Presentation on theme: "Restricted Certificate of Competency"— Presentation transcript:
1Restricted Certificate of Competency Marine VHF RadioCourse to prepare forRestricted Certificate of CompetencySupplied courtesy ofGer Keeling
2Course ObjectivesTo give a brief introduction to the basic principles of radio.To relate these to Marine VHF Radio useTo acquaint participants with procedural and general radio conversationTo give an understanding of the use of radio for safety of life at seaTo prepare participants for the Department of Communications examination for the award of a Restricted Certificate of Competence (VHF only)
3Marine RadioRadio offered the only option for communication with at seaEnsuring the safety of seafarers was to be the primary concernEarly signal transmissions were by Morse Code and later by modulated voice transmissionsThe first known “CDQ” signal was sent by the SS “Titanic”The CDQ was replaced by the more familiar SOS
4Modern Marine RadioThere are a number of radio bands allocated specifically for marine use. The main ones arekHz Morse TelegraphykHz MF Marine Radio TelephonymHz HF Marine Radio TelephonymHz VHF Marine Radio Telephony
5Marine VHF Radio VHF facilitates reasonable antenna sizes Easy to useGood clear receptionReasonable range of coverage for small vesselsMost vessels over 10 metres are fitted with VHF setsLow power requirements make battery operation possibleVHF facilitates reasonable antenna sizesPortable and handheld sets are readily availableThe Relatively low cost of appliances has lead to their great popularity
6Control of Marine VHF Radio In the Republic of Ireland the use of Marine VHF is controlled by the Minister for CommunicationsThe laws are applicable within the state and on Irish registered vesselsThe owner is responsible for ensuring that the set is licensed and that the conditions of license are observed. See Appendix 1Condition 7 requires that the radio installation may only be operated by persons holding valid Certificates of Competence
7Formality of Procedures English is the international language of marine communicationMarine VHF radio is used by many people who do not naturally speak EnglishRadio conversations are not as interactive as normal person to person speechConversation must be as short as possibleAs many conversations are safety related, there is a need to have un-ambiguous and precise dialogue
8Station IdentityIt is compulsory to identify yourself on every transmissionWhen a Radio Installation is licensed, a registered Call Sign is issuedThis will be some combination of letters and numbers, which is internationally registered.Irish Call Signs are generally in the formEI XXXXIt is acceptable to use the vessel’s name or a combination of both the name and call sign.
9General format of message Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable)Repeat up to three timesThis isName of calling station and call sign (if applicable)Repeat up to three timesMessage to be sentOver
10“Pro” words and other common phrases I copy or CopiedSeeloncePrudonceThis isStand ByStand By oneOverMaydayOutMy position isPan PanStation Calling -- ?TrafficSecuriteSay againWord before --Word after --TRMayday RelayUTCUnreadableSignal StrengthAll before ---All after --All StationsETAI say again --ETDReceivedSARNothing Heard
11The Phonetic Alphabet A Alpha B Bravo C Charlie D Delta E Echo F FoxtrotG GolfH HotelI IndiaJ JulietK KiloL LimaM MikeN NovemberO OscarP PapaQ QuebecR RomeoS SierraT TangoU UniformV VictorW WhiskeyX X-RayY YankeeZ Zulu
12Phonetic Numerals 1 Won 2 Too 3 Tree 4 Fow-er 5 Fife 6 Six 7 Sev-en 8 Ate9 Niner0 ZeroThe number would be stated as followsTOO NINER FOWER DECIMAL ATE
13Stating Time and Position “My Position is FIFE TREE ZERO NINER DECIMAL ATE NorthZERO SIX ZERO FIFE DECIMAL TREE West”or“My Position is TOO milesbearing TOO NINER FIFE fromMoulditch Buoy”Time “TOO WON ZERO NINER UTC”21:30 or09:30 p.m. GMT22:30 or10:30 p.m. BST
14Precautions before transmitting Who is the call intended forIs the selected channel correct for the message to be sent and what working channel is appropriateBe sure that the channel is not being used and that there is no higher priority incident in progressAre you authorised to make the callHave you composed the message in your mind
15Channel Allocation Channel 16 Emergency ChannelInitial Calling ChannelOnce contact is made stations must switch to a suitable working channelPriority must be given to more important trafficInter Ship ChannelsPort OperationsSmall Boat Safety67Coastal Radio Station83 Dublin 87 Wicklow23 Rosslare
16Channel Allocation Marina / Race Control 80 (37 M M2) Digital Selective Calling70 Do not use for voiceCH 16 Guard bandMay not be usedUS ChannelsUsed for weather CoastGuard contact etc.7A 18A 19A 21A 22AThese use one half of an international Duplex channel (explained later)
17Good Radio Manners Always listen before transmitting Keep conversations short as possibleMake sure that your message is clearUse “Pro” words and sound professional and competentObey instructions from coast stations (or more competent operators)Speak calmly and clearlyDo not use bad language, CB talk, TV cop habits or people’s personal names
18What is RadioRadio is a type of natural radiated energy, known as Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR)Since it’s discovery, we have learned to transmit and receive it and harness it for many uses.Radio EMROther EMRRadio BroadcastsTV BroadcastsCommunicationsRADARMicrowave OvensVisibe LightInfra Red LightUltra Violet LightX-RaysLasers- are all forms of Electro-Magnetic Radiation
19EMR’s Wave-like Behaviour Wave LengthThe distance between two adjacent peaks [ Metres ]FrequencyThe number of peaks which pass a point in a second [ Hertz ]
20WavelengthNowadays we tend to describe radio waves in terms of frequency rather than wavelengthWavelength is more commonly used to describe the higher frequency waves.. e.g. microwaves or lasers and visible lightThe wavelength of radio is however relevant to the size of the antenna or aerialLonger wave lengths require huge antennae whereas higher frequencies (shorter wave lengths) require more sophisticated electronics
21Frequency vs. Wavelength Long Wavelength -- Low frequency KHz KilometersShort wavelength -- High Frequency GHZ -- 1centimeter
22Frequency 1 Hertz Hz 1 Cycle per second 1 Kilo Hertz KHz 1,000 Cycles per second1 Mega Hertz MHz 1,000,000 Cycles per second1 Giga Hertz GHz 1,000,000,000 Cycles per second1 Tera Hertz THz 1,000,000,000,000 Cycles per second
23Signal Propagation Frequencies below approx 3Mhz follow along the earth’s curved surface and are therefore describedas “Ground Waves” ( e.g. Long and Medium Waveradio broadcasts)
24Short Wave Propogation The earth’s atmosphere is surrounded by layers ofcharged gas particles, referred to as the “Ionosphere”Frequencies between approx 3Mhz and 30Mhz tend toreflect off the Ionosphere. These are described as“Sky Waves” (also Short Wave or HF)
25VHF/UHF/SHF Propogation Frequencies above approx 50 MHz are limited to“Line of Sight” and are therefore useful for local,aviation and celestial uses.
26Ground Wave Uses Communications Long Range Marine Medium Frequency Marine MorseTelegraphyMedium WaveRadioLong WaveRadio30 KHz300 KHz1 MHz2 MHz3 MHz10 KM1 KM100 M
36Channel Select 161.775 MHz Receiver 156.8 MHz off PTT Button Radio WaveonMHzTransmitter156.8 MHz
37Calling another Station Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable)Repeat up to three timesRoss Turk,This isName of calling station and call sign (if applicable)Repeat up to three timesMisha, MishaMessage to be sentChannel SixOverTypical Example only !!If no response, wait for approx three minutes and try again.
38Response to a Call Mise, This is Ross Turk, Going to Channel Six Over Name of station being responding to call sign (if applicable)Mise,This isName of responding station and call sign (if applicable)Ross Turk,Message to be sentGoing to Channel SixOverTypical Example only !!On working channel, the calling station generally speaks first
39The Distress Call Mayday, Mayday, Mayday Name of station in Distress This isYacht Mise,Yacht Mise,Yacht Mise,Mayday,Position of Vessel in DistressMy position isFife Tree Zero Ate North,Zero, Six, Zero Won WestNature of DistressVessel holed and sinkingTwo persons on board.Other InformationWill fire flares, no further radio contact possibleMaydayTypical Example only !!Send message on Ch 16 or any channel where a response is likely
40Control of a DistressWhen a Mayday is in progress only related radio traffic is allowedThe ship in distress may impose control on the distress channelNormally a coastal radio station (MRCC or an MRSC) will assume controlThe ship in distress may impose silence -- SEELONCE MAYDAYA controlling station, which itself is not the vessel in distress can impose silence -- SEELONCE DISTRESSRadio silence is lifted with the words -- SEELONCE FEENEEIf prudent use of the channel is required the word PRUDONCE is used
41Acknowledging a Distress Call Mayday, once only !! Yacht MiseName of responding stationThis isDublin Radio,Received,MaydayTypical Example only !!Any station hearing a MAYDAY must acknowledge,Wait for a brief moment to ensure that you are not over-transmittinga Coastal Radio Station or a vessel nearer the sceneIf you are in a position to render assistance you must do soIf the MAYDAY has been acknowledged, call the controlling stationand advise them of your ETA and what assistance you can giveIf you can not respond, stay quiet, and listenSend a MAYDAY RELAY, See 13 a,b,c.
42Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay Name of station Relaying MaydayThis isYacht Mise,Mayday Relay,Relay the original message making it clear that you yourselfare not in distressMayday Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone,position is (Position of Distressed vessel, not yours !!)Fife Tree Zero Ate North,Zero, Six, Zero Won WestDistressMessage (do not add to it, just relay as it was received)Vessel holed and sinkingTwo persons on board.Will fire flares, no further radio contact possibleThis is Yacht Mise,Mayday RelayRepeat your name / call signagain at the end if themessage is excessively longTypical Example only !!
43Simplex Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed Ch 0Ch 0Radio WaveTransmitterReceiver156.0 MHzOff when pressedOn when pressedRadio WaveTransmitterReceiver156.0 MHzOff when pressedOn when pressed
47Other Relevant Developments VHF channels can also be used to transmit coded signals which can “activate” the called station.This is used to call emergency services on CH 67Channel 70 is reserved for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) and may not be used for voice transmissionDSC will required on all sets after 1999 to facilitate the new GMDSS service
48Developments ...GMDSS will include sattelite based distress communications via INMARSAT for ships in oceanic regions.VHF DSC is required under GMDSS after 1999Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBS) are capable of automatically transmitting a combined distress and position signal.Additional VHF direction finding equipment is currently being installed.
49Revision Licence Conditions 1) Relevance of International Radio Regulations2) Relevance of Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act 19523) Use limited to Maritime Mobile ServiceShipsPort StationsCoastal Radio Stations4) Hygenic conditions5) Screening Lights and Safety of Operators6) Messages on behalf of Government
50Revision ... License Conditions Continued 7) Operators Certificate of Competence8) Confidentiality of Traffic9) Obligation to Log all messagesSee General Regulations10) Payment for Coastal Radio Services11) Notification of Alterations to Equipment12) Right of Inspection13) Documents to be carriedLicenceITC Radio (and Telegraphy) Regulations
51Revision …. License Conditions Continued ... 14) Payment of Licence Fees15) Power to revoke licence16) Ongoing relevance of ITC, ammandments etc.17) Cover of Emergency RadiosNo Certificate of Competence necessary
52Revision …. General Regulations … a) Set must be licensed and Operators must have Certificate of Competencyb) Obey instructions from Coast Stationsc) Stations must identify themselvesCall Sign (Formally)Ships Name (Optionally)d) Listen before transmitting
53Revision …. General Regulations … e) Channel International Distress Frequency.May only be used for -Distress SignalDistress CallDistress TrafficUrgency SignalUrgency CallUrgency TrafficSafety Call Only (Not Safety Traffic)Establishing a communication with another station
54Revision ... General Regulations .. f) All transmission on Ch 16 to be kept to minimumg) Listening watch on Ch 16Ships fitted with VHF Only (Non Compulsory) should maintain maximum watch on Ch 16Irish Ships fitted with VHF (Compulsory) must maintain watch on Ch 16, except in certain conditions, which must be logged.Obligation to log all communications relating to Safety, Urgency and Distress Traffic
55Revision... General Regulations .. h) Ship’s VHF must be fitted with Channel 16 (Distress Channel)Channel 6 (Primary Intership Channel)All other channels necessary for ServiceStations must use channels for the allocated purpose as far as possibleRadio Telephony is forbidden on Ch 70