10 Why is this important for me? United Nations Peacekeeping Operations are mixed institutions, including many diversities, including ethnic cultures and institutional backgrounds (military, civilian & police)The local population will have its own cultural norms and traditionsThe mission’s ability to function and its operational success is dependent on its personnel’s ability to maintain respectful relationships and communicate effectively with others
11 Learning Outcomes Explain what is meant by “diversity” Describe how cultural differences and different kinds of diversity might be evident in the mission environment and in the host countryDescribe what is involved in respecting diversity in relation to working effectively in a multicultural peacekeeping environmentDescribe strategies for enhancing communication
12 Diversity = variety, different kinds of things What is Diversity?Diversity = variety, different kinds of thingsDiversity in a human context refers to differences such as of ethnicity, race, professional backgrounds, religious or political beliefs, and much more.
13 The Dimensions of Culture The importance of the individual vis à vis the group in diverse social and business situationsGroup responses to change, the need for rules and the ability to take risks. Also includes the perception of how much control individuals have over their destinyHow roles, power and authority are associated with each gender as well as individuals of different races, religions, nationalities, etc.The way individuals interact with one another within an organizational hierarchyHow individuals use space to define themselves, including spatial distances used when speaking and the amount of space needed for comfort in business and living environmentsThe importance of personal achievement and accomplishment to an individual’s overall sense of well-beingThe significance placed on completing a job versus devoting time to building relationships among business associatesThe way people in a society communicate, including the use of nonverbal gesturesThe degree to which a culture believes an individual can focus on one or more tasks, and the evaluation of the importance of personal relationships versus adherence to schedulesRelationshipsTimeCommunicationHierarchyStatus AttainmentSpaceDiversity ReceptivityChange ToleranceGroup DependenceThe Dimensions of CultureProcessAs indicated, the material here is based on the Windham International Cultural Model (influenced by work by Hofstede and Trompenars)The information is intended as reference material given the limited timeInstead of reviewing it, it may be helpful to provide a high-level explanation of the dimensions of culture and why they’re importantAs we already discussed, a great deal of who we are is based on beliefs and values we holdMany of these beliefs and values come from our families and many of those are embedded within values held in the culture at largeReview nine dimensions and their primary concernsDifferent cultures and parts of the world are often characterized by their different approaches to these dimensions of cultureThe Windham International Cultural Model (1997) outlines nine dimensions of culture: relationships, time, communication, hierarchy, status attainment, space, group dependence, diversity receptivity, and change tolerance. The model is intended as a tool for individuals to understand their own behaviour and the behaviour of individuals from other cultures.Windham International Cultural Model
14 Dimensions of Diversity Functional Level ClassificationManagementStatusGeographicLocationWorkContentFieldLanguage / AccentIncomeMarital StatusComm./WorkStyleAgeSexRaceParental StatusPersonalHabitsCore Personality and Ability — Who I AmSexualOrientationProcessThe graphic here is based on research conducted by experts in the field of diversity, Gardenschwartz & Roe, who suggest that there are many layers/elements of diversity; keeping this is mind is essential in recognizing and valuing the many aspects of diversity and its impact on who we are and how we see the worldThe most core difference between us, of course, is our personality--something that distinguishes us from everyone elseThe primary elements of diversity are things we cannot change, such as age, race, physical ability; these are usually things people know about us simply by observing usThe secondary elements are more subtle, such as geographic location, work style, educational background, etc.The outer ring are the organizational aspects of diversity; these may perhaps be things we don’t think of immediately when we think of diversity but can make a real difference in how we relate to one another, particularly in the workplaceThis graphic can also be used to think about how messages and biases about difference can influence the way we think about othersFor example, we all receive messages--subtle and explicit--about things like race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, etc., from our families and friendsUntil we recognize these messages and understand them, they subtlety influence the way we view and interact with othersConversely, it’s important to recognize that others are always looking at us and interpreting our behaviour through their “lenses” and experiencesValues and beliefsReligions and their rolesCustoms – birth, death, weddings, “coming of age”, hospitality, greetings, sharingRespectPerception of timePerception of space (intimate, personal, social, public)Physical contactRelationshipsOccupationSocial classSocietal and community structuresUse of authority Looks and abilitiesEducationFamily Relationships Sexual orientationIndividual v Collective (group) identity and decision making processesWays that people thinkWork ethics and practicesPreferences for learning (visually, orally, active doing)Ways of communicating (verbally / nonverbally, saying NO, giving feedback)Ways of negotiatingRecreationalHabitsAppearanceEthnicityUnionAffiliationSeniorityPhysicalAbilityReligionWork ExperienceEducationalBackgroundDivisionDepartmentUnitWork LocationAdapted from Gardenschwartz & Roe
15 Only about 10% of an iceberg is generally seen above the waterline.
18 Obvious Less Obvious see, hear, smell & touch (explicit & conscious) Race, EthnicityLanguage, Dialects,Hair, Skin & Eye Colour,Sex, Age, Size, Physical Ability,Clothing, Uniforms, Job Titles,Food, Art, Dance, Music, Literaturesee, hear, smell & touch(explicit & conscious)ObviousConcept of Time, Work Ethic,Religious Beliefs, Definitions of Sin,Organizational Attitudes and PracticesConcept of Justice, Courtship Practices,Meanings about Clothing, Concept of CleanlinessBeliefs, values,attitudes, storiesthought patterns,(implicit & unconscious)LessObviousTheories on Disease, Concepts of Past & FutureAttitudes to New Things, New People and ChangeAttitudes & Relationships to Hierarchies and AuthorityPatterns of Superior / Subordinate Behaviour (on job or otherwise)Family Roles & Responsibilities, Traditional Roles of Men and WomenAnd much more…
19 It is important to be aware of… Beliefs about all people of a certain typeJudgements or opinions that are formed without real knowledge or examination of factsPrejudices are generally negativeStereotypes = Prejudices =
20 UN Core Value Respect for Diversity Work effectively with people from all backgroundsTreat all people with dignity and respectTreat men and women equallyShow respect for and understanding of diverse points of view and demonstrate this understanding in daily work and decision-making
21 UN Core Value Respect for Diversity (cont.) Examine own biases and behaviours to avoid stereotypical responsesDo not discriminate against any individual or group
22 Attitudes Regarding Authority and Management Remember that the difference may be culturalTake time to understand what is happeningBe clear & respectfulin your communicationsand expectations
23 Body Language & Gestures Observe and acquaint yourself with what is culturally appropriateAsk colleagues for advice as needed
24 ReligionBe aware of different religious beliefs and customs, particularly local onesPractice respect for all religious beliefsPractice respect for religious artifacts and places of workshop
25 Family and Roles Pay respect to elders Understand family ties Understand local roles and traditions for men and women
26 Dress Code Be aware of local cultural norms and climate Adapt yourself to local dress codes
27 Concepts of TimeDon’t over generalize about any group’s ways of perceiving or managing timeReserve judgmentabout the meaningbehind differentattitudes and practicesregarding time
28 Communication Process Communicated through filter ofDecodedthrough filter ofLANGUAGE, IDIOMS,NORMS, VALUESLANGUAGE, IDIOMS,NORMS, VALUESVerbal,Non-verbal, WrittenCommunicationResultantUnderstandingOriginal IntentionCULTURE BCULTURE A
29 Communication Tips Use common words and avoid slang and idioms Check that you are understanding and also that you have been understoodConvey interest in understanding properlyAllow enough time for people to speak and create opportunities for those who are speaking lessBe aware of how what your tone of voice or body language may be communicating. Practice patience.Be careful in your use of humour
30 Learning from OthersNational colleagues are a great resource of cultural informationOther colleagues who have worked in other missions and cultures may also be able to provide guidance
32 Unit 4 Part 3 Assessment Questions What do we mean when we talk about “diversity”in this context?What kinds of diversities and cultural differences might you experience in a peacekeeping mission and the host country?How does the UN expect personnel to demonstrate respect for diversity?What are some specific ways that you can practice respect for diversity?What are some ways you can enhance communications in a culturally diverse environment?
33 Unit 4 Part 3 Assessment Answers In this context, the word ‘diversity’ refers to the differences such as ethnicity, race, professional backgrounds, religious and political beliefs, etc.What kinds of diversities and cultural differences might you experience in a peacekeeping mission and the host country.Possible answers include: race, ethnicity, language, sex, gender, physical appearances, physical abilities, clothing norms, eating habits and food preferences, religion, concepts of time, ways of working and perspectives on priorities, body language and meanings of gestures, style of communicating, etc.
34 Unit 4 Part 3 Assessment Answers The UN identifies the following ways UN personnel is expected to demonstrate respect for diversity.Working effectively with people from all backgroundsTreating all people with dignity and respectTreating men and women equallyShowing respect for and understanding of diverse points of view and demonstrates this understanding in daily work and decision-makingExamining own biases and behaviours to avoid stereotypical responsesNot discriminating against any individual or group
35 Unit 4 Part 3 Assessment Answers Specific ways to practice respect for diversity include (but are not limited to):Take time to observe and acquaint yourself with what is culturally appropriateRespect others religions as we would our own beliefsPay respect to eldersBe sensitive to local clothing norms and concepts of modesty and proprietyReserve judgment about the meaning behind different attitudes and practices regarding timeSeek advice from national colleagues and those who have experience working internationally and in peacekeeping missions
36 Unit 4 Part 3 Assessment Answers Ways to enhance communications include (but are not limited to):Use common and simple wordsAvoid slang, jargon and idiomsCheck if you are understandingConvey interest in understandingCheck if you are being understoodAllow enough time for people to speak and provide opportunities for those who speak lessBe aware of your body language and tone of voice and the impact they might haveBe conscious and careful in your use of humour