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2 COMMON CORE ALIGNMENT RH.9-10.2. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. RH.9-10.9. Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources. RH.9-10.10. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. WHST.9-10.9. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

3 OBJECTIVE Students will be able to: Identify key terms related to the events of the Stonewall Riots of 1969 and the struggle for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning rights in the United States. Describe the events that sparked the LGBTQ rights movement in the United States. Compare and contrast the movement for LGBTQ rights in the United States with other civil rights struggles in American History. Evaluate the likelihood that the LGBTQ rights movement will achieve its objectives based on primary source evidence and the student’s prior knowledge of civil rights struggles in United States history.

4 AGENDA Video Activity: The Stonewall Inn, Birth of the Gay Rights Movement (10) Defining Our Terms: LGBTQ Alphabet Soup (20) Introduction to New Material: Timeline Activity, LGBTQ Rights from 1940 to the Present (20) Test Your Knowledge: Quick Review Quiz (10) Video Activity: Combating Hate and Homophobia (15) Guided Practice: Compare and Contrast, Civil Rights Struggles in American history (30) Video Activity: LGBTQ Rights in A Modern Context (15) Independent Practice: Document Based Question (60) Closing (5)

5 INTRODUCTORY VIDEO Directions: You will now watch a short introductory video clip designed to familiarize you with the start of the gay rights movement. This video describes the events that took place on June 26, 1969 at the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar and lounge located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of New York City. The riots that took place in the days that followed are known as the Stonewall Riots and are considered by many experts to be the start of the LGBTQ rights movement in the United States.

6 VIDEO Gay Rights Introduction

7 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Directions: The next few slides are designed to acquaint you with common terms related to the struggle for gay or LGBTQ rights. As you read each slide be sure to take note of the key definitions. There will be a brief quiz over these terms before you begin the next activity. LGBTQ: Refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer/questioning individuals or groups.

8 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Ally: A person who identifies as heterosexual or straight but supports the rights of homosexuals.

9 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Bisexual: A term for men or women who identify themselves as being attracted to both other men and other women.

10 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Civil Union: A form of partnership granted by a local, state, or national government that recognizes the relationship between two individuals. This may or may not be similar to a marriage and the rights of individuals in a civil union may be the same or less than those in a state-sponsored marriage. In the United States there are several states where civil unions are available to same-sex couples but these unions do not provide the same benefits of marriage because of existing federal law.

11 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Closeted: Refers to individuals who are not open about their sexuality.

12 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS “Coming Out” (of the Closet): the time when a person chooses to reveal their sexual orientation to other people. This is often done in stages; for example people may tell their family and friends of their orientation but not their employers or may choose to withhold information from people whom they do not view as accepting.

13 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Defense of Marriage Act: A law signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996 that says that the federal government will not recognize any marriage other than those between one man and one woman for the purposes of federal benefits. This means that LGBTQ people do not have access to 1049 federal programs and supports that heterosexual married people automatically enjoy including such benefits as: social security survivor benefits, visa benefits and access to veterans’ pensions.

14 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Domestic Partnership: A registered form of cohabitation that may be similar to or different from a civil union. Individuals, both straight and gay, who enter into domestic partnerships are not married but have indicated that they have a partner. In some states this allows straight and gay couples who are not married to enjoy some of the benefits of marriage such as sharing health insurance or transferring property from one person to another without tax penalties.

15 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: A law signed by President Bill Clinton in 1993 and repealed by President Barack Obama in 2010 that barred LGBTQ from openly serving in the United States military. When the law was in effect, a commanding officer or fellow officer was not allowed to ask a person in the military if he or she was gay, lesbian, or bisexual (don’t ask). LGBTQ people were not allowed to openly discuss their sexuality or reveal to anyone that they were gay (don’t tell). In practice thousands of people were discharged from the military under the policy if it was found that they had communicated their sexuality in any way to anyone such as emailing, calling, or social networking with a partner or attending events or places frequented by LGBTQ individuals. Under the new policy lesbian, gay, and bisexual men and women will be allowed to serve openly. Transgendered individuals are still not legally allowed to serve in the military.

16 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Drag Queen: A person who dresses in the clothing style of the opposite sex for the purposes of entertainment. This is different than a transgendered person who dresses permanently and attempts to live as the opposite gender. Drag queens typically perform in “drag” but live their lives as their identified gender.

17 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Employment Non-Discrimination Act: A proposed law that would prevent discrimination based on one’s sexual orientation or gender identity. Some states already offer this protection but many do not. In states where the protection does not currently exist and employee can be fired simply for being gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered.

18 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Ex-Gay Movement: A movement among certain individuals and organizations, largely based on religious ideas, that suggests that being gay is simply a “phase” or a “sickness” that can be cured through therapy. This movement is highly controversial and the American Psychiatric Association has said, along with numerous other medical organizations that being gay is not a “disease”, that homosexuality occurs among humans and many animal species, and that there is no “cure” for being gay.

19 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Gay: A term for men who identify themselves as being attracted to other men. This term may sometimes be applied more broadly to refer to anything related to the LGBTQ community.

20 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Gay Rights Organization: An organization that works to promote the rights of LGBTQ individuals and combat hate and homophobia through programming aimed at many communities in the United States and around the world. Some prominent past and present LGBTQ organizations include: The Human Rights Campaign, GLAAD (The Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation), GLSEN (The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network), PFLAG (Parents Friends, and Families of Lesbians and Gays), and ACT UP.

21 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Gender Reassignment Surgery: The process whereby a transgendered person surgically changes his or her sex to fit his or her gender identity.

22 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS GSA: A Gay-Straight Alliance is an organization based in a school, typically in a college or university setting or in a high school, to support tolerance and acceptance of LGBTQ individuals and to combat homophobia and bullying.

23 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS HIV/AIDS: Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease that has impacted over 40 million people globally. First called “gay cancer” or “gay disease” it was originally thought to only affect gay people. This was later disproven, HIV/AIDS can be transmitted to people of any sexual orientation. HIV/AIDS destroys a body’s immune system often leaving a person susceptible to other diseases and, without medical treatment, can lead to severe medical problems and, in some cases, death.

24 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Homophobia: An irrational fear by individuals, organizations, or governments of people who are or are suspected to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or questioning that is sometimes typified by intolerance or negative views of LGBTQ people and the desire to limit the rights of these individuals.

25 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Homosexuality: A term that broadly applies to individuals who are attracted either in whole or in part to people of the same sex or gender and choose to identify themselves this way.

26 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Lesbian: A term for women who identify themselves as being attracted to other women.

27 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Mattachine Society: An early LGBTQ rights organization based in New York City that sought to provide a meeting place for LGBTQ people in order to organize for basic rights and protect against police brutality.

28 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Pride: Refers to the movement that developed after the Stonewall Riots to encourage gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered people to live openly.

29 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Queer: A term used by individuals who see themselves as not exclusively heterosexual but do not wish to label themselves as either gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered.

30 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Questioning: A term used by individuals who feel that they may possibly be homosexual but are not certain that this is the case, thus they are in the process of questioning their sexuality.

31 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Same-Sex Attraction: A derogatory term often used by organizations such as the “ex-gay movement” and individuals who believe that homosexuality is either a phase or can be cured to suggest that this “attraction” can be overcome either through therapy or prayer.

32 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Stonewall: Refers to riots that took place near the Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, New York City, a bar for LGBTQ people, on June 28, 1969 after local police raided the bar and repeatedly harassed its patrons leaving many wounded and arrested and one person dead.

33 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Transgendered: A person who identifies themselves as the opposite gender from their physical body. These individuals may live as transgendered people or may choose to use gender reassignment surgery to become a transsexual and match their outward body to their gender identities.

34 LBTQ ALPHABET SOUP: DEFINING OUR TERMS Transsexual: A person who seeks to actively change their physical sex to match their gender identity.

35 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE LGBTQ ALPHABET SOUP QUIZ 1. What year did the events at the Stonewall Inn take place? A: 1969 2. What is an ally? A: A person who supports LGBTQ rights / someone who is against homophobia 3. What is one LGBTQ organization in schools? A:GSA / Gay-Straight Alliance 4. What is the Defense of Marriage Act? A: A law that prevents the federal government from recognizing gay marriage. 5. What does the “Q” in LGBTQ stand for? A: queer or questioning

36 INTRODUCTION TO NEW MATERIAL: TIMELINE NOTES DIRECTIONS Directions: The timeline of LGBTQ rights is divided into 3 eras: Pre-Stonewall (1600-1969) The Stonewall Riots (1969-70) Post-Stonewall (1971-Present) As you read the timeline of events in the LGBTQ rights movement pay close attention to how the events of the Stonewall Riots led to the creation of new organizations and new ways of thinking about lesbians, gays, bisexuals, and transgendered people. There will be a short quiz following this activity.

37 PRE-STONEWALL (1600-1969) 1920 - “Gay” first used to refer to homosexuals in the publication Underground 1933 - Hitler bans gay and lesbian groups, burns the Institute of Sexual Science library 1935 - “Successful” electric shock therapy treatment of homosexuality reported at American Psychological Association meeting 1941 - “Transsexuality” first used in reference to homosexuality and bisexuality 1942 - Switzerland decriminalizes adult homosexuality 1943 - U.S. military bars gays and lesbians from serving in the Armed Forces 1945 - Revealed that Holocaust victims include LGBTs 1945 - The Quaker Emergency Committee of New York City opens the first social welfare agency for gay people

38 PRE-STONEWALL (1600-1969) 1945 - First known female-to-male sex reassignment surgery, on Michael Dillon in Britain 1948 - The Kinsey Report says homosexual behavior among men is widespread 1948 - Hollywood begins blacklisting suspected homosexuals 1951 - The Mattachine Society is founded to give a voice to LGBTQ people in New York politics 1952 - Immigrants banned from U.S. if they have “psychopathic personality,” including homosexuality 1953 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower orders dismissal of all federal employees guilty of “sexual perversion”

39 PRE-STONEWALL (1600-1969) 1954 - Dr. Evelyn Hooker presents a study showing gay men are as well adjusted as straight men, at an American Psychological Association meeting 1961 - First openly gay person runs for U.S. public office (drag queen Jose Sarria, running for San Francisco city supervisor) 1962 - Illinois becomes first state to make consensual same-sex acts legal 1963 - American Civil Liberties Union opposes government interference in the private sex lives of consenting adults 1966 - First U.S. gay community center opens, in San Francisco, led by The Society for Individual Rights 1969 - National Institute of Mental Health study chaired by Dr. Evelyn Hooker urges decriminalization of private sex acts between consenting adults

40 THE STONEWALL RIOTS (JUNE 28, 1969) 1:20am - In the morning on Saturday, June 28, 1969, four plainclothes policemen in dark suits, two patrol officers in uniform, and Detective Charles Smythe and Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine raid the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village, New York City 1:45am - Police begin sending bar patrons outside and within minutes there are hundreds of people on the street waiting for arrest 2:00am - An officer shoved a transsexual who reacted by hitting him in the head 2:05am - Bar patrons began throwing bottles and rocks at the police shouting “Gay Power” and singing “We Shall Overcome” 4:00am - Rioters disperse after pushing the police out of the neighborhood

41 THE STONEWALL RIOTS (1969 - 1970) Thousands of people crowded into the Stonewall Inn and onto Christopher Street in front of the bar the night after the riot People began mass chanting with gay power slogans and wrote graffiti such as “Support Gay Power” and “Legalize Gay Bars” The riots continued for several more days with differing crowds each evening Protesters began to organize in local homes to campaign for recognition of gay rights Within a year the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance were formed to demonstrate for the rights of LGBTQ people On June 28, 1970 on the one year anniversary of the riots the first Gay Pride Parade was held on Christopher Street in front of the Stonewall Inn sparking the birth of the modern LGBTQ rights movement

42 POST-STONEWALL (1970-PRESENT) 1970 - First Gay Liberation Day March held in New York City, First Gay Freedom Day March held in Los Angeles, first Gay-in held in San Francisco 1972 - Sweden becomes first country in the world to allow transgendered people to legally change their sex, and provides free hormone therapy. Norway decriminalizes homosexuality 1972 - Ann Arbor, Michigan becomes first city in United States to pass gay rights ordinance 1973 - The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its DSM-II Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, based largely on the research and advocacy of Evelyn Hooker

43 POST-STONEWALL (1971-PRESENT) 1977 - Harvey Milk is elected city-county supervisor in San Francisco, becoming the third out American elected to public office 1977 - Dade County, Florida enacts a Human Rights Ordinance; it is repealed the same year after a militant anti-gay-rights campaign led by Anita Bryant 1978 - The first Gay Pride Flag is flown in San Francisco 1978 - San Francisco Supervisor Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone are assassinated by former San Francisco Supervisor Dan White. 1979 - First national gay rights march on Washington, DC 1980 - The Democratic National Convention becomes the first major political party in America to endorse a gay rights platform plank.

44 POST-STONEWALL (1971-PRESENT) 1980 - Ronald Reagan is elected President 1980 - Moral Majority starts anti-gay crusade nationwide 1981 - The first cases of AIDS (then called GRID) are confirmed in the United States 1983 - Massachusetts Representative Gerry Studds reveals he is a homosexual on the floor of the House, becoming the first openly gay member of Congress 1985 - President Reagan mentions AIDS publicly for the first time, by then 25,000 Americans have died from the disease 1987 - ACT UP stages its first major demonstration against the government for failing to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS 1987 - U.S. Congressman Barney Frank comes out as gay 1989 - Denmark is first country in the world to enact registered partnership laws (like a civil union) for same-sex couples, with most of the same rights as marriage

45 POST-STONEWALL (1971-PRESENT) 1992 - The World Health Organization removes homosexuality from its list of disorders 1994 - American Medical Association denounces the ex-gay movement and supposed cures for homosexuality saying it is not a disease 1998 - Matthew Shepard is beaten and left for dead on a fence in Laramie, Wyoming for being gay 2000 - Vermont becomes the first US state to allow civil unions 2001 - Maryland passes an employment non- discrimination act and outlaws discrimination against LGBTQ people in employment

46 POST-STONEWALL (1971-PRESENT) 2003 - In Lawrence v. Texas (2003) the US Supreme Court outlaws anti-sodomy laws and says relations between two consenting adults are legal 2003 - Massachusetts becomes the first state to legalize same-sex marriage while 11 other states pass bans on such marriages later in the year (today 39 states have bans) 2005 - Iran begins widespread execution of gays 2008 - Gay marriage legalized in California and Connecticut 2008 - Proposition 8 makes gay marriage illegal in California again on the same day Barack Obama is elected

47 POST-STONEWALL (1971-PRESENT) 2009 - Gay marriage legalized in Iowa and Vermont 2010 - Gay marriage in New Hampshire and Washington DC 2010 - Illinois legalizes civil unions 2010 - A judge rules that Arkansas’ ban on adoption by same-sex couples is unconstitutional 2010 – President Barack Obama signs a repeal of Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell which will allow LGB people to serve openly in the military, transgendered people are still not allowed to serve in the military 2011 - Hawaii and Delaware legalize civil unions 2011 - New York legalizes same-sex marriage

48 TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE: A QUICK REVIEW QUIZ 1. What was the major cause of the Stonewall Riots? 2. What LGBTQ organization existed before the Riots? 3. Name 3 states that currently allow same-sex marriage. 4. What is the significance of the Supreme Court case Lawrence v. Texas (2003)? 5. When was HIV/AIDS first confirmed in the US? 6. What was the focus of Dr. Evelyn Hooker’s research? 7. What San Francisco politician was assassinated because of his homosexuality in 1978? 8. Which country first decriminalized homosexuality in 1942? 9. Who opened the first social welfare agency for gay people? 10. What did activists do to commemorate the first anniversary of the Stonewall Riots?

49 “IT GETS BETTER” COMBATING HATE AND HOMOPHOBIA Directions: You will watch a short video clip that addresses the issue of homophobia and bullying in our nation’s schools. This is a serious issue and the Baltimore City Public Schools is working to combat bullying and create a safe space for all of our students. After you watch the video answer the 6 guiding questions that accompany this clip in order to frame your thinking about respect in our schools.

50 Video “It Gets Better”

51 POST VIDEO QUESTIONS 1. What is the overall message of the “It Gets Better” video? 2. Without identifying names, what incidents of bullying, harassment, racism, sexism, or homophobia have you seen at your school? 3. What can students do to prevent this kind of behavior? 4. What can schools do to prevent this kind of behavior? 5. What can our communities and our nation do to prevent this kind of behavior? 6. Why is it important to treat people with respect even if you disagree with something about who they are or what they do?

52 GUIDED PRACTICE: COMPARE AND CONTRAST DISCUSSION How are the Stonewall Riots similar to or different from other struggles for civil rights? Directions: Create a compare/contrast Venn Diagram about several ways that the LGBTQ Rights Movement is similar to and different from the Civil Rights movement led by African Americans, Latinos, and Asians that you have already studied. Next, use the answers from your Venn diagram to help you answer the 6 discussion questions about civil rights struggles in American history.

53 VENN DIAGRAM – SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES LGBTQ Rights MovementOther Civil Rights Movements

54 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1. What rights are the people that we have seen on film and in pictures looking to get? 2. What is stopping them from achieving their goals; why do they need to fight for their rights? 3. What groups in history do you already know about who have struggled to gain freedom or equality? 4. In what ways are the struggles that LGBTQ people have gone through in America similar to these experiences? 5. In what ways are the struggles that LGBTQ people have gone through in America different from these experiences? 6. What do you think the struggles that these groups have gone through in our history says about America and the experience of different groups in our country?

55 VIDEO ACTIVITY: LGBTQ RIGHTS IN A MODERN CONTEXT Directions: After you watch the 2 video clips answer the questions that accompany the videos to guide your understanding of how gay rights issues have changed in modern America.

56 Videos NY Gay Marriage Proposition 8

57 VIDEO QUESTIONS 1. What events have occurred most recently in the LGBTQ rights movement? 2. What federal law makes it difficult for same sex couples who get married in one state to remain married if they move to other states? 3. Why do you think the outcome of these events might have been so different in New York and California? 4. Based on what you know about government already, who do you think should decide if LGBTQ people should be allowed to get married, the courts, the legislatures, the president, or the people? Why?

58 INDEPENDENT PRACTICE: DOCUMENT BASED QUESTION Directions: The following question requires you to construct a coherent essay that integrates your interpretation of Documents A – I and your knowledge of the period referred to in the question. High scores will be earned only by essays that both cite key pieces of evidence from the documents and draw on outside knowledge of the period. Some of the documents have been edited, and wording and punctuation have been modernized. (Rampolla 57) Suggested Writing Time: 60 Minutes Describe how the main goals of the LGBTQ rights movement have changed from its inception in 1969 to the present? Explain what changes in public policy individuals who participated in the Stonewall Riots were hoping to achieve in 1969. Explain how LGBTQ organizations’ priorities shifted in the wake of the 1980’s conservative movement and the advent of HIV/AIDS. Describe the modern (post 2000) LGBTQ rights movement and characterize the movement’s goals and ambitions. Evaluate whether this movement is likely to achieve its goals based on its current strategy and your prior knowledge of civil rights struggles in the United States.




62 DOCUMENT C The Stonewall Inn in New York City's West Village June 28, 1969 "Standing Up for Gay Rights" It was 1:20 a.m. when eight cops stomped into the Stonewall Inn, a dive in Manhattan's Greenwich Village district that had no liquor license but served watery drinks to a mix of drag queens, street kids, gay professionals and closeted and straight mafiosi (who ran the place). Within two hours, the Village was bleeding and burning as hundreds rioted. How did the nightly saturnalia at Stonewall produce protests that would kick start the modern gay- rights movement? The uprising was inspirited by a potent cocktail of pent-up rage (raids of gay bars were brutal and routine) and overwrought emotions (hours earlier, thousands had wept at the funeral of Judy Garland). As a 17-year-old cross-dresser was being led into the paddy wagon and got a shove from a cop, she fought back. "[She] hit the cop" one of her friends later told Martin Duberman, author of the history of Stonewall. Later, the deputy police inspector in charge would explain that day's impact: "For those of us in [the] public morals [division], things were completely changed... Suddenly they were not submissive anymore." Today gays and lesbians memorialize that night each year with a weekend of rallies, parades and parties—a spectacle as inspiring as the Stonewall itself. - John Cloud, Time Magazine


64 DOCUMENT E Document E “Gay Marriage: Why Judge Walker Got Proposition 8 Ruling Wrong”


66 DOCUMENT G Document G “California Should Get Back in Gear on Gay Marriage”

67 DOCUMENT H VIDEO Document H Stonewall Uprising Trailer

68 ANSWER SPACE Type your answer to your Document Based Question essay in this space:

69 CONCLUSION VIDEO Gay Rights Closing Video

70 CONCLUSION Please be sure to clean up your materials, turn in any appropriate work (if applicable) to your teacher, and to leave your space in a tidy fashion. Questions to think about as we conclude the lesson and in the future: What does the term equality mean in an American context? (Have we achieved equality in America?) What can we learn about the ability of people to change their society by looking at events like the Stonewall Riots and other civil rights struggles? What direction will our country take in the future in terms of treating all people fairly; should this be a national priority for our citizens and our leaders? Thank you!


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