Presentation on theme: "5/2/2015 3 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Job Control Language Bhargava KC Extension: 52067 E&R Rotunda, II Floor, Cubicle 15"— Presentation transcript:
5/2/2015 3 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Job Control Language Bhargava KC Extension: 52067 E&R Rotunda, II Floor, Cubicle 15 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
5/2/2015 4 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JOB CONTROL LANGUAGE For IBM Mainframe System 390
5/2/2015 5 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Pre-requisites §Programming Fundamentals. §MVS Operating system and its subsystem TSO. §Navigating through ISPF.
5/2/2015 6 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Evaluation Scheme § Quiz : 20 Marks ( Conducted after 2 sessions of Input ) § OLE : 80 Marks
5/2/2015 7 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 References # Title Authors Publishers 1. MVS JCL Doug Lowe Mike Murarch and Associates 2. System 370/390 JCL GD Brown 3. IBM Manuals
5/2/2015 8 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Objectives of the Course 1.To acquaint participants to the specific nature of Job Control Language. 2.To illustrate the syntax of JCL. 3.To demonstrate the JCL programs, procedures, Various Data set allocation mechanisms, IBM Utilities 4.To acquaint the participants regarding the importance of VSAM, GDGs, and concepts of SMS.
5/2/2015 9 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Objectives of the Session 1.To learn about JES as a Sub system and its functions. 2.About JCL syntax in general 3.About Job statement. 4.Some sample examples.
5/2/2015 10 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 A JOB is the execution of one or more related programs in sequence. Each Program to be executed by a Job is Called a Step. Ex: The first program sorts customer names in a sequence The second program generates a report. Job Control Language is a set of control statements that Provides specifications necessary to process a Job. JOB AND A JCL
5/2/2015 12 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Determine the job Create the JCL Submit the JOB JES interprets JCL and passes it to MVS MVS does the work User Views and Interprets output JES collects the output and information about the JOB System Messages
5/2/2015 13 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 WHY JCL ??? MVS operating system is designed to work in the batch processing mode JCL is a powerful and flexible language that helps to customize the use of local and remote resources available to one or more computers
5/2/2015 14 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Difference between batch & interactive processing Batch processing Jobs submitted are executed at later time User can not interact Performance measure is throughput Snapshot of output is used for debugging Interactive processing Jobs submitted are executed immediately User can interact Performance measure is response time Interactive debugging
5/2/2015 15 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Various stages of JCL execution Input Conversion Execution Output Hard copy Purge
5/2/2015 16 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 InputJES gives a unique job number ConversionCheck syntax error & Place it in JES spool InitiatorTaking the job from the spool and sending it for execution Outputsends the output to printer PurgeAfter job is processed,it is purged Various stages of JCL execution
5/2/2015 17 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - INPUT Job entry or input is how jobs are entered into the system. Local and remote card readers Via a started procedure Internal reader From another system via network job entry Several methods are :
5/2/2015 18 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - INPUT INPUT SPOOL JCL SYSIN JES MVS During input processing, the job is placed out on spool. At this point in time, a job consists of : Any JOB Control Language Any JOB Entry Control Language (JECL) in the Input Stream Any data SYSIN in the Input Stream An entry is initialized in the Jobqueue and the job is assigned a JES Job Number as part of Input Processing
5/2/2015 19 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION SPOOL JCL SYSIN During conversion the JCL for a job is converted to its internal form, known as Converter/Interpreter text. All of the jobs that were marked awaiting conversion in the job Queue are converted MVS JES PROCLIB PROC Full Syntax checking of the JCL is done at this time Input to the conversion process consists of the Original JCL and any cataloged procedure referenced by it
5/2/2015 20 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION JOB INTERPRETER - JES2 JES2 ADDRESS SPACE INITIATOR ADDRESS SPACE PAY JCL INTERPRETER PAY CONTROL BLOCKS JES2 gives job to idle initiator Initiator attaches the interpreter to build control blocks Control blocks used to start job in initiator
5/2/2015 21 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing -CONVERSION JOB INTERPRETER - JES3 JES3 ADDRESS SPACE INITIATOR ADDRESS SPACE PAY JCL INTERPRETER PAY CONTROL BLOCKS JES Attaches the interpreter Interpreter builds the control blocks in the JES address space JES passes the CONTROL blocks to an idle initiator to start execution.
5/2/2015 22 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION 1.Initiator Invokes a program called Interpreter which goes thru the Job Input and creates a series of Control blocks in Scheduler Work Area, a part of Address space Private Area. 2. It then invokes Allocation routines that decides on what resources the Job step needs in terms of Units, Volumes and Data sets. 3. Initiator then builds a User region where the User’s program is loaded, control is transferred to Program and the program gets executed. 4.When the Program execution is over Initiator invokes deallocation routines to release all the resources that are used.
5/2/2015 23 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION INITIATOR is responsible for the EXECUTION step of the Job Initiator Eligible Job classes 1A 2B,C,D,H,L,T 3B,C,D,H,L,T 4B,C 5B,C 6C
5/2/2015 24 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - EXECUTION JES selects a job for execution, based upon job CLASS and job selection PRTY ex. //PAY JOB PRTY=8,CLASS=A Allocation ( of data sets and devices necessary for execution ) is performed. If the program reads any ‘ SYSIN’ data, a copy will be read from Spool and presented to the program. If the program creates any ‘SYSOUT’ data, it will be ‘Spooled’, rather than sent directly to an output device.
5/2/2015 25 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - OUTPUT After the job has terminated, the output created is analysed and grouped according to SYSOUT class and output characteristics Entries are then created in the Job Output Table (JOT) to reflect these various groupings
5/2/2015 26 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - HARDCOPY During this phase, job output characteristics and the output is sent to the physical devices.
5/2/2015 27 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Stages of Job Processing - PURGE During Purge processing, all of the resources allocated to the job in earlier phases can be freed for re-use. These include : – Spool Space – Jobqueue space – JES job number
5/2/2015 30 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 QUESTIONS ??? JCL is used to write an application program ? Yes/No What are the different stages of JCL processing ?
5/2/2015 31 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JCL statements JOB Job identification EXECInstruction for execution DDSource of data to operate
5/2/2015 32 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 TYPE OF STATEMENTS JOB CONTROL STATEMENTS UTILITY CONTROL STATEMENTS
5/2/2015 33 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Basic Format of a JCL : JCL statements are coded in 80 byte records - –Only 72 of the 80 chars available to code JCL - last eight columns of each record reserved for an optional sequence number
5/2/2015 34 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Basic Format of a JCL : JCL FIELD NAMES 1. Identifier field 2. NAME field 3. OPERATION field 4. PARAMETER field – Positional – Keyword 5.COMMENT field
5/2/2015 35 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JCL STATEMENT FORMAT //P123 JOB 1234,AMLAN,CLASS=E JOBSTATEMENT Name Parameters Operation IdentifierComment
5/2/2015 36 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Basic Format of a JCL :... Identifier [Name] [Operation] [Parameters] [Comments] Identifier Two slashes ( // ) starting in col 1. –Exceptions - 1) For a delimiter statement, /* starting in col 1 2) For a comment statement, //* starting at col 1 Name One to eight alphanumeric, starting with a letter char. Starts from col 3. Valid chars A-Z,0-9 or national characters ( #, @, $ )
5/2/2015 37 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Basic Format of a JCL :... –Operation A valid operation code, such as JOB, EXEC or DD. Must be preceded and followed by a space. –Parameters One or more parameters depending on the operation. Individual parameters are separated from one another by commas, no intervening spaces. –Comments comments may follow parameters, preceded by one space and not extending beyond col 71
5/2/2015 38 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JCL parameters : –1) Positional parameters - Must occur at a specific position within the parameters field account for a missing parameter by a comma –2) Keyword parameters - UNIT=SYSDA ( no spaces ) –UNIT is a keyword parameter of value SYSDA Keyword parameters to come only after all positional parameters have been coded, order of keyword parameters immaterial
5/2/2015 39 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JCL subparameters : DCB=(DSORG=PO,LRECL=80, BLKSIZE=6160) DCB=(DSORG=PO) DCB=DSORG=PO DISP=(,DELETE) Comma place holders are required only for missing positional subparameters.
5/2/2015 40 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Continuing JCL statements:... Break the parameter field with the comma that follows a parameter or sub-parameter Slashes in column 1 & 2 of following line Next parameter or sub parameter starting anywhere between columns 4 - 16 //SYSUT2 DD DSNAME=...,DISP=..., // UNIT=SYSDA,VOL=SER=MPS800, // SPACE=(CYL,(10,5,2)), // DCB=DSORG=PO //SYSUT2 DD DSNAME=...,DISP=..., // UNIT=SYSDA,VOL=SER=MPS800, // SPACE=(CYL,(10,5,2)), // DCB=DSORG=PO ( X ) Avoid continuing comments from line to line.
5/2/2015 41 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Guidelines : JCL cryptic : –Code just one or two parameters per line –align the operation and parameters fields of each statement –begin job with a group of comment statements that document a job thoroughly Name, date of coding, what each job step does, any special processing requirements Don’t forget to update comments !
5/2/2015 42 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 JCL statements JOB Job identification EXECInstruction for execution DDSource of data to operate
5/2/2015 44 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS positional parameters ( a/c inf ),name ex. //INFOSYSA JOB (A123),AMLAN All these parameters are optional as far as JCL is concerned, they are probably required by your installation.
5/2/2015 45 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( CLASS ) ex. //INFOSYSA JOB CLASS=A CLASS specifies the job class that is the nature of the job. Installation will specify which of the 36 possible classes to use which is from A to Z and 0 to 9. Installation establishes a default class that is in effect if CLASS is omitted.
5/2/2015 46 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( MSGCLASS ) ex. //INFOSYSA JOB MSGCLASS=A MSGCLASS specifies the job scheduler message output class. Job scheduler messages include all messages not printed by the job steps being executed but the JCL messages and system messages Installation establishes a default class that is in effect if CLASS is omitted.
5/2/2015 47 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( MSGLEVEL ) ex. //INFOSYSA JOB MSGLEVEL=(1,1) MSGLEVEL(jcl,allocations) specifies the printing of JCL statements and allocation messages. ex. MSGLEVEL(0,1) will print only JOB statement, and all the allocation,JES,SMS and operator messages By default it is MSGLEVEL(1,1)
5/2/2015 48 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 keyword parameters ( MSGLEVEL ) MSGLEVEL=(X,Y) Where X is 0 thru 2, Y is 0 thru 1 X = 0, Lists Job statements only. X = 1, Lists all User JCL + All catalogued procedures. X = 2, Lists all User JCL but no catalogued procedures. Y = 0, No Initiator/terminator messages to be listed. Y = 1, All initiator/terminator messages to be listed.
5/2/2015 49 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( NOTIFY ) ex. //INFOSYSA JOB NOTIFY=INFOSYS NOTIFY notifies you at a time-sharing terminal when the job is completed.
5/2/2015 50 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 IMPORTANT JOB PARAMETERS keyword parameters ( TYPRUN ) ex. //INFOSYSA JOB TYPRUN=SCAN TYPRUN checks the JCL and holds the job in the input queue. TYPRUN = SCAN checks the JCL for syntax errors and suppresses execution of the job TYPRUN = HOLD holds the JCL in the input queue for later execution.It is held until the operator releases it. TYPRUN = JCLHOLD(JES2 only) similar to HOLD but the difference is it is checked while it is not with the HOLD option. TYPRUN = COPY(JES2 only) lists or duplicates the lines placed in the JOB statement to the class assigned in the MSGCLASS parameter and suppresses execution.
5/2/2015 51 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 SOME OTHER keyword JOB PARAMETERS PRTY=priority : is related to the CLASS parameter. It assigns priority to jobs which belong to the same class.priority numbers range from (0-14) or (0-15) depending on installations. TIME=(min,sec) : signifies how much time the JOB must take to run. RESTART=STEP3 :Forces the JOB execution to start from STEP3.
5/2/2015 52 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 SOME OTHER keyword JOB PARAMETERS REGION=96K :To override the default amount of workspace assigned for the job. COND=(4,LT) :Permits the execution of a steps to depend on the return code from the previous steps.Will be dealt in detail in Day2. ADDRSPC=REAL : It is used to specify whether the program is to use REAL or VIRTual ADDRess SPaCe. Default is Virtual. If Real is coded then the REGION parameter is also to be coded.
5/2/2015 53 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Errors JCL syntax errors. JOB will not be executed JCL allocation errors. JES2-subsequent steps will not get executed. JES3-detects errors in the beginning.
5/2/2015 54 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Abend Failures An ABEND failure occurs under the following conditions: A program while executing, attempts to perform an instruction or operation which the system recognizes as being impossible or unacceptable.
5/2/2015 55 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 Causes of Abend Failures Logic error JCL error Resource unavailability Exceeding limits (Time or Space on DASD) Hardware Malfunction User ABENDS Operator intervention Operating System failure
5/2/2015 56 ER/CORP/CRS/OS02/003-1 That’s all for DAY 1