Presentation on theme: "Marine VHF Radio Course to prepare for Restricted Certificate of Competency Supplied courtesy of Ger Keeling."— Presentation transcript:
Marine VHF Radio Course to prepare for Restricted Certificate of Competency Supplied courtesy of Ger Keeling
Course Objectives To give a brief introduction to the basic principles of radio. To relate these to Marine VHF Radio use To acquaint participants with procedural and general radio conversation To give an understanding of the use of radio for safety of life at sea To prepare participants for the Department of Communications examination for the award of a Restricted Certificate of Competence (VHF only)
Marine Radio Radio offered the only option for communication with at sea Ensuring the safety of seafarers was to be the primary concern Early signal transmissions were by Morse Code and later by modulated voice transmissions The first known “CDQ” signal was sent by the SS “Titanic” The CDQ was replaced by the more familiar SOS
Modern Marine Radio There are a number of radio bands allocated specifically for marine use. The main ones are 415 -- 535 kHz Morse Telegraphy 1606 -- 2850 kHz MF Marine Radio Telephony 4 -- 28 mHz HF Marine Radio Telephony 156 -- 162 mHz VHF Marine Radio Telephony
Marine VHF Radio Easy to use Good clear reception Reasonable range of coverage for small vessels Most vessels over 10 metres are fitted with VHF sets Low power requirements make battery operation possible VHF facilitates reasonable antenna sizes Portable and handheld sets are readily available The Relatively low cost of appliances has lead to their great popularity
Control of Marine VHF Radio In the Republic of Ireland the use of Marine VHF is controlled by the Minister for Communications The laws are applicable within the state and on Irish registered vessels The owner is responsible for ensuring that the set is licensed and that the conditions of license are observed. See Appendix 1 Condition 7 requires that the radio installation may only be operated by persons holding valid Certificates of Competence
Formality of Procedures English is the international language of marine communication Marine VHF radio is used by many people who do not naturally speak English Radio conversations are not as interactive as normal person to person speech Conversation must be as short as possible As many conversations are safety related, there is a need to have un-ambiguous and precise dialogue
It is compulsory to identify yourself on every transmission When a Radio Installation is licensed, a registered Call Sign is issued This will be some combination of letters and numbers, which is internationally registered. Irish Call Signs are generally in the form EI XXXX It is acceptable to use the vessel’s name or a combination of both the name and call sign. Station Identity
General format of message Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times This is Name of calling station and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times Message to be sent Over
“Pro” words and other common phrases Over Out Say again Word before -- Word after -- This is Station Calling -- ? All before --- All after -- I say again -- I copy or Copied Stand By Stand By one My position is Traffic TR UTC ETA ETD SAR Seelonce Prudonce Mayday Pan Securite Mayday Relay Received Signal Strength Unreadable Nothing Heard All Stations
Phonetic Numerals 1Won 2Too 3Tree 4Fow-er 5Fife 6Six 7Sev-en 8Ate 9Niner 0Zero The number 294.8 would be stated as follows TOO NINER FOWER DECIMAL ATE
Stating Time and Position “My Position is FIFE TREE ZERO NINER DECIMAL ATE North ZERO SIX ZERO FIFE DECIMAL TREE West” “My Position is TOO miles bearing TOO NINER FIFE from Moulditch Buoy” Time“TOO WON ZERO NINER UTC” 21:30 or 09:30 p.m. GMT 22:30 or 10:30 p.m. BST or
Precautions before transmitting Who is the call intended for Is the selected channel correct for the message to be sent and what working channel is appropriate Be sure that the channel is not being used and that there is no higher priority incident in progress Are you authorised to make the call Have you composed the message in your mind
Channel Allocation Channel 16 –Emergency Channel –Initial Calling Channel Once contact is made stations must switch to a suitable working channel Priority must be given to more important traffic Inter Ship Channels 6 8 10 72 73 Port Operations 12 14 11 09 68 71 Small Boat Safety 67 Coastal Radio Station 83 Dublin 87 Wicklow 23 Rosslare
Channel Allocation Marina / Race Control 80 (37 M M2) Digital Selective Calling 70 Do not use for voice CH 16 Guard band 75 76 May not be used US Channels Used for weather CoastGuard contact etc. 7A 18A 19A 21A 22A These use one half of an international Duplex channel (explained later)
Good Radio Manners Always listen before transmitting Keep conversations short as possible Make sure that your message is clear Use “Pro” words and sound professional and competent Obey instructions from coast stations (or more competent operators) Speak calmly and clearly Do not use bad language, CB talk, TV cop habits or people’s personal names
What is Radio Radio is a type of natural radiated energy, known as Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR) Since it’s discovery, we have learned to transmit and receive it and harness it for many uses. Radio Broadcasts TV Broadcasts Communications RADAR Microwave Ovens Visibe Light Infra Red Light Ultra Violet Light X-Rays Lasers - are all forms of Electro-Magnetic Radiation Radio EMR Other EMR
EMR’s Wave-like Behaviour Wave Length The distance between two adjacent peaks [ Metres ] Frequency The number of peaks which pass a point in a second [ Hertz ]
Wavelength Nowadays we tend to describe radio waves in terms of frequency rather than wavelength Wavelength is more commonly used to describe the higher frequency waves.. e.g. microwaves or lasers and visible light The wavelength of radio is however relevant to the size of the antenna or aerial Longer wave lengths require huge antennae whereas higher frequencies (shorter wave lengths) require more sophisticated electronics
Frequency vs. Wavelength Long Wavelength -- Low frequency 30 KHz -- 10Kilometers Short wavelength -- High Frequency 30GHZ -- 1centimeter
Frequency 1 HertzHz1Cycle per second 1 Kilo HertzKHz1,000Cycles per second 1 Mega HertzMHz1,000,000Cycles per second 1 Giga HertzGHz1,000,000,000Cycles per second 1 Tera HertzTHz1,000,000,000,000 Cycles per second
Signal Propagation Frequencies below approx 3Mhz follow along the earth’s curved surface and are therefore described as “Ground Waves” ( e.g. Long and Medium Wave radio broadcasts)
Short Wave Propogation The earth’s atmosphere is surrounded by layers of charged gas particles, referred to as the “Ionosphere” Frequencies between approx 3Mhz and 30Mhz tend to reflect off the Ionosphere. These are described as “Sky Waves” (also Short Wave or HF)
VHF/UHF/SHF Propogation Frequencies above approx 50 MHz are limited to “Line of Sight” and are therefore useful for local, aviation and celestial uses.
Ground Wave Uses Long Range Communications 30 KHz300 KHz3 MHz Long Wave Radio Marine Morse Telegraphy Medium Wave Radio Marine Medium Frequency 2 MHz1 MHz 10 KM1 KM100 M
Basic Radio Receiver Receiver 157.0 MHz Receiver only listens to signals on it’s tuned frequency.
Transmitting a Signal Transmitter 157.0 MHz Receiver 157.0 MHz
Transmitting “Sound” Waves Modulation Sound Sound Wave Radio Wave Transmitter 157.0 MHz The sound wave is “modulated” on to the “Carrier” frequency Radio Wave Transmitted Radio Signal
Receiving “Sound” Waves De-modulation Sound Sound Wave Radio Wave Receiver 157.0 MHz Receiver only listens to signals on it’s tuned frequency
Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Normally On The Radio Tranceiver Normally Off Receiving The “Push to Talk” (PTT) Button Microphone Speaker Common Antenna
Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed On when pressed The Radio Tranceiver Transmitting The “Push to Talk” (PTT) Button Microphone Speaker Common Antenna
Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Normally On Normally Off On/Off/ Volume Squelch Control Channel Selector High / Low Power
Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Normally On Normally Off Receiving On/Off Volume Squelch Silence NoiseMessage
157.175 MHz 161.775 MHz 156.375 MHz 156.8 MHz Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz off on PTT Button 157.0 MHz Ch 83 Ch 67 Ch 16 Ch 0 Channel Select
Calling another Station Name of station being called and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times This is Name of calling station and call sign (if applicable) Repeat up to three times Message to be sent Over Ross Turk, Misha, Misha Channel Six If no response, wait for approx three minutes and try again. Typical Example only !!
Response to a Call Name of station being responding to call sign (if applicable) This is Name of responding station and call sign (if applicable) Message to be sent Over Ross Turk, Mise, Going to Channel Six On working channel, the calling station generally speaks first Typical Example only !!
The Distress Call Name of station in Distress This is Position of Vessel in Distress Nature of Distress Mayday My position is Fife Tree Zero Ate North, Zero, Six, Zero Won West Yacht Mise, Vessel holed and sinking Two persons on board. Send message on Ch 16 or any channel where a response is likely Mayday, Mayday, Mayday Mayday, Other Information Will fire flares, no further radio contact possible Yacht Mise, Typical Example only !!
Control of a Distress When a Mayday is in progress only related radio traffic is allowed The ship in distress may impose control on the distress channel Normally a coastal radio station (MRCC or an MRSC) will assume control The ship in distress may impose silence -- SEELONCE MAYDAY A controlling station, which itself is not the vessel in distress can impose silence -- SEELONCE DISTRESS Radio silence is lifted with the words -- SEELONCE FEENEE If prudent use of the channel is required the word PRUDONCE is used
Acknowledging a Distress Call Name of responding station This is Dublin Radio, Received, Mayday Mayday, once only !! Yacht Mise Any station hearing a MAYDAY must acknowledge, Wait for a brief moment to ensure that you are not over-transmitting a Coastal Radio Station or a vessel nearer the scene If you are in a position to render assistance you must do so If the MAYDAY has been acknowledged, call the controlling station and advise them of your ETA and what assistance you can give If you can not respond, stay quiet, and listen Send a MAYDAY RELAY, See 13 a,b,c. Typical Example only !!
Name of station Relaying Mayday DistressMessage (do not add to it, just relay as it was received) This is Yacht Mise, Mayday Relay position is (Position of Distressed vessel, not yours !!) Fife Tree Zero Ate North, Zero, Six, Zero Won West Vessel holed and sinking Two persons on board. Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay, Mayday Relay Mayday Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone, Yacht Pogtone, Will fire flares, no further radio contact possible This isYacht Mise, Mayday Relay, Relay the original message making it clear that you yourself are not in distress Typical Example only !! Repeat your name / call sign again at the end if the message is excessively long
Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed On when pressed Radio Wave Transmitter Receiver 156.0 MHz Off when pressed On when pressed Simplex Ch 0
Dublin Radio Wicklow Head Radio Rosslare Radio Mine Head Radio Cork Radio Bantry Radio Valentia Radio Shannon Radio Clifden Radio Belmullet Radio Glen Head Radio Malin Head Radio Malin MRSC Valentia MRSC Dublin MRCC 999 Calls Irish Marine Emergency Services Lifeboats Inshore All Weather IMES Coastal Rescue Units IMES SIKORSKI S61N Helicopter Air Corps Helicopters
Other Relevant Developments VHF channels can also be used to transmit coded signals which can “activate” the called station. This is used to call emergency services on CH 67 Channel 70 is reserved for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) and may not be used for voice transmission DSC will required on all sets after 1999 to facilitate the new GMDSS service
Developments... GMDSS will include sattelite based distress communications via INMARSAT for ships in oceanic regions. VHF DSC is required under GMDSS after 1999 Electronic Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRBS) are capable of automatically transmitting a combined distress and position signal. Additional VHF direction finding equipment is currently being installed.
Revision Licence Conditions –1) Relevance of International Radio Regulations –2) Relevance of Merchant Shipping (Safety Convention) Act 1952 –3) Use limited to Maritime Mobile Service Ships Port Stations Coastal Radio Stations –4) Hygenic conditions –5) Screening Lights and Safety of Operators –6) Messages on behalf of Government
Revision... License Conditions Continued –7) Operators Certificate of Competence –8) Confidentiality of Traffic –9) Obligation to Log all messages See General Regulations –10) Payment for Coastal Radio Services –11) Notification of Alterations to Equipment –12) Right of Inspection –13) Documents to be carried Licence ITC Radio (and Telegraphy) Regulations
Revision …. License Conditions Continued... –14) Payment of Licence Fees –15) Power to revoke licence –16) Ongoing relevance of ITC, ammandments etc. –17) Cover of Emergency Radios »No Certificate of Competence necessary
Revision …. General Regulations … –a) Set must be licensed and Operators must have Certificate of Competency –b) Obey instructions from Coast Stations –c) Stations must identify themselves Call Sign (Formally) Ships Name (Optionally) –d) Listen before transmitting
Revision …. General Regulations … –e) Channel 16 -- International Distress Frequency. –May only be used for - Distress Signal Distress Call Distress Traffic Urgency Signal Urgency Call Urgency Traffic Safety Call Only (Not Safety Traffic) Establishing a communication with another station
Revision... General Regulations.. –f) All transmission on Ch 16 to be kept to minimum –g) Listening watch on Ch 16 Ships fitted with VHF Only (Non Compulsory) should maintain maximum watch on Ch 16 Irish Ships fitted with VHF (Compulsory) must maintain watch on Ch 16, except in certain conditions, which must be logged. Obligation to log all communications relating to Safety, Urgency and Distress Traffic
Revision... General Regulations.. –h) Ship’s VHF must be fitted with Channel 16 (Distress Channel) Channel 6 (Primary Intership Channel) All other channels necessary for Service Stations must use channels for the allocated purpose as far as possible Radio Telephony is forbidden on Ch 70