Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Scholarly Publishing Brian James Baer Kent State University (ID-TS Workshop, Leuven, Belgium, 29 August, 2014)"— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Scholarly Publishing Brian James Baer Kent State University (ID-TS Workshop, Leuven, Belgium, 29 August, 2014)
Scholarly Publishing Part I: De-mystifying Scholarly Publishing Part II: The Ethics of Scholarly Publishing
Scholarly Publishing Why to talk to doctoral students about scholarly publishing? When to talk to doctoral students about scholarly publishing? What to say to doctoral students about scholarly publishing? How to talk to doctoral students about scholarly publishing (modalities)?
Scholarly Publishing: Why? Enhances employment opportunities Allows students to take advantage of the support of experienced authors and editors, as well as peers (writing groups) Provides opportunities for constructive expert feedback
Scholarly Publishing: Why? Increasing pressure to decrease the time to degree Increasing pressure to quantify scholarly output Increasing pressure to close the gap between classroom performance and real- world proficiency
Scholarly Publishing: Why? Broughton and Conlogue (2001) found in their survey of search committees that: “evidence of teaching ability outranks evidence of research ability”
Scholarly Publishing: When? Some argue that early publication and conference presentation keep students from "developing long-term intellectual projects and thus propagates intellectual shallowness” (Guillory 4; see Spacks)
Scholarly Publishing: When? Excessive pressure to publish or attempts to publish too early can have disastrous results: –Writer’s block –Unethical practices
Scholarly Publishing: When? Others contend that there is nothing wrong with such activities as long as they do not result in “inferior professionalization” (Nelson 162).
Scholarly Publishing: What to Say? Scholarly Publishing: What to Say? Explicit discussion of scholarly publishing should be one aspect of an overall intrusive advising approach
Scholarly Publishing: What to Say? Scholarly publishing should be discussed together with other scholarly activities that serve to transition students into the professional world of academia
Setting Professional Goals The goals should be reasonable and achievable Goals should not interfere with the timely completion of the degree Goals should spiral up
Setting Professional Goals Memberships in regional, national and international scholarly organizations (listservs, newsletters, journal subscriptions)
Setting Professional Goals Presentations at regional, national and international scholarly conferences
Setting Professional Goals Publication of an article in a peer-reviewed scholarly venue (listservs, journal subscriptions, newletters) –Co-authored with advisor –Single-authored
Setting Professional Goals Spiral up (levels of scholarly feedback) –Departmental presentation –Conference presentation (reviewed abstracts) –Publication in a peer-reviewed venue
De-mystifying Scholarly Publishing Journal Editors Think of publishing as inserting yourself into an ongoing conversation
Publishing as Conversation Grice’s Maxims: –Maxim of Quality: Be truthful –Maxim of Quantity: Be as informative as required –Maxim of Relation: Be relevant –Maxim of Manner: Be clear
Assessment Accept as is Accept with minor revisions Accept with major revisions/Revise and resubmit Reject
Assessment Students may need help deciphering the decision, especially “Revise and Resubmit” Students may need help deciding whether to revise a rejected manuscript before sending to another venue
Finding a Home Matching a manuscript with the proper venue
Finding a Home “When thinking about the best format in which to publish, authors should consider the wide range of available options and their implications in terms of medium, audience, accessibility, permanence, and peer review” (MLA website, Advice for Authors, Reviewers, Publishers, and Editors of Literary Scholarship, accessed 8/20/14)
Finding a Home General topic journals in TS: –Babel –Linguistica Antverpiensia –Meta –Target –The Translator –Translation and Interpreting Studies –Translation Studies –TTR
Finding a Home Special issues of journals Specialized journals –Translator and Interpreter Trainer –Interpreting –mTm (online) –Translation Spaces (online) New journals (indexed?)
Finding a Home Mission of journal or organization Submission guidelines (length, style guide) Quality/nature of review (feedback): Posted rubrics? Additional feedback for new scholars? Length of review process/publication timeline
Asking Questions DON’T BE AFRAID TO ASK QUESTIONS!!!
Finding a Home Impact Factor Created by Eugene Garfield, founder of the Institute for Scientific Information Designed to measure the importance or impact of a scholarly journal
Impact Factor Used my many organizations (universities, granting agencies) to quantify the impact of a journal and, by extension, the importance or relevance of a scholar’s work
Impact Factor Calculated yearly starting from 1975 for journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports The average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years Journals indexed starting with a volume other than volume one will not get an IF until they have been indexed for 3 years
Impact Factor Calculated by dividing: The number of times all items published in a given journal during the previous two years were cited by indexed publications during a given year By the total number of "citable items" published by that journal in that two year period
Impact Factor "Citable items" include articles, reviews, proceedings, and notes, but not editorials or letters to the editor Objections to the use of Impact Factor is assessing an author’s scholarly output
Impact Factor It is easily manipulated by certain editorial policies One hugely popular work can skew the reading for a given period 90% of Nature’s 2004 IF was based on only 40% of its citable items Fluctuates significantly across disciplines, based on the speed with which papers get cited in a field
Impact Factor Journal rankings constructed based solely on impact factors only moderately correlate with those compiled from the results of expert surveys Many departments in the US will determine which journals are considered the leading ones in a given field, ignoring IF rankings
Citation Index Alternative metrics that include article views, downloads, and/or mentions in social media (i.e., tweets) Article-level metrics Author-based metrics (total citations or average citation count per article): h-index, g-index
Citation Index Citations determined using: Subsciption-based databases: Scopus and Web of Knowledge Open databases: Google Scholar Strengths and Weaknesses of the databases
Citation Indexes Designed for the hard sciences, in which: Journals are the preferred form for the dissemination of research Most publications are co-authored by members of a research team Authors may publish several articles in a given year based on the same study / data set
Other Venues Collected volumes Conference proceedings Professional publications (ATA Chronicle) Encyclopedias
Evaluating Other Venues Nature/quality of review process Review/publication timeline Has a publisher committed to the project (contract)? Publisher/Editor/Series information
Where to Begin? Acquaint yourself with the journals, book series, publishers in the field of TS Examine current calls for papers (conferences, collected volumes): Identify hot topics / key concepts Don’t think final paper—think future publication!!!
How to Discuss Scholarly Publishing Discussion of scholarly publishing can take place in one of the following modalities, or in a combination thereof: –Make online materials available to students to consult on their own time –Disseminate information through a mentoring system (Remember: mentors need training!) –Hold face-to-face workshops with students
Part II: Ethics of Scholarly Publishing Plagiarism Avoid multiple submissions Acknowledgements: Citation is free!!!
Defining Plagiarism "Plagiarize" means to take and present as one's own a material portion of the ideas or words of another or to present as one's own an idea or work derived from an existing source without full and proper credit to the source of the ideas, words, or works. As defined, plagiarize includes, but is not limited to:
Defining Plagiarism (a)The copying of words, sentences and paragraphs directly from the work of another without proper credit;
Defining Plagiarism (b)The copying of illustrations, figures, photographs, drawings, models, or other visual and nonverbal materials, including recordings, of another without proper credit; and
Defining Plagiarism (c)The presentation of work prepared by another in final or draft form as one's own without citing the source, such as the use of purchased research papers. (Taken from the Kent State University Policy on Plagiarism)
Causes of Plagiarism –Pressure to publish / time pressures –Lack of understanding as to what constitutes plagiarism –Different concepts of textual ownership –Ease of plagiarism with the availability of online material that can be cut and pasted
Plagiarism How does your university deal with plagiarism?
Detecting Plagiarism While new technologies have made it easier to plagiarize, they have also made it easier to detect plagiarism
Detecting Plagiarism Programs, such as SafeAssign and TurnItIn, that are a part of your university’s learning management system Programs, such as Grammarly and PaperRater, that individuals can purchase but that are less robust than the university systems
Plagiarism School In an effort to try to make a difficult situation involving student behavior into a valuable educational experience, Kent State University developed "Plagiarism School."
Plagiarism School When an instructor determines that an act of plagiarism was more the result of poor preparation for college or inadequate writing skills and less the result of out-right academic dishonesty, he or she can ask a student accused of plagiarism to attend Plagiarism School.
Plagiarism School Plagiarism School is a one-on-one session lasting about 45 minutes (a fuller description is included below). While serving as a means to reeducate and rehabilitate students who plagiarize, students can also mitigate the sanction applied by the instructor.
Plagiarism School For example, instead of failing the assignment the student may be offered the opportunity to resubmit the corrected assignment (perhaps for a reduced grade) in return for completing Plagiarism School.
Plagiarism School In addition to diminishing the negative results of being accused of plagiarism, attending plagiarism school leaves students feeling that they are better equipped to understand and avoid plagiarism in the future, turning a potentially devastating situation into a more positive one. (www.kent.edu)
Summary Discuss scholarly publishing as part of an overall approach to intrusive advising De-mystify scholarly publishing for your students Encourage students to review the mission statements of journals and to ask questions regarding the level of review and the length of review Make sure students are aware of the ethical issues involved