commission (TWCC)Texas Workers’ Compensation Insurance Fund (TWCIF)
181 Recordkeeping Requirements OSHA RequirementsThe OSHA 300 log is used for recording and classifying occupational injuries and illnesses and for noting the extent of each case. The log shows when an injury occurs, to whom, their regular job, the nature of the injury or illness, and if it resulted in death, lost time from work, or restricted work activity.
182 Recordkeeping Requirements TWCCAs of 9/1/95, an employer only has to report an injury to their insurance carrier. If lost time results from the injury, the carrier will file with TWCC.
183 Recordkeeping Requirements Texas Mutual Insurance CompanyRequires that ALL accidents be reported immediately. Employees should report accidents to their employer with 30 days of the injury. Injuries are categorized by the Fund as follows.Incident Only - No Medical (such as first aid)Record Only - Medical paid by employerMedical Benefits - No lost time, Medical Paid by the FundLost Time - There are more than 7 days of lost time
185 What is Your Role ? Investigate accidents immediately Provide HR with investigation report within hours of accidentProvide leadershipProvide safety trainingConduct safety meetingProvide written rulesAssess Personal Protective Equip.Provide Personal Protective Equip.Follow Safety & Health RegulationsProvide Emergency PreparednessPerform Incident InvestigationsUse Safety ConsultationsReview & Revise Safety Program
186 Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSHAct)…..requires most employers to maintain specific records of work-related employee injuries and illnesses. Other employers are required to maintain like records by Mine Safety and Health (MSHA), and Federal Railroad Administration (FRA)Occupational injury and illness reports and records are now required of nearly every establishment by its management or the government.
187 Was there a case that occurred on the Job? Work Accident? YES_____ NO _____If NO…. (NOT-RECORDABLE)A death Yes-Recordable; No-ContinueAn Illness Yes-Recordable; No-ContinueAn Injury Yes-See BelowMedical treatment other than 1st aid. (Recordable)Loss of Consciousness (Recordable)Restriction of work or motion (Recordable)Transfer to another job. (Recordable)None of the above (NOT-RECORDABLE)
188 Good record keeping provides data to evaluate incident problems and safety program effectiveness, identify high incident rate areas, create interest in safety , enable the company to concentrate efforts on the more serious problems and measure effectiveness of countermeasures against hazards and unsafe practices.OSHA incident rates help companies compare their safety performance with the performance of previous years or of the entire industry to evaluate their safety programs.OSHA records are to be maintained for no less than 5 years. All OSHA records should be available to federal and state governments for inspection and copying. Employees, former employees and their representatives are allowed access only to the log.
192 Racking Pipe – Strains-Sprains, Caught Between etc….
193 Ready to set the slips.Note: 3-people/3-handlesAlways set and remove with three (3) people to avoid back strain.
194 Stabbing a joint, prior to make-up Stabbing a joint, prior to make-up. Note spinning chain, position of arm and hand ??
195 The Forces Involved The amount of force you place on your back *07/16/96The Forces InvolvedThe amount of force you place on your backin lifting may surprise you!Think of your back as a lever.With the fulcrum in thecenter, it only takes tenpounds of pressure tolift a ten pound object.*3##
196 *07/16/96The Forces InvolvedIf you shift the fulcrum to one side, it takes much moreforce to lift the same object. Your waist acts like thefulcrum in a lever system, on a 10:1 ratio.Lifting a tenpound object puts100 pounds ofpressure on yourlower back.*4##
197 The Forces Involved When you add in the 105 pounds of the *07/16/96The Forces InvolvedWhen you add in the105 pounds of theaverage human uppertorso, you see thatlifting a ten poundobject actually puts1,150 pounds ofpressure on thelower back.*5##
198 The Forces Involved If you were 25 pounds overweight, it would add an *07/16/96The Forces InvolvedIf you were 25pounds overweight,it would add anadditional 250pounds of pressureon your back everytime you bend over.*6##
200 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesAnytime you find yourself doing one of thesethings, you should think:DANGER! My back is at risk!Try to avoid heavy lifting,especially repetitivelifting over a long periodof time*7##
201 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesTwisting at thewaist whilelifting orholding a heavyload thisfrequently happenswhen using a shovel.*8##
202 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesReaching and liftingover your head,across a table,or out the backof a truck*9##
203 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesLifting or carryingobjects with awkwardor odd shapes*10##
204 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesWorking in awkward,uncomfortable positions . .*11##
205 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesSitting or standing too long inone position ... Sitting can bevery hard on the lower back ...*12##
206 Common Causes of Back Injuries *07/16/96Common Causes of Back InjuriesIt is also possibleto injure yourback slipping ona wet floor or ice . . .*13##
208 Prevent Back Injuries Avoid lifting and bending whenever you can. *07/16/96Prevent Back InjuriesAvoid lifting and bending whenever you can.Place objects up off the floor.Raise/lower shelves.Use carts and dollies.Use cranes, hoists, lift tables, and other lift-assist devices whenever you can.Test the weight of an object before lifting by picking up a corner.Get help if it’s too heavy for you to lift it alone.*14##
209 *07/16/96Prevent Back InjuriesUse proper lift procedures Follow these steps when liftingTake a balanced stance, feet shoulder-width apartSquat down to lift, get as close as you can.*15##
210 Prevent Back Injuries Get a secure grip, hug the load. *07/16/96Prevent Back InjuriesGet a secure grip, hug the load.Lift gradually using your legs, keep loadclose to you, keep back and neck straight.*16##
211 *07/16/96Prevent Back InjuriesOnce standing, change directions by pointing your feet and turn your whole body. Avoid twisting at your waist.To put load down, use these guidelines in reverse.*17##
213 *07/16/96Things You Can DoMinimize problems with your back by exercises that tone the muscles in your back, hips and thighs.Before beginning any exercise program, you should check with your doctor*18##
214 Exercise! Exercise regularly, every other day. Warm up slowly A brisk walk is a good way to warm upInhale deeply before each repetition of an exercise and exhale when performing each repetition.
215 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackWall slides to strengthenyour musclesStand with your backagainst a wall, feetshoulder-width apart.Slide down into a crouchwith knees bent to 90 degrees.Count to 5 and slide back upthe wall. Repeat 5 times.*19##
216 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackLeg raises to strengthen back and hip muscles . . .Lie on your stomach.Tighten muscles in one leg and raise leg from floor.Hold for count of 10, and return leg to floor.Do the same with your other leg.Repeat five times with each leg.*20##
217 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackLeg raises to strengthen back and hip musclesLie on back, arms at your sides. Lift one leg offfloor and hold for count of ten. Do the same with theother leg. Repeat 5 times with each leg. If this is toodifficult…keep one knee bentand the foot flat onthe floor while raisingthe other leg.*21##
218 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackLeg raises while seated . . .Sit upright, legs straightand extended at an angleto floor. Lift one leg waisthigh. Slowly return tofloor. Do the same withthe other leg.Repeat 5 times with eachleg.*22##
219 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackPartial sit-ups to strengthenstomach musclesLie on back, knees bent andfeet flat on floor.Slowly raise head andshoulders off floor andreach both hands towardyour knees. Count to 10.Repeat 5 times.*23##
220 Exercises To Help Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Help Your BackBack leg swing to strengthen hip and back muscles..Stand behind chair, handson chair. Lift one leg backand up, keeping the kneestraight. Return slowly.Raise other leg and return.Repeat 5 time with each leg.*24##
221 Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackLie on back, knees bent, feet flat on floor.Raise knees toward chest.Place hands under knees & pull knees to chest.Do not raise head.Do not straighten legsas you lower them.Start with 5 repetitions,several time a day.*25##
222 Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackLie on stomach, hands under shoulders, elbows bent and pushup. Raise top half of body as high as possible. Keep hips andlegs on floor. Hold for one or two seconds. Repeat 10 times,several times a day.*26##
223 Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your Back *07/16/96Exercises To Decrease the Strain on Your BackStand with feet apart.Place hands in small ofback. Keep knees straight.Bend backwards at waistas far as possible and holdfor one or two seconds.Repeat as needed.*27##
224 Take care of your back… And it will take care of you Exercise daily *07/16/96Take care of your back…And it will take care of youExercise dailyAvoid Heavy LiftingGet Help with heavy or bulky objectsIf you must bend over, do it properlyAvoid twisting at the waist when carrying objectsAlways watch where you’re going*28##
225 Safety Facts Over 90% of accidents are avoidable Workplaces don’t cause accidents; people doSafety is everyone’s responsibilitySafety Facts.Some people think that accidents just happen, but in fact, (click for first bullet), 90% of accidents can be avoided.Explain that “unsafe” conditions only exist because someone allowed them to occur or did not fix them once they did occur.Remind audience that workers’ comp coverage is “no-fault” insurance.Emphasize that safety programs need to be pro-active.>>
226 Main Components of an Effective Loss Prevention Program ManagementSafety analysisRecord keepingTrainingInspectionReporting & investigatingProgram reviewThe seven components of an accident prevention programExplain that these seven components may be applied in various steps in the process.The seminar handbook describes eleven (11) key steps in a loss prevention program, but we can summarize these components and steps into a simpler three-part process GO TO NEXT SLIDE>>
227 Safety Resources TWCC Safety Resource Center OSHCON Your carrier (512)OSHCON(800)Consultation does not trigger auditYour carrierHere are additional resources to help employers develop and maintain a loss prevention / safety program.Question and answer. If time allows, take a few questions, but do not use any of the next speaker’s time. Remind audience that a general Q&A session will be held at the end of the seminar. If there are several individuals with more questions on your topic, or specific questions about a specific claim, ask them to meet with you outside the conference room to discuss their questions.
228 Fix Your Hazards = No Accidents SummaryOilfield Safety is no different than Safety anywhere else. Different tools, different equipment, but the same COMMOM SENSE principles.Look for Hazards, protect you and your co-worker. Remember, Identify the Hazard, Develop a plan to fix it and then Fix it!Fix Your Hazards = No AccidentsGet everyone interested. Its for you good and theirs.