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Restricted Certificate of Competency

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1 Restricted Certificate of Competency
Marine VHF Radio Course to prepare for Restricted Certificate of Competency Supplied courtesy of Ger Keeling

2 Course Objectives To give a brief introduction to the basic principles of radio. To relate these to Marine VHF Radio use To acquaint participants with procedural and general radio conversation To give an understanding of the use of radio for safety of life at sea To prepare participants for the Department of Communications examination for the award of a Restricted Certificate of Competence (VHF only)

3 Marine Radio Radio offered the only option for communication with at sea Ensuring the safety of seafarers was to be the primary concern Early signal transmissions were by Morse Code and later by modulated voice transmissions The first known “CDQ” signal was sent by the SS “Titanic” The CDQ was replaced by the more familiar SOS

4 Modern Marine Radio There are a number of radio bands allocated specifically for marine use. The main ones are kHz Morse Telegraphy kHz MF Marine Radio Telephony mHz HF Marine Radio Telephony mHz VHF Marine Radio Telephony

5 Marine VHF Radio VHF facilitates reasonable antenna sizes
Easy to use Good clear reception Reasonable range of coverage for small vessels Most vessels over 10 metres are fitted with VHF sets Low power requirements make battery operation possible VHF facilitates reasonable antenna sizes Portable and handheld sets are readily available The Relatively low cost of appliances has lead to their great popularity

6 Control of Marine VHF Radio
In the Republic of Ireland the use of Marine VHF is controlled by the Minister for Communications The laws are applicable within the state and on Irish registered vessels The owner is responsible for ensuring that the set is licensed and that the conditions of license are observed. See Appendix 1 Condition 7 requires that the radio installation may only be operated by persons holding valid Certificates of Competence

7 Formality of Procedures
English is the international language of marine communication Marine VHF radio is used by many people who do not naturally speak English Radio conversations are not as interactive as normal person to person speech Conversation must be as short as possible As many conversations are safety related, there is a need to have un-ambiguous and precise dialogue

8 Station Identity It is compulsory to identify yourself on every transmission When a Radio Installation is licensed, a registered Call Sign is issued This will be some combination of letters and numbers, which is internationally registered. Irish Call Signs are generally in the form EI XXXX It is acceptable to use the vessel’s name or a combination of both the name and call sign.

9 General format of message
Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times This is Name of calling station and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times Message to be sent Over

10 “Pro” words and other common phrases
I copy or Copied Seelonce Prudonce This is Stand By Stand By one Over Mayday Out My position is Pan Pan Station Calling -- ? Traffic Securite Say again Word before -- Word after -- TR Mayday Relay UTC Unreadable Signal Strength All before --- All after -- All Stations ETA I say again -- ETD Received SAR Nothing Heard

11 The Phonetic Alphabet A Alpha B Bravo C Charlie D Delta E Echo
F Foxtrot G Golf H Hotel I India J Juliet K Kilo L Lima M Mike N November O Oscar P Papa Q Quebec R Romeo S Sierra T Tango U Uniform V Victor W Whiskey X X-Ray Y Yankee Z Zulu

12 Phonetic Numerals 1 Won 2 Too 3 Tree 4 Fow-er 5 Fife 6 Six 7 Sev-en
8 Ate 9 Niner 0 Zero The number would be stated as follows TOO NINER FOWER DECIMAL ATE

13 Stating Time and Position
“My Position is FIFE TREE ZERO NINER DECIMAL ATE North ZERO SIX ZERO FIFE DECIMAL TREE West” or “My Position is TOO miles bearing TOO NINER FIFE from Moulditch Buoy” Time “TOO WON ZERO NINER UTC” 21:30 or 09:30 p.m. GMT 22:30 or 10:30 p.m. BST

14 Precautions before transmitting
Who is the call intended for Is the selected channel correct for the message to be sent and what working channel is appropriate Be sure that the channel is not being used and that there is no higher priority incident in progress Are you authorised to make the call Have you composed the message in your mind

15 Channel Allocation Channel 16
Emergency Channel Initial Calling Channel Once contact is made stations must switch to a suitable working channel Priority must be given to more important traffic Inter Ship Channels Port Operations Small Boat Safety 67 Coastal Radio Station 83 Dublin 87 Wicklow 23 Rosslare

16 Channel Allocation Marina / Race Control 80 (37 M M2)
Digital Selective Calling 70 Do not use for voice CH 16 Guard band May not be used US Channels Used for weather CoastGuard contact etc. 7A 18A 19A 21A 22A These use one half of an international Duplex channel (explained later)

17 Good Radio Manners Always listen before transmitting
Keep conversations short as possible Make sure that your message is clear Use “Pro” words and sound professional and competent Obey instructions from coast stations (or more competent operators) Speak calmly and clearly Do not use bad language, CB talk, TV cop habits or people’s personal names

18 What is Radio Radio is a type of natural radiated energy, known as Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR) Since it’s discovery, we have learned to transmit and receive it and harness it for many uses. Radio EMR Other EMR Radio Broadcasts TV Broadcasts Communications RADAR Microwave Ovens Visibe Light Infra Red Light Ultra Violet Light X-Rays Lasers - are all forms of Electro-Magnetic Radiation

19 EMR’s Wave-like Behaviour
Wave Length The distance between two adjacent peaks [ Metres ] Frequency The number of peaks which pass a point in a second [ Hertz ]

20 Wavelength Nowadays we tend to describe radio waves in terms of frequency rather than wavelength Wavelength is more commonly used to describe the higher frequency waves.. e.g. microwaves or lasers and visible light The wavelength of radio is however relevant to the size of the antenna or aerial Longer wave lengths require huge antennae whereas higher frequencies (shorter wave lengths) require more sophisticated electronics

21 Frequency vs. Wavelength
Long Wavelength -- Low frequency KHz Kilometers Short wavelength -- High Frequency GHZ -- 1centimeter

22 Frequency 1 Hertz Hz 1 Cycle per second
1 Kilo Hertz KHz 1,000 Cycles per second 1 Mega Hertz MHz 1,000,000 Cycles per second 1 Giga Hertz GHz 1,000,000,000 Cycles per second 1 Tera Hertz THz 1,000,000,000,000 Cycles per second

23 Signal Propagation Frequencies below approx 3Mhz follow along the
earth’s curved surface and are therefore described as “Ground Waves” ( e.g. Long and Medium Wave radio broadcasts)

24 Short Wave Propogation
The earth’s atmosphere is surrounded by layers of charged gas particles, referred to as the “Ionosphere” Frequencies between approx 3Mhz and 30Mhz tend to reflect off the Ionosphere. These are described as “Sky Waves” (also Short Wave or HF)

25 VHF/UHF/SHF Propogation
Frequencies above approx 50 MHz are limited to “Line of Sight” and are therefore useful for local, aviation and celestial uses.

26 Ground Wave Uses Communications Long Range Marine Medium Frequency
Marine Morse Telegraphy Medium Wave Radio Long Wave Radio 30 KHz 300 KHz 1 MHz 2 MHz 3 MHz 10 KM 1 KM 100 M

27 Basic RadioTransmitter
157.0 MHz

28 Basic Radio Receiver Receiver only listens to signals on it’s tuned
frequency. Receiver 157.0 MHz

29 Transmitting a Signal Transmitter Receiver 157.0 MHz 157.0 MHz

30 Transmitting “Sound” Waves
Modulation Transmitted Radio Signal Radio Wave Radio Wave The sound wave is “modulated” on to the “Carrier” frequency Transmitter 157.0 MHz

31 Receiving “Sound” Waves
Radio Wave Receiver Receiver only listens to signals on it’s tuned frequency 157.0 MHz De-modulation Sound Wave Sound

32 The Radio Tranceiver Receiving Common Antenna Speaker Receiver The
156.0 MHz The “Push to Talk” (PTT) Button Normally On Radio Wave Normally Off Transmitter Microphone

33 The Radio Tranceiver Transmitting Common Antenna Speaker Receiver The
156.0 MHz The “Push to Talk” (PTT) Button Off when pressed Radio Wave On when pressed Transmitter Transmitting Microphone

34 On/Off/ Volume Squelch Control Receiver 156.0 MHz Normally On Channel Selector Radio Wave Normally Off Transmitter High / Low Power

35 Receiving On/Off Volume Squelch Receiver Noise Message 156.0 MHz
Normally On Silence Radio Wave Normally Off Transmitter Receiving

36 Channel Select 161.775 MHz Receiver 156.8 MHz off PTT Button
Radio Wave on MHz Transmitter 156.8 MHz

37 Calling another Station
Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times Ross Turk, This is Name of calling station and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times Misha, Misha Message to be sent Channel Six Over Typical Example only !! If no response, wait for approx three minutes and try again.

38 Response to a Call Mise, This is Ross Turk, Going to Channel Six Over
Name of station being responding to call sign (if applicable) Mise, This is Name of responding station and call sign (if applicable) Ross Turk, Message to be sent Going to Channel Six Over Typical Example only !! On working channel, the calling station generally speaks first

39 The Distress Call Mayday, Mayday, Mayday Name of station in Distress
This is Yacht Mise, Yacht Mise, Yacht Mise, Mayday, Position of Vessel in Distress My position is Fife Tree Zero Ate North, Zero, Six, Zero Won West Nature of Distress Vessel holed and sinking Two persons on board. Other Information Will fire flares, no further radio contact possible Mayday Typical Example only !! Send message on Ch 16 or any channel where a response is likely

40 Control of a Distress When a Mayday is in progress only related radio traffic is allowed The ship in distress may impose control on the distress channel Normally a coastal radio station (MRCC or an MRSC) will assume control The ship in distress may impose silence -- SEELONCE MAYDAY A controlling station, which itself is not the vessel in distress can impose silence -- SEELONCE DISTRESS Radio silence is lifted with the words -- SEELONCE FEENEE If prudent use of the channel is required the word PRUDONCE is used

41 Acknowledging a Distress Call
Mayday, once only !! Yacht Mise Name of responding station This is Dublin Radio, Received, Mayday Typical Example only !! Any station hearing a MAYDAY must acknowledge, Wait for a brief moment to ensure that you are not over-transmitting a Coastal Radio Station or a vessel nearer the scene If you are in a position to render assistance you must do so If the MAYDAY has been acknowledged, call the controlling station and advise them of your ETA and what assistance you can give If you can not respond, stay quiet, and listen Send a MAYDAY RELAY, See 13 a,b,c.

42 Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay
Name of station Relaying Mayday This is Yacht Mise, Mayday Relay, Relay the original message making it clear that you yourself are not in distress Mayday Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone, position is (Position of Distressed vessel, not yours !!) Fife Tree Zero Ate North, Zero, Six, Zero Won West DistressMessage (do not add to it, just relay as it was received) Vessel holed and sinking Two persons on board. Will fire flares, no further radio contact possible This is Yacht Mise, Mayday Relay Repeat your name / call sign again at the end if the message is excessively long Typical Example only !!

43 Simplex Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed
Ch 0 Ch 0 Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed On when pressed Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed On when pressed

44 Duplex Transmission Receiver 161.775 MHz Transmitter 161.775 MHz
Ch 83 Ch 83 Receiver MHz Transmitter MHz MHz Receiver MHz Transmitter Ship Station Shore Station

45 Typical Coast Station Receiver Transmitter Receiver Transmitter
Ch 16 Ch 16 Receiver Transmitter Ch 67 Ch 67 Receiver Transmitter Ch 83 Ch 83 Dublin Radio

46 999 Calls Malin MRSC Dublin MRCC Valentia MRSC Irish Marine
Malin Head Radio 999 Calls Malin MRSC Glen Head Radio Irish Marine Emergency Services Lifeboats Inshore All Weather IMES Coastal Rescue Units IMES SIKORSKI S61N Helicopter Air Corps Helicopters Belmullet Radio Dublin MRCC Dublin Radio Clifden Radio Wicklow Head Radio Shannon Radio Valentia MRSC Rosslare Radio Valentia Radio Mine Head Radio Cork Radio Bantry Radio

47 Other Relevant Developments
VHF channels can also be used to transmit coded signals which can “activate” the called station. This is used to call emergency services on CH 67 Channel 70 is reserved for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) and may not be used for voice transmission DSC will required on all sets after 1999 to facilitate the new GMDSS service

48 Developments ... GMDSS will include sattelite based distress communications via INMARSAT for ships in oceanic regions. VHF DSC is required under GMDSS after 1999 Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBS) are capable of automatically transmitting a combined distress and position signal. Additional VHF direction finding equipment is currently being installed.

49 Revision Licence Conditions
1) Relevance of International Radio Regulations 2) Relevance of Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1952 3) Use limited to Maritime Mobile Service Ships Port Stations Coastal Radio Stations 4) Hygenic conditions 5) Screening Lights and Safety of Operators 6) Messages on behalf of Government

50 Revision ... License Conditions Continued
7) Operators Certificate of Competence 8) Confidentiality of Traffic 9) Obligation to Log all messages See General Regulations 10) Payment for Coastal Radio Services 11) Notification of Alterations to Equipment 12) Right of Inspection 13) Documents to be carried Licence ITC Radio (and Telegraphy) Regulations

51 Revision …. License Conditions Continued ...
14) Payment of Licence Fees 15) Power to revoke licence 16) Ongoing relevance of ITC, ammandments etc. 17) Cover of Emergency Radios No Certificate of Competence necessary

52 Revision …. General Regulations …
a) Set must be licensed and Operators must have Certificate of Competency b) Obey instructions from Coast Stations c) Stations must identify themselves Call Sign (Formally) Ships Name (Optionally) d) Listen before transmitting

53 Revision …. General Regulations …
e) Channel International Distress Frequency. May only be used for - Distress Signal Distress Call Distress Traffic Urgency Signal Urgency Call Urgency Traffic Safety Call Only (Not Safety Traffic) Establishing a communication with another station

54 Revision ... General Regulations ..
f) All transmission on Ch 16 to be kept to minimum g) Listening watch on Ch 16 Ships fitted with VHF Only (Non Compulsory) should maintain maximum watch on Ch 16 Irish Ships fitted with VHF (Compulsory) must maintain watch on Ch 16, except in certain conditions, which must be logged. Obligation to log all communications relating to Safety, Urgency and Distress Traffic

55 Revision... General Regulations .. h) Ship’s VHF must be fitted with
Channel 16 (Distress Channel) Channel 6 (Primary Intership Channel) All other channels necessary for Service Stations must use channels for the allocated purpose as far as possible Radio Telephony is forbidden on Ch 70

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