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1 QUANTITATIVE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS MARK 2048 Instructor: Armand GervaisEmail:

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1 1 QUANTITATIVE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS MARK 2048 Instructor: Armand Gervais

2 2 1.Illustrate the process of preparing data for preliminary analysis. 2.Demonstrate the procedure for assuring data validation. 3.Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods. 4.Acquaint the user with data entry procedures. 5.Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry. 6.Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis. Learning Objectives

3 3 Exhibit 14.1 Illustrate the process of preparing data for preliminary analysis

4 4 Data Preparation– Data Preparation– process of converting information from a questionnaire so it can be transferred to a data warehouse process of converting information from a questionnaire so it can be transferred to a data warehouse 4-step Approach 4-step Approach Data validation Data validation Editing and coding of the data Editing and coding of the data Data entry Data entry Data tabulation Data tabulation Error Detection Error Detection Purpose of Data Preparation and Analysis Purpose of Data Preparation and Analysis Value of Preparing Data for Analysis Illustrate the process of preparing data for preliminary analysis

5 5 Data Validation– Data Validation– to determine if the survey’s interviews or observations were conducted correctly and free of interviewer fraud or bias to determine if the survey’s interviews or observations were conducted correctly and free of interviewer fraud or bias Curbstoning Curbstoning Data Validation Demonstrate the procedure for assuring data validation

6 6 Process of Validation Process of Validation Fraud Fraud Screening Screening Procedure Procedure Completeness Completeness Courtesy Courtesy Data Validation Demonstrate the procedure for assuring data validation

7 7 Editing Editing process where by the raw data are checked for mistakes made by either the interviewer or the respondent process where by the raw data are checked for mistakes made by either the interviewer or the respondent Areas of Concern Areas of Concern Asking the Proper Questions Asking the Proper Questions Accurate Recording of Answers Accurate Recording of Answers Correct Screening Questions Correct Screening Questions Responses to Open-Ended Questions Responses to Open-Ended Questions Data Editing and Coding Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

8 8 Exhibit 14.3 Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

9 9 Coding Coding grouping and assigning values to various responses from the survey instrument grouping and assigning values to various responses from the survey instrument Codes are numerical–a number from 0-9 Codes are numerical–a number from 0-9 Well planned and constructed questionnaires reduce time spent on coding Well planned and constructed questionnaires reduce time spent on coding Numeric codes should be designed into the questionnaire from the beginning Numeric codes should be designed into the questionnaire from the beginning Questionnaires that do not use coded responses–a master code must be established Questionnaires that do not use coded responses–a master code must be established The Coding Process Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

10 10 Exhibit 14.4 Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

11 11 Open-end questions–four-step process Open-end questions–four-step process Generate a master list of potential responses–assign values to the responses Generate a master list of potential responses–assign values to the responses Consolidate responses Consolidate responses Assign a numerical value as a code Assign a numerical value as a code Assign a coded value to each response Assign a coded value to each response Data Editing and Coding Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

12 12 Exhibit 14.5 Illustrate the process of editing and coding data obtained through survey methods

13 13 Data entry Data entry Four major ways for entering coded data Four major ways for entering coded data Most popular option–personal computer (PC) Most popular option–personal computer (PC) Touch screen Touch screen Light pen Light pen Scanners Scanners Primary purpose of data entry Primary purpose of data entry Data Entry Acquaint the user with data entry procedures

14 14 Exhibit 14.6 Acquaint the user with data entry procedures

15 15 First step in Error Detection– First step in Error Detection– to determine if the software used for data entry and tabulation–allows error edit routines to determine if the software used for data entry and tabulation–allows error edit routines To identify the wrong type of data To identify the wrong type of data To review a printed representation of the entered data To review a printed representation of the entered data To produce a data/column list procedure for the entered data To produce a data/column list procedure for the entered data To find the appropriate questionnaire and verify the proper response (code) To find the appropriate questionnaire and verify the proper response (code) Error Detection Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

16 16 Exhibit 14.7 Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

17 17 Exhibit 14.8 Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

18 18 Tabulation Tabulation Simple process of counting the number of observations that are classified into certain categories Simple process of counting the number of observations that are classified into certain categories Simple one-way tabulation Simple one-way tabulation Cross-tabulation Cross-tabulation Use and purpose of tabulation Use and purpose of tabulation Range from further validation of the accuracy of the data to the reporting of research results Range from further validation of the accuracy of the data to the reporting of research results Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

19 19 One-way Tabulations One-way Tabulations 1.To determine the degree of non-response to individual questions 2. To locate blunders of simple errors in the data entry 3. To calculate summary statistics on various questions 1. Means 2. Standard deviations 3. Related descriptive statistics 4. To communicate the results of the research project Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

20 20 One-way frequency table– One-way frequency table– the number of respondents who responded to each possible response to a questions given the available alternatives the number of respondents who responded to each possible response to a questions given the available alternatives One-way Frequency Table Identify One-way Frequency Table Identify Missing data Missing data Determining valid percentages Determining valid percentages Summary statistics Summary statistics Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

21 21 Exhibit 14.9 Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

22 22 Exhibit Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

23 23 Cross-tabulations Cross-tabulations to determine whether certain variables differ when compared among various subgroups of the total sample to determine whether certain variables differ when compared among various subgroups of the total sample Primary form of data analysis Primary form of data analysis Key elements Key elements How to develop the cross-tabulation How to develop the cross-tabulation How to interpret the outcome How to interpret the outcome Shows frequencies and percentages, with percentages existing for both rows and columns Shows frequencies and percentages, with percentages existing for both rows and columns Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

24 24 Exhibit Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

25 25 Issues to Be Considered Issues to Be Considered The judgment of the analyst–the selection of variable (question) to use when examining relationships The judgment of the analyst–the selection of variable (question) to use when examining relationships Demographic variables or lifestyle/psychographic characteristics– the starting point in developing cross-tabulations Demographic variables or lifestyle/psychographic characteristics– the starting point in developing cross-tabulations Technique is simple–often difficult to interpret Technique is simple–often difficult to interpret Keep research objectives in mind when constructing and using tables Keep research objectives in mind when constructing and using tables Spreadsheets help Spreadsheets help Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

26 26 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive Statistics to summarize and describe the data obtained from a sample of respondents to summarize and describe the data obtained from a sample of respondents Two Types of Measures Two Types of Measures Central tendency Central tendency Dispersion Dispersion Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

27 27 Exhibit Illustrate a process for detecting errors in data entry

28 28 Graphical Illustration Graphical Illustration translation of one-way frequency and cross- tabulation tables into graphs translation of one-way frequency and cross- tabulation tables into graphs Graphical illustrations Graphical illustrations a very powerful technique for communicating key research results generated from preliminary data analysis to the client a very powerful technique for communicating key research results generated from preliminary data analysis to the client Data Tabulation Discuss techniques used for data tabulation and data analysis

29 29 Value of Preparing Data for Analysis Value of Preparing Data for Analysis Data Validation Data Validation Data Editing and Coding Data Editing and Coding The Coding Process The Coding Process Data Entry Data Entry Error Detection Error Detection Data Tabulation Data Tabulation Summary

30 30 To Do’s Compete LAB 1 for beginning of next class 5% Compete LAB 1 for beginning of next class 5% Complete assigned readings Complete assigned readings Read Research Document Read Research Document


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