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Materials Science of Polymers for Engineers MSE 460/560 Doug Loy Physics Chemistry Processing Properties Applications.

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Presentation on theme: "Materials Science of Polymers for Engineers MSE 460/560 Doug Loy Physics Chemistry Processing Properties Applications."— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials Science of Polymers for Engineers MSE 460/560 Doug Loy Physics Chemistry Processing Properties Applications

2 Adhesives Barriers Structural components Insulation Major Functions of Polymers epoxies superglue Polyethylene landfill Garbage bags Sarah wrap Polyurethane foam Styrofoam Polyethylene wire coatings Bakelite (phenol-formaldehyde) PPMA or PC transparent sheets Molded ABS or HIPS polyesters polyethylene

3 COURSE WEBSITE: Loy group website, courses, MSE 460/560 Spring 2010 science-for-engineers.html

4 Office Hours Old Chemistry 309 Tuesday 1-3 pm Monday and Wednesday 11am-noon or by appointment

5 Textbook: Yes, you will need it. Read Chapter 1 by next Wednesday

6 Grading Three exams: 300 pts Final: 200 pts HWK: 150 pts Research Paper: 100 pts Graduates (MSE 560) Oral Presentation:100 pts Drop lowest 100 point score Undergraduates:650 pts possible Graduates:750 pts possible First exam before drop date

7 Homework Assignments will be on D2L Not up yet but should be by Monday.

8 Goals Basic polymer nomenclature Basic types of polymers and how they are made Mechanical properties of polymers Solution properties Polymer processing Aging & degradation of polymers Applications of polymers Understand where polymers should be used and what their limitations are. How to communicate How to think skeptically Learn:

9 How to succeed in MSE 460/560 Read the Chapter ahead of lectures Come to class Start paper early Study groups Practice exams (new ones will be written). Don’t cheat, plagiarize, or otherwise participate in un- ethical behavior Use office hours Ask questions Think skeptically

10 Thinking skeptically Don’t trust anyone (particularly anyone over 30) If it doesn’t make sense, ask questions. Beware of trusting experts and textbooks Acquaint yourself with logic and logical fallacies

11 Research Paper Review of literature topic I provide Graduates can petition to present topic relating to research or oral. > 10 pages, double spaced, times roman font, typed + graphics. JACS style bibliography Hard and electronic copy Must be readable on Mac (your responsibility) Keyword list due 1/18 Literature search results due 1/25 One draft due during semester You will edit each others drafts (for HWK assign)

12 Research Paper Topics & Assignments polysilsesquioxane photoresists polysilsesquioxane membranes for separations polysilsesquioxane membranes for fuel cells and batteries polysilsesquioxane anti-corrosion coatings optical application of polysilsesquioxanes polysilsesquioxane particles surfactant templating polysilsesquioxanes (organosilica, PMO's) Composites with polysilsesquioxanes polysilsesquioxane coupling agents in tires polysilsesquioxanes for supported enzymes mechanical properties of polysilsesquioxanes polysilsesquioxane ceramic precursors bridged polysilsesquioxane since 2010 polysilsesquioxane for stone conservation polysilsesquioxanes for shrink-fit plastics polysilsesquioxane ladder polymers Fluorescent polysilsesquioxanes Degradation of polysilsesquioxanes polysilsesquioxane adsorbents for toxic metals polysilsesquioxane adsorbents for volatile organics drug delivery with polysilsesquioxanes polysilsesquioxane low k dielectrics Polysilsesquioxanes in cosmetics

13 Oral Presentations Graduate students only 20 minute presentations (two per day) Everyone must attend & compose one exam question for each presentation Last two weeks of class 100 points

14 HWK 1-Due January 20th DSL Some figures will be at website in HWK section as pdfs. Draft of research paper will count as a homework assignment.

15 MSE 460/560 Today’s Logic Lesson:Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc "After this, therefore because of this." Correlation does not equate with causation “I ate sushi yesterday, I became sick today, therefore the sushi made me ill.”

16 Polymers are everywhere Food Packaging Electronics Medical Supplies Construction Manufactured Goods PVC SAN PES Transportation PVC PSty PVC PC Polyester PP Polyisoprene Clothing Nylon

17 We use a lot of polymers. 10 12 bags/year!!

18 What are polymers? Poly = many & meros = parts (Greek) Macromolecules = large molecules A nomenclature exists to describe polymers polyethylene ethylene

19 What are polymers? Contour length: 38.5 nm or 0.0385 microns or 0.0000385 mm 10 6 Dalton polyethylene (35.7K monomers) = 5.5 microns or 0.0055 mm in length

20 Length of DNA Each DNA polymer = 5 centimeters DNA (3 billion base pairs) = 2.3 meters long/cell Total length of DNA in a human: 2 x 10 13 meters

21 Engineering with Polymers Polymers provide a low density structural alternative for some applications Are relatively easy to process into numerous forms Provide a high volume, often improved replacement for materials derived from living organisms. Possess unique properties They are often relatively inexpensive. Styrofoam ®

22 13 Metals Alloys Graphite Ceramics Semicond Polymers Composites /fibers E(GPa) Based on data in Table B2, Callister 6e. Composite data based on reinforced epoxy with 60 vol% of aligned carbon (CFRE), aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE) fibers. YOUNG’S MODULI: COMPARISON

23 17 Room T values Based on data in Table B4, Callister 6e. a = annealed hr = hot rolled ag = aged cd = cold drawn cw = cold worked qt = quenched & tempered YIELD STRENGTH: COMPARISON

24 Why use polymers Easy to process –Injection molding (thermoplastics) –Mold or reaction injection molding (thermosets) Cheap Lightweight Tough Flexible Transparent (sometimes) Insulating (generally)

25 How do we classify polymers? By origin Physical behavior Structure/Architecture Application/function Polymerization mechanism Polymerization chemistry Cost

26 Origin of Polymers Biopolymers –Protein: horn, cartilage, hair, hide, ligaments, tusks –Composite structures: bone, shells –Plant materials: Cellulose (cotton, sisal, hemp) fiber lignin & cellulose (wood) Chitan (insect & crustacean exoskeletons)

27 Synthetic Polymers Coal Petroleum from petra oleum (rock oil) Petroleum Natural gas

28 Origins: Two Families of Polymers Biological Polymers Synthetic

29 Physical Behavior & Architecture Thermoplastics Elastomers Thermosets Phenolic Resins Melamines epoxies Synthetic rubbers Poly-cis-isoprene Polystyrene Polyvinylchloride

30 Source: R. Esfand, D.A. Tomalia, A.E. Beezer, J.C. Mitchell, M. Hardy, C. Orford, Polymer Preprints, 41 (2), 1324 (2000)

31 Applications/Function Structural Coatings Fibers Adhesives

32 Taxonomy by polymerization mechanism Chain Growth Mechanism Free radical Anionic Cationic Ring opening metathesis Step growth Condensation Metathesis Free radical chain mechanism

33 Polymer Functionality Vinyl Polymers Polyethers Polyarylenes Polyesters Polyamides Polyureas Polyurethanes Polysiloxanes Polycarbonates Polysulfones Polyimides Polysulfides Fluoropolymers Polyionomers Polyacetylenes

34 Polymer Functionality Vinyl Polymers Polyethers Polyarylenes Polyesters Polyamides Polyureas Polyurethanes Polysiloxanes Polycarbonates Polysulfones Polyimides Polysulfides Fluoropolymers Polyionomers Polyacetylenes

35 Recycling symbols Not recyclable

36 Cost: Commodity (Amorphous) Thermoplastics Four high volume thermoplastics and applications: –Polyethylene (PE): Grocery bag, 55-gallon drum, lawn furniture –Polypropylene (PP): Washing machine agitator, carpet –Polyvinylchloride (PVC): Irrigation pipe, wire insulation –Polystyrene (PS): Toys, pipes, packing material (Styrofoam) Polypropylene Polyethylene Polystyrene Low cost, temp. resistance and strength Good dimensional stability Bonds well Typically, but not always, transparent Polyvinylchloride

37 Some History: First there were Bio- Polymers Animal Hides (Proteins): Fiber & Films Ligaments (Collagen): Hinges Silk Fibers (Protein): Fibers Plant Fibers (Cellulose): Fibers Yucca-fiber sandals Bison-Hide teepee Structural Materials: High Modulus & Strong Wood (Cellulose & Lignin): S Antlers (Keratin): Tools, jewelry & weapons Horn (Keratin): Tools, jewelry & weapons Tusks (enamel & dentin): Tools, jewelry & weapons Ivory lunar cycle charts

38 Charles Goodyear (1800 - 1860) Invented vulcanization of rubber in 1839 Key Figures in Polymer History: Enabled commercialization of natural rubber Elastomer: 50% of Rubber tires Latex rubber gloves

39 Gutta percha (GP), also known as balata, is a natural thermoplastic and is of fundamental importance in the history of the plastics industry. William Montgomerie (1840’s) Saw usefulness of gutta percha Gutta Percha Thermoplastic: Golf ball covers Wire coating (until 1940’s)

40 History of Polymers Date 1868 1909 1919 1927 1929 1936 1938 1939 Material Cellulose Nitrate Phenol-Formaldehyde Casein Cellulose Acetate Polyvinyl Chloride Urea-Formaldehyde Acrylic Polyvinyl Acetate Polystyrene or Styrene Nylon (Polyamide) Polyvinyl Butyrate Polyvinylidene Chloride Melamine-Formaldehyde Example Use Figurines Electrical equipment Beauty accessories Cellophane package wrapping Pipe, Synthetic Leather Lighting fixtures, Plywood glue Brush backs, displays Synthetic flooring Disposable utensils Hosiery Safety glass interlayer Saran wrap Countertops, Cabinets

41 History of Polymers Date 1942 1943 1947 1948 1954 1956 1957 1964 Material Polyester Polyethylene Fluorocarbon Silicone Epoxy Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polyurethane or Urethane Acetal Polypropylene Polycarbonate Ionomer Polyimide Example Use Clothing, Boat hulls Milk Jugs Industrial gaskets, Non-stick liners Gaskets, Tubing, Utensils Glues Luggage Foam cushions, Shoe soles, Wheels Automotive parts, Toilet parts Living hinges, Safety helmets Water bottles, Eye protection Golf balls, Skin packages Gears

42 Nomenclature of Elastomers StructureMonomer Common NameIUPAC Trade name

43 Block Copolymers

44 Alternating Copolymers


46 Block Copolymers

47 Block & Alternating Copolymer

48 Nomenclature of Thermoplastics StructureMonomer Common NameIUPAC Trade name

49 Nomenclature of Polyether Thermoplastics StructureMonomer Common Name IUPAC PEG

50 Nomenclature of Polyether Thermoplastics StructureMonomer Common NameIUPAC Delrin

51 Nomenclature of Vinyl Thermoplastics StructureMonomer Common NameIUPAC Trade Name

52 Nomenclature of Vinyl Thermoplastics StructureMonomer Common NameIUPAC Trade Name

53 Tacticity: How groups are arranged along polymer Isotactic and syndiotactic pack into lattices easier: crystalline

54 Tacticity: disubstituted monomers

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