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International Panorama of Electromobility R&D Jean-Charles Jacquemin FUNDP (Namur) March 31st 2011 (Presentation version : March 30 2011)

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Presentation on theme: "International Panorama of Electromobility R&D Jean-Charles Jacquemin FUNDP (Namur) March 31st 2011 (Presentation version : March 30 2011)"— Presentation transcript:

1 International Panorama of Electromobility R&D Jean-Charles Jacquemin FUNDP (Namur) March 31st 2011 (Presentation version : March )

2 Presentation 1.What panorama ? Reminder 2.Panorama 1 : Main trends and synthetic results 3.Conclusions 4.Access to the knowledge base via I’net

3 1. What panorama ? Reminder : Global vision and « holistic » survey given interactions between: Techniques Managerial aspects Sociopolitical aspects Economic issues Difficulties : exponential growth of the number of relevant informations : this slideshow is a summary of summaries of …

4 Answer : Creation of a Content Management System (CMS) to structure a knowledge base. Access to this CMS via Internet for the Be.eV members (see 4. infra)

5 2. Panorama 1 : Main Trends Synthetic Results

6 Technology (1/68) Electricity storage

7 Trend 1 A confirmation of significative progresses in battery capacities (and a correlative decrease in their cost) (cf P0) but also a growing interest for hybridization with supercapacitors to get bacitors, the best of both worlds

8 Trend 2 New technologies (3D nanostructures, solid state, printing, …) to increase the energy density, the charge/discharge efficiency, …

9 Technology (3/68) Electricity storage : Batteries (1/8) : From Tesla CEO Elon Musk : “Batteries Aren’t The Future” Progress in specific energy 1.The specific energy of EVs batteries increases : Targets to be verified in several prototypes (Saab epower, Mazda Axela, …, etaxis, …) include a projected driving range of 200 kilometers through the use of high density energy storage in lithium-ion battery cells. As an example Envia Systems (link) states that “By putting more energy in each battery, the number of batteries required decreases – by 50% in Envia’s case, dramatically reducing the overall cost of the application..“(link)

10 Technology (4/68) Electricity storage : Batteries (2/8) : Significative Progress in (dis)charging time of batteries 2.The use of 3D nano structures to give capacitor-like power with battery- like energy. "Braun, a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, states : "Most capacitors store very little energy. They can release it very fast, but they can't hold much. Most batteries store a reasonably large amount of energy, but they can't provide or receive energy rapidly. This does both." Braun's group wraps a thin film into three-dimensional structure, achieving both high active volume (high capacity) and large current. (link)(link) They have demonstrated battery electrodes that can charge or discharge in a few seconds, 10 to 100 times faster than equivalent bulk electrodes, yet can perform normally in existing devices.

11 Trend 3 Propositions and business moves to decrease the cost of batteries : Second life market and Large scale stationary electricity storage.

12 Technology (5/68) Electricity storage : Batteries (3/8) : Markets for the Second life of batteries 3. Second life of batteries : ENERDEL partners with ITOCHU for a second smart grid project in apartment building in Tokoyama, with the intent to develop a secondary market to lower battery costs for automotive buyers (p.34 in link)(p.34 in link) This development of a secondary market is considered as very important to decrease the TOC of Evs. (See also recycling) As well as :

13 Electricity storage : Batteries (4/8) : Stationary storage to decrease the costs and increase efficiency 4. The addition of a robust stationary energy storage market offers the opportunity to drive down the unit cost for mobile energy storage. This is a trend that encompasses two different market areas (automotive and electrical power) that could be mutually beneficial. (link) (link) Several scientific congresses have concluded that specific policies should focus on this trend and encourage large scale stationary storage to decrease (trough economies of scale) the battery costs while allowing a better management of renewable electricity sources. (link)(link) Technology (6/68)

14 Trend 4 Prototypical metal-air batteries close to the energy density that petroleum products currently provide.

15 Electricity storage : Batteries (5/8) : Metal-air better than fossil fuels ? 5. An ever increasing interest on metal-air batteries : The look forward came at the 10X Advanced Battery R& D Conference held in Santa Clara, California, January 10 – 12. The Metal-Air batteries offer some phenomenal energy densities (hence the 10X conference title) that could significantly increase the range and bring down the cost of on-board energy storage for future electric vehicles. An example was presented of a 100kg battery pack that could provide enough energy for a 700km range. Mobile applications of Metal-air batteries are very attractive as they come close to the energy density that petroleum products currently provide. (link) (to compare to the DBM data with a LMP battery). (link) Technology (7/68)

16 Trend 5 Practical progresses in battery recycling but a political question about the rent distribution between the manufacturer, the consumer and the recycler.

17 Electricity storage : Batteries (6/8) : Recycling : the closed loop and the rent distribution problem 6. A new value chain and a rent distribution problem Through their partnership Tesla and Umicore (se also new partnerships) intend to "take the lead in developing a closed loop battery recycling system" As stated by Tesla : “Umicore’s factory plants are able to recycle our batteries into completely reusable materials and substantially reduce the carbon footprint of manufacturing Lithium-ion batteries. The Umicore battery recycling technology is able to save at least 70 percent on CO2 emissions at the recovery and refining of these valuable metals. (…). This is not only an attractive process for Tesla from an environmental aspect, but it also provides a high margin of return.” (link)(link) So, who has paid for the new battery ? Is he paid for the true value of its used battery ? Technology (8/68)

18 Trend 6 Research on batteries is federating in the US and EU with precise progress objectives.

19 Technology (9/68) Electricity storage : Batteries (7/8) : Research (1/2) In the US : Fundamental research on batteries is now on track as an example the Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) Program is the premier fundamental research program in the U.S. for developing high- performance. It proceeds by quarterly reports of progress towards milestones themselves based on the USABC goals. LBNL to Chair 4th Symposium on Energy Storage: Beyond Li Ion at PNNL June 7-9, 2011 (link)(link)

20 Technology (10/68) Electricity storage : Batteries (8/8) : Research (2/2) and in the EU : The creation in Europe of a battery research consortium under the project SOMABAT. Numerous partners, among them Umicore and University of Liège, will investigate ways to produce working prototype lithium polymer batteries with the primary goals set to decrease environmental impact, increase stability and enhance performance. The 36 month project, is aspiring to produce a battery with an energy density of up to 220 Wh/kg and a final cost less than $208/kWh (€150/kWh), incorporating recyclable solid components. The European Commission is supplying $5.1 million (€3.7 million) of the total $7 million (€5.04 million) project cost. (link)link

21 Technology (11/68) Electricity storage : Fuel Cells : New tests 1. Mercedes has announced that its B-class F-Cell will be driven around the world to promote hydrogen fuel cell powered cars. (link)(link) 2. Fuel-cell etrucks are tested in California. (link). As well as transit buses like the Proterra bus (infra).(link)

22 Technology (12/68) Electricity storage : Other devices : Carbide derived carbon(1/3) 1. "Skeleton Technologies, an energy-storage start-up based in Tartu, Estonia, has been awarded a US patent on its nanoporous carbon powder supercapacitor material. : (link1)link1 Today, the energy density and maximum power of Skeleton Technologies' ultracapacitors reach 13 Wh/L and 70 kW/L respectively: roughly a 50% higher energy density and 4× higher power density. The technology permits to deliver the same performance as competition, but at a lower price and in a smaller, more compact form-factor. Today, the price of quality carbon is USD 20/kg; the target price for a superior performance carbide-derived carbon is USD 10/kg. The supercapacitors have passed initial tests by industry experts and major corporations and Skeleton Technologies plans to enter production for the market by 2013."

23 Technology (13/68) Electricity storage : Other devices : Bacitors (supercabatteries), etc. (2/3) 2. Taiyo Yuden in Japan and others have recently announced lithium bacitors with improved properties. (link) :link Combining the strength of lithium-ion secondary batteries with conventional Electric Double Layer Capacitors (EDLC)s, this next-generation energy device offers an energy density 4 to 10 times greater than EDLCs. Taiyo Yuden's Hybrid LIC (Cylindrical Lithium Ion Capacitor) boasts the key features of batteries (high voltage and high energy) while maintaining the traditional characteristics of capacitors (rapid charge/discharge, high durability, safety and environmental friendliness).

24 Technology (14/68) Electricity storage : Other devices : Solid-state. (3/3) Planar Energy is one such company who has produced a solid state battery to rival traditional li-ions. This advanced solid-state battery technology has three times the energy density of current li-ion batteries, costing less than half the price per kilowatt-hour. The researchers have confirmed that (...) the inorganic, solid state materials used by Planar create a stable, longer-lasting unit than convential Li-Ion batteries. The company says that Streaming Protocol for Electroless Electrochemical Deposition (SPEED) is "a low-cost, high-speed, roll-to-roll deposition process, which is significantly more flexible and scalable than existing deposition methods". (...). This process will enable manufacturers to reduce costs by more than 50 percent whilst increasing capacity by percent. Applying this to the automotive industry allows for a decrease in cost and increase in the practicality of EVs. (...) " (link1)link1

25 Technology (15/68) Recharging : Standards (1/2) 1. A British report, dated June 2010, on the Current Situation and Future Direction of Electric Vehicle Charger Standards by the SMMT (Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Ltd) concludes (p.16 in file, link), concludes :filelink - The SAE J1772 vehicle inlet and vehicle connector are rapidly becoming the accepted charging connector for the US and are likely to become mandated by Californian legislation in the near future. - SAE J1772 compliant vehicle inlets and vehicle connectors are already available from at least one supplier, with other suppliers due to begin production by the end of Whilst the SAE J1772 vehicle inlet and vehicle connector provide an excellent solution for the US market, where three phase electrical supply is not commonly available and where it is common practice for the charge cable to form part of the charging point, they do not provide an ideal solution for Europe.

26 Technology (16/68) Recharging : Standards (2/ Recharging : Standards (2/2) - The IEC Type 2 vehicle inlet, vehicle connector, outlet socket and plug appears to offer a better solution for the European market, permitting single or three phase charging at up to 70A. - IEC Type 2 vehicle inlets, vehicle connectors, outlet sockets and plugs are already available from at least one supplier, with other suppliers due to begin production by the end of The European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) favour the IEC Type 2 connector. - The main obstacle to the adoption of the IEC Type 2 connector as the standard European charge connector is that some European countries have national building codes/regulations on electrical installation which require electrical contacts to be "shuttered" and the IEC Type 2 connector specification does not include "shutters". - The IEC Type 3 vehicle inlet, vehicle connector, outlet socket and plug may provide a solution as they have the necessary "shutters" and permit single or three phase charging at up to 32A."

27 Technology (17/68) Recharging : Prospective 2. A study presented by the Energy Harvesting Journal (link) states :link About $2.3 billion will be spent on plug in charging stations at ex factory prices in However, in contrast to the market for the vehicles, the market for their charging stations is greatly dominated by car versions. The non-car charging station business will peak in numbers in 2019 and value in There are several reasons. - Innovation is slower with cars - Batteries with longer range reduce the need for charging stations Global demand for charging stations using contacts to the vehicle will quintuple in the next decade to reach over $20 billion including installation. East Asia takes 40% of the EV charging station market by value in However other devices of energy harvesting are gaining efficiency like energy harvesting shock absorbers.

28 Trend 7 A recurrent question : how to avoid public overexpenditure in public charging stations, as private agents should take the initiative. However PPP are recommended to start the process.

29 Technology (18/68) Recharging : Prospective : Are public charging points necessary ? 3. The assessment of the MINI-E leasing experiment by BMW gives somes insights on the charging behavior of the leasees (link) :link " In its 14 month Mini-E test lease program, involving two groups of 40 drivers, two-thirds of participants only ever charged their two-seat all-electric mini at home. (...) While most of the participants in the trail had begun their short lease believing that public charge points were absolutely essential to the future success of electric cars most discovered that the 100 mile range per charge offered by the Mini-E was more than enough for daily use. The participants did acknowledge however, that some of their electric car charging behavior was formed by a lack of public charging infrastructure. (…) A lack of charging outside of the home didn’t cause Mini-E leasees to leave their cars at home though: drivers reported that despite having severe range anxiety at the start of the trail they soon discovered the Mini-E could provide enough charge for all but the most demanding of trips."

30 Trend 8 The offer of sophisticated services with charging points for EV drivers, charge point owners, grid managers, … and a preoccupation to integrate all the different systems in the cloud charging of EVs.

31 Technology (19/68) Recharging : by wire : Vehicle to grid communications : Car manufacturers partner to standardize the interfaces 1. Mercedes-Benz is spearheading advanced new technology that allows electric cars to talk directly with the national grid to enable cheaper and more efficient charging of EVs. This technology is also using a smartphone or iPad app, to inform the grid when the vehicle will be used next. Mercedes is now leading a research group that includes representatives from all major German and French manufacturers, Detroit’s Big Three and Toyota to make this vehicle to grid communications interface standard on all future EVs from these companies. (link)(link)

32 Technology (20/68) Recharging : by wire : where ? 2. An IBV (IBM Institute for Business Value) study shows that : "Home charging is considered important to the success of EVs. "It is crucially important that we build an infrastructure that can charge vehicles where their owners park them for extended periods of time – whether that is at home or at work, school, or the store." Where to put those charging stations? "When deciding where to put charging stations, retail hubs like malls and shopping centers are good locations. "t's easy to envision charging stations in these commercial locations coupled with an advertising and promotion-based business model for local stores – which will help make the economics more feasible." Partnering with large employers in target regions to create charging infrastructure in the workplace also makes sense, Gyimesi added." (link)(link)

33 Technology (21/68) Recharging : by wire : new services 3. Sophisticated services are seen as a must with the charging stations, an example with the Leviton director of business development (link). (link) Leviton enlisted Charge Point Network Support Services, a product of Coulomb Technologies of California. Needs : - to find charging stations easily - to reserve charging time at a station via computer or smartphone - to use Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) cards to access the power station, which is locked until the charging provider allows access - or to dial an 800 number that is printed on the charging station to order a charging session CPNSS offers a lots of other valuables services using the capabilities of the cellular organization and of RFID chips.

34 Technology (22/68) Recharging : by wire : centralized management and charging services 4. Bosch proposes an integrated e-mobility solution using ICT between the EV driver and its chargers to offer a great flexibility of choice for the driver and other actors. (link) Siemens does the same (link)(link)(link) The German Walther corporation presents its offer of charging solutions (file). Walther also offers a centralized payment system capable of ensuring its own control for 3 to 20 prepaid recharge points. This new solution will be presented by Walther at the show EVER, from 31 March to 3 April in Monaco." (link) filelink

35 Trend 9-1 Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified : charge, …

36 Technology (23/68) Recharging : by wire : Charge anxiety 5. Charge anxiety may lead to impatience about the availabilty of fast chargers. Some have already hacked their Leaf EVSE level 1 to charge faster in a Level 2 mode 240V 32 A. (link)(link)

37 Technology (24/68) Recharging : by wire : first CHADEMO certification in Europe 6. The Dutch Epyon is the first manufacturer to receive the CHADEMO certification in Europe for its new multi-port EV fast chargers (link)(link)

38 Trend 10 A growing interest for induction charging to ease the life of EV owners with a significative progresses both in charging efficiency and in induction for moving vehicles.

39 Technology (25/68) Recharging wireless : induction charging 1."Liberty Electric Cars works by engineering electric propulsion into existing vehicle platforms, replacing the internal combustion engine with electrical power via four on-board motors (one per wheel). The new technology can also allow for wireless charging where the car is simply parked over an induction plate and charges automatically without the need for plugs or power leads." (link)link 2. "Rolls-Royce has revealed its all-electric 102EX Phantom – and if it makes production, the firm’s demanding customers will be able to juice it up wirelessly. Clever induction charging technology means drivers will simply have to park their limo over a special pad. This revives the 71kWh battery pack with no need for cables. A full charge will take eight hours, and give a range of 124 miles." (link)link

40 Technology (26/68) Recharging wireless : induction charging 3."Google latest project was announced Monday March 21 st and Google says it has installed a wireless electric car charger, developed by a company called Evatran, to charge up plug-in cars on its Mountain View, Calif. campus. Currently the prototypes are getting just under 80 percent efficiency says Evatran, but the company says it will only bring a product to market with 90 percent efficiency.(...). Evatran also told last year that the Plugless Power devices would cost around $3,800 and would go on sale April 2011." (link)link 4. Some forecasts : "In a few years down the road, the plug-free electric vehicle charging industry could become substantial and wireless charging is already starting to become more mainstream for gadgets. Global shipments of gadgets capable of proximity charging are estimated to jump nearly 70 times by 2014 from the 3.5 million units expected to sell this year, according to research firm iSuppli.." (link)link

41 Technology (27/68) Recharging wireless : induction charging for a moving EV 5. Bombardier Introduces PrimoveCity E-Mobility System (link)link PrimoveCity utilizes the PRIMOVE technology capable of providing power transfer for all electric vehicles. Using inductive energy transfer, PRIMOVE equipment mounted under the vehicle generates power from cables creating a magnetic field placed under the ground's surface. The system only energizes when it is fully covered by the vehicle. Vehicle and wayside components are designed to meet all applicable safety standards. Reliable performance is ensured, even under adverse weather and ground conditions such as snow, rain, ice, sand or water. Bombardier will present its groundbreaking PrimoveCity program at the UITP th World Congress and Mobility & City Transport Exhibition taking place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, next April,

42 Trend 11 Battery swapping for cars and trucks is more than an idea.

43 Technology (28/68) Wireless recharging : Battery swapping (1/3) 1. By implementing BES (battery exchange stations) the accommodation of renewables in the charging mix is considerably easier than by using FCS (fast charge stations).(link)(link) 2. Battery swapping and exchange seems to be added as an option with the purchase of an EV in order to amortize the cost of the batery over time and reduce the risk of the technological obsolescence of the battery.. (link)(link) 3. Renault limits battery swapping to Danemark and Israël for the time being. (link) Prices schemes "all inclusive" are known for the Danish buyers of the Fluence ZE, depending of the yearly anticipated distance driven.(link) 4. Betterplace inaugurate the first of the 40 BSS that will be installed in Insraël this year. 9 are already completed. (link)(link)

44 Inaugurating first Israël BSS on March

45 Technology (29/68) Wireless recharging : Battery swapping (2/3) 5. An EU Cordis project of 2.4 millions € called EASYBAT (link) has been awarded to a consortium of partners : among them Betterplace Israël, Renault, Continental, two German Universities, etc. " to address these integration challenges by defining new concepts for the smart insertion of batteries and by developing in particular generic interfaces for electric vehicles. integration system will be developed for fully electric vehicles. (…) EASYBAT will develop (i) generic interfaces to improve interoperability between the battery system modules and the vehicle on board-systems and (ii) new components for an easy & safe location and quick integration of the battery in the vehicle. (iii) At each stage of the project, the EASYBAT partners will assess the feasibility of the overall battery swapping concept considering costs, logistics, and environmental aspects. Based on these parameters, the EASYBAT system performance will be compared to alternative solutions for EVs."link The project has a duration of 30 months starting on Jan 1st 2011 until June

46 Technology (30/68) Wireless recharging : Battery swapping (3/3) 6. Tesla has designed its second electric car, the Model S, to have a battery that can be quickly taken out and swapped with a new one, with the idea that if battery swapping becomes common for electric car drivers one day, the Model S will be prepared, explained Tesla CTO JB Straubel at a tour of Tesla’s Model S Alpha Build room. Making the battery swappable also makes it easier to install on the manufacturing line, he added. (link)link

47 Technology (31/68) Electricity production by the vehicle : External energy harvesting Piezoelectric energy harvesting roads generate power when strained in a particular way. The devices are small but over a large area can amount to significant power generation. In Italy and Israel trials are underway with piezoelectric energy harvesting roads - the vibrations due to vehicle motion are turned into electricity. In a trial by the Israeli government, 2,000 watt hours of electricity were generated on a 10 meter stretch of highway. However, these technologies would be best placed where a vehicle is slowing down, otherwise the systems can lower the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Approaches to crossings, ramps and parking lots would be ideal locations. (…) Energy harvesters such as those described above meet unmet needs. For example, powering signage or lighting on roads or in pedestrian areas can be done by harvesting energy from the traffic or footfall near it - no expensive infrastructure is needed. (link)link

48 Trend 12 : types of vehicles A multiplicity of actors, products, research agendas, opportunities, partnerships, policies. A lot of world premières during those three last months and first experiences with real customers. (cf P0)

49 Technology (32/68) Types of vehicles : necessity of an EU regulation "The Commission awarded a project to TRL to review the type-approval legislation for electric vehicles and the potential safety risks. The specific objectives of the project were: 1. To provide recommendations on the completion of EC (and also UNECE) type-approval requirements for electric vehicles; 2. To assess potential risks associated with electric propulsion that are not covered by legislation, including EC and UNECE regulations; 3. To provide recommendations on appropriate legislative action if potential risks are identified. The project focused on M and N category vehicles, from mild hybrids to purely- electric vehicles. " (file)(file)

50 Technology (33/68) Type of vehicles : 2 wheels Prices are down (link)(link)

51 Technology (34/68) Type of vehicles : 3 wheelers : do you need adrenaline ? Nils Ferber EX electric drill-powered trike (link).(link

52 Technology (35/68) Type of vehicles : Light 4 wheelers : The prices, types and delivery date of the Renault Twizy are known. (link)link Twizy will be sold from € 6,990 including VAT * (excluding tax incentives) Rent for the battery : € 45 including VAT * / month (36 months, 7500 km per year).

53 Technology (36/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (1/5) A. The expected pure electric range is increasing, While 100 miles (160 kms) was a common norm in recent years, several new vehicles are presented with an expected range of 200 kms and more. (examples : Saab epower, Mazda Axela, Liberty Electric E-Range (retrofit of a Range Rover), VW Bulli (300km) … ) (link)

54 Technology (37/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (2/5) B. BMW creates a new "i" sub-brand for its electric vehicles, the i3 formerly called Megacity has been spied in tests and a more precise concept should be revealed at the Frankfurt motor show in September. Made largely from carbon fiber for lightness and strength, the i3 is expected to get a four-seat layout with a 134-horsepower electric motor driving the rear axle. A range-extended version could also be available after initial launch." (link)link

55 Technology (38/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (3/5) B. World premieres : The iMiEV is on sale in UK since January 2011 (link) as well as in France (file with specifications) as well as the Nissan Leaf.(link)(file with specifications)

56 Technology (39/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (4/5) C. The practicability of ecars is a continuous preoccupation, some « unexpected » newcomers, the Kangoo combi and VW Bulli (link).(link)

57 Technology (40/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (5/6) D. Production announcements : some examples (1/2) Ford has announced a range of EVs for BEV to HEVs to available between end 2011 to Volvo presents its V60 Diesel PHEV (available 2012). Toyota announces an IQ electric retrofit.

58 Technology (41/68) Type of vehicles : electric cars (6/6) D. Production announcements : some examples (2/2) Tata has started to assemble a batch of 1,500 Indica Vista EV supermini models in Coventry UK on March 25. The Vista EV is a 4 seater capable of covering 120 miles on a full charge with a potential top speed of 71 mph. It can also manage 0-60 kph in less than 10 seconds. The Coventry plant is essentially a location for assembly procedures – part- built vehicles arrive from India and then the batteries, transmission and interior parts are added. The vehicles will go on sale to the general public at the beginning of (link)link.

59 Technology (42/68) Type of vehicles : e-taxis 1. ZAP in joint-venture with Jonway has presented its E-taxi (link) already distributed in South Korea.(link

60 Technology (43/68) Type of vehicles : e-taxis (2/3) 2. Eco City Vehicles PLC (ECV), developer and distributor of eco-friendly commercial vehicles in Europe, has announced the launch of an all-electric prototype of its London-licensed Mercedes Vito taxi).Eco City Vehicles PLC (ECV)

61 Technology (44/68) Type of vehicles : e-taxis (3/3) 3. In January 2011, Mitsubish has announced that an electric taxi based on the i-MiEV pure electric car would be available commercially in the second half of 2011 for a low cost of around $24,450. Toshiba is to supply lithium ion batteries.. (link)link

62 Technology (45/68) Type of vehicles : all terrain and/or 4x4 (1/2) With the entry of Avenport Investment in its capital, whose investment policy is geared towards young SMEs with high potential, Electric Car is acquiring a new partner to support its growth and development of its VOLTEIS first 4X4 electric available on the market since February (link) (link)

63 Technology (46/68) Type of vehicles : all terrain and/or 4x4 (2/2) Liberty electric cars retrofits Range Rovers. (link) And on the Volvo V60 PHEV pushing the AWD button in the centre stack activates electric four- wheel drive. Instead of the mechanical power transmission of the conventional AWD system, the central control unit manages torque distribution to the diesel-driven front wheels and the electrically powered rear axle. (link) (link)

64 Trend 13 : A significative accent on practicability and security of electric cars, vans, taxis,...

65 Technology (47/68) Type of vehicles : e-vans (1/2) 1.Ford announces the Ford Transit Connect full electric in collaboration with Azure Dynamics to be available in For the specs, see file and the test drive. (link) and Renault offers two versions of the Kangoo (ZE et Maxi ZE).filelink

66 Technology (48/68) Type of vehicles : e-vans (2/2) 2.Think proposes two types of e-vans : The first, the THINK City N1 type approved for European van homologation, carries goods up to a maximum 237 kilograms and 700-litres in volume, and offers significant tax advantages in many markets. The THINK Compact van follows later this year. With an increased capacity of 900-litres and designed as part of a large tender for fleet sales to the French Government’s UGAP program. (link) 3. Mitsubishi Motors Corp and Yamato Transport Co Ltd will start a field test of an electric pickup and delivery vehicle prototyped by Mitsubishi Motors. (…) The electric vehicle (EV) to be tested is based on Mitsubishi Motors' "Minicab Van" gasoline-driven commercial light van. The company used the motor and the lithium-ion rechargeable battery of its "i-MiEV" EV for the prototyped EV. Mitsubishi Motors aims at an early commercialization of the commercial electric light van. (link)

67 Technology (49/68) Type of vehicles : e-vans (3/3) 4.Goupil presents the coooling version of its electric van. Offering up to 70 km range, this version of the G3 cooling van proves to be a good alternative to refrigerated heavy vehicles for urban deliveries. Its compact size, 1.1 m wide, and its 3 m turning radius allow it to slip easily into the narrow streets. It primarily targets professionals in urban logistics delivery (for individuals, meal trays, communities...). Goupil G3 refrigeration is sold from € 27,900 excl.taxes... (link)link

68 Technology (50/68) Type of vehicles : light trucks 1.In France, the Renault Maxity Electric truck will soon be available in leasing this year. Renault Trucks has partnered with its subsidiary Clovis rental to offer contracts with a duration of 48 months rental full service (maintenance - tires - insurance - replacement vehicles....). Aimed at downtowns, the electric version of Maxity offers a payload up to 1.5 tons and may be driven with a simple license B. The Maxity reaches a 70 km/h maximum speed and its lithium-ion batteries loaded in 8 hours allow a 100 km range. (link) (link)

69 Technology (51/68) Type of vehicles : e-bus (1/4) 1. AEV develops a E-Shuttle Bus With Range Of 83 Miles. Early reports indicate that the 21-foot E-Shuttle will run on an 88.5 kWh lithium iron phosphate battery pack which will give the vehicle a range of about 133 km (84 miles) without the use of air conditioning, a top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph) and consumption of 665 Wh/km. Note AEV is also working on a solution for the exchange of battery packs to be unveiled in late (link) (link)

70 Technology (52/68) Type of vehicles : e-bus (2/4) 2. The French company SOCIÉTÉ GRUAU MICROBUS is a partnership between the Groupe Bolloré and Groupe Gruau (link) has developed an electric urban bus using LMP batteries and supercapacitors (link)(link) 3. The first electric bus in service in France was officially inaugurated on the network CoulBus Coulommiers (77) The electric bus is a Oreos 4X, developed by PVI based in Seine-et-Marne. It is equipped with a 170 kwh lithium-ion battery. allowing an approximate range of 120 km (at 70km/h) and can accommodate 47 passengers. " (link)(link)

71 Technology (53/68) Type of vehicles : e-bus (3/4) 4.Proterra Inc., a Greenville, S.C. company is producing battery-powered, fast- charging transit buses. The buses are fueled by Altairnano's lithium-titanate battery systems and fuel cell that continouous recharge the batteries. (...) Altairnano's fast-charge capability is what makes the Proterra bus such an innovative green solution. The bus can run a 2 ½ hour bus route after a single 5- to 10-minute rapid charge, and the batteries have an expected lifespan of 12 to 15 years in any climate. These batteries are the only commercial technology that can currently provide these capabilities. (link)(link)

72 Technology (54/68) Type of vehicles : e-bus (4/4) 5. This idea has some success (link) : a mega-sized U-shaped ultracapacitor could provide a low cost low tech decade of pollution-free transit services with a double decker bus.link

73 Technology (55/68) In California, combinations of Fuel Cells and batteries are used to power Class 8 heavy trucks and tractors in order to provide clean operations : Vision Motor Corporation will deliver the zero- emission hydrogen fuel-cell hybrid-electric powered big-rig and terminal tractor, which they produced. Each truck has battery packs that are continually recharged by on-board hydrogen fuel-cells. The vehicles will undergo real-world testing for the full 18 months, encountering typical circumstances that any comparative diesel-fuelled vehicle would. (link)(link) Type of vehicles : Heavy and special vehicles

74 Technology (56/68) E-Vehicle conception : Global engineering (1/3) 1. A Mc Kinsey study confirms that “. Driving missions—much more than the size of vehicles—determine energy storage requirements." (link) and that should motivate car manufacturer to better know their customer needs.(link) This confirms the engineering choice made by Mia (formerly Heuliez Friendly ). The Mia comes with a standard 8 kWh battery pack but more packs may be added to increase the range. (link) (link)

75 Technology (57/68) E-Vehicle conception : Global engineering (2/3) 2. Volvo and Opel both present new driving mode choices for their PHEV or EREV's the V60 diesel PHEV and the Opel Ampera EREV. To be mentionned : the possibility to choose a « pure » electric mode along with several other possibilites. (link)

76 Technology (58/68) E-Vehicle conception : Global engineering (3/3) 3. Your electric car can go six miles further on its battery if you use LED headlights. (link)(link) "Jonathan Dunlap, the automotive lighting engineer and product marketing manager with OSRAM SYLVANIA, says that LED (light emitting diode) lighting can have a significant impact on an electric vehicle's range. Over only that last 2-3 years, the efficiency of LEDs has increased to the point where LEDs use less than 25% the energy of halogen bulbs (and this will only get better in the coming years). So, how much extra range can an EV get by using today's LED headlights? According to Dunlap: An efficient LED headlamp system can extend vehicle range by nearly six miles (9.5 km). LEDs have additional benefits such as extremely long life (50,000 hours is not uncommon) and vibration tolerance, meaning they can last the life of the car. The main hurdle at this point is getting upfront costs down." (link)(link)

77 Technology (59/68) E-Vehicle conception : new materials New materials are developed to increase the efficiency of EVs. (link)(link) The move towards adoption of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) is expected to soon gain momentum as a solution for significantly reducing the automobile body weight. This weight-saving initiative by Toray and Daimler would partially offset any increase in weight caused by additional safety and comfort features or new technologies used in alternative drive systems. Furthermore CFRP parts contribute to an increased stiffness of the vehicle body, thereby further increasing the crash integrity of the passenger cell as well as the comfort. (link)(link)

78 Technology (60/68) E-Vehicle conception : Motors 1. Toyota moves away rare earths for its motors (link)) by attempting to replace its magnet-type motor by a lighter and more efficient induction motor. This move has been prepared by by the government-backed New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and Hokkaido University. (link)(link) 2.Note that "as a pioneer in the development of electric drive systems, AC Propulsion (...) has been making EV motors (i.e. for the Mini E, the Tesla roadster) without using rare earth metals for nearly 20 years. (link)(link) 3. Yaskawa has developped a motor with good performance for slow and stop and go driving. (link)(link) 4. The Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has announced its plans to implement by 2012 energy efficiency standards for electric motors. (link)(link)

79 Trend 14 : The renewed interest in retrofitting.

80 Technology (61/68) E-Vehicle conception : Retrofitting (1/3) 1. Japan Post "is currently electrifying 25% of a 22,000 vehicle fleet with the intention of converting 100% of the fleet to pure EVs By retrofitting the vehicle with the ENERDEL/THINK drivetrain, the postal service is able to retain its existing vehicle fleet" (link).(link)

81 Technology (62/68) E-Vehicle conception : Retrofitting (2/3) 2. "The Japanese automotive supplier Yasukawa Electronics (...) has started marketing the YMEV, an electrified drive train that can be fitted into conventional cars for turning them into EVs. The internal permanent magnet (IPM) motor and the control systems of the YMEV make it particularly efficient in low speeds with frequent stop-and-go, such as in parcel delivery. Zero Sports, a company very active in the conversion of cars in Japan, is using the YMEV for the 1,000 units strong EV fleet the Japan Post has ordered in " (link)(link)

82 Technology (63/68) E-Vehicle conception : Retrofitting (3/3) 3.Numerous actors work in the retrofit sector. Interested people may consult

83 Trend 15 : The integration of IC technologies in EVs to provide useful services inside and with the vehicle.

84 Technology (64/68) E-Vehicle conception : Interactivities (1/2) 1.The charging network must be offered with ICT service to facilitate the life of EV drivers AND charging point owners. An example is given in the Leviton director of business development interview. (link)(link) 2.A common language in the cloud charging of EVs is necessary in order to allow EV drivers inscribed at one network, will also be able to charge at stations provided and serviced by another one. It might come at a higher charging rate, but technical access will be possible. (link)(link)

85 Trend 9-2 Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified : charge, signal, …

86 Technology (65/68) E-Vehicle conception : Interactivities (2/2) A new source of anxiety ? And a talent quest war. 3. Ford has just announced that it has chosen telecoms giant AT&T to provide wireless connectivity to its new range of electric and plug-in cars, enabling drivers of its 2012 Ford Focus electric car to remotely interact with their car via an Internet portal or their smart phone. This will enable users to check on their car’s state of charge, pre-air condition the car and even schedule charging. In addition, the car’s permanent Internet connection means drivers get real-time traffic information, eventually integrating with charging networks to show which charging points are available near the car or its destination. " (link)link But will range anxiety be accompanied by signal anxiety, the quality of telecomunications being far from excellent everywhere ? Moreover a talent quest for tech talents recently made Detroit the fasted growing area for such diplomas competing with Silicon Valley (link)link

87 Technology (66/68) E-Vehicle conception : Security (1/3) 1.Given the side pole impact test that caused the 2011 Mitsubishi i-Miev so much grief in the NCAP Euro tests earlier this month (feb; 2011) (link) :(link)

88 Technology (67/68) E-Vehicle conception : Security (2/3) Volvo decided to put its electric C30 in this same situation which is one of the most severe of all crash tests. (link), as well as Gordon Murray with the smaller T.27 :(link)

89 Technology (68/68) E-Vehicle conception : Security (3/3) 3. The European Commission, DG Enterprise and Industry commissioned a report from TRL to review the type-approval legislation for electric vehicles and the potential safety risks. The specific objectives of the project were: 1. To provide recommendations on the completion of EC (and also UNECE) type-approval requirements for electric vehicles; 2. To assess potential risks associated with electric propulsion that are not covered by legislation, including EC and UNECE regulations; 3. To provide recommendations on appropriate legislative action if potential risks are identified. (file and link)(file and link)

90 Economic Challenges (1/6) A conclusion : R. Minsk’s MIT symposium « Transportation electrification offers the most promising pathway to a more secure energy future, but there should be no mistaking the magnitude of this undertaking. The existing oil infrastructure spans the globe, was created over the course of a century, and is worth trillions of dollars. Replacing it with an alternate infrastructure that delivers similar functionality will take decades, which should not be surprising given that new cars routinely last for fifteen years and new power plants are built to operate for fifty years or more. Without committing to electrify at least parts of our transportation system, the burdens of oil dependence on our economy and our national security are only likely to grow.” (file)(file)

91 Trend 16 : A political will and business moves to avoid a dependency to Energy Critical Elements.

92 Economic Challenges (2/6) Macroeconomic strategies : China monopoly on rare earths exports (> 90% of world exports) used in the EV industry poses a strategic problem of natural resources dependency since China has decided to reduce its export quota of rare earths. See this topic under (Socio-politicals aspects > Strategic views > Public views infra)

93 Economic Challenges (3/6) Financial risks and opportunities for consumers : the rent distribution problem of « used » batteries « Enabling consumers to capture the residual value of automotive battery purchases could significantly offset the higher upfront cost of purchasing a grid-enabled vehicle. As the first generation of GEV batteries enters the secondary use market, a value will surely be derived. If nothing else, the recycling of battery raw materials alone will generate a notional return on investment for consumers. More likely, battery values will be well in excess of the recycling value given their potential use in the electric power sector. In the meantime, however, markets are likely to undervalue lithium-ion batteries due to their inability to assess the risk of an unknown technology. Therefore, governments should authorize programs to guarantee residual value for large format automotive batteries. Compared to the uncertainty of battery research and development, establishing a minimum residual value would effectively buy down the cost of batteries immediately. » (adapted from link)

94 Trend 17 : is it a trend or a recurrent fate ? Not better market penetration forecasts for EVs. However the observation that fleet begin their electrification (even by retrofitting) given the relatives advantages provided by their electrification

95 Economic Challenges (4/6) Market penetration : forecasts (most interesting) (1/3) 1. After the range, charge and signal anxiety, the delivery anxiety appeared in the Nissan Laef customer minds due to long delays and more recently to the earhquake in Japan. (link)(link) 2. According to a recent study by McKinsey, the electric drive vehicles (100% electric and hybrid) could dominate the global automotive market in 2030 through the gradual evolution of standards for CO2 emissions. (link) The firm relies on different assumptions on the evolution of legislation to carry out various market analysis.(link)

96 Economic Challenges (5/6) Market penetration : forecasts (most interesting) (2/3) Moderate reduction - 95 g / km CO2 by 2050 In this case, the ICE vehicle maintains its supremacy heat until about 2035 before giving way to hybrid vehicles. The plug-in hybrid could emerge in the 2040s while the electric car would have a moderate with only 10% market share in The fuel cell vehicles could never develop for lack of available infrastructure... Strong reduction - 40 g / km CO2 by 2050 Probably the most likely hypothesis. In this case, the ICE vehicle will be predominant until After that date, electric cars and plug-in hybrids take rapidly a large market share at the expense of conventional vehicles. The fuel cell would be favored on large vehicles for longer trips... Strict reduction - 10 g / km CO2 by 2050 Here, the thermal vehicle loses its grip in 2025 to provide market share in the electric-powered vehicles. In the long term, the technology becomes dominant pure electric for short trips and the fuel cell for longer distances. Hybrid cars and plug-in hybrid technology serve only temporary and quickly yield place to the two previously mentioned technology.

97 Economic Challenges (6/6) Market penetration : forecasts (most interesting) (3/3) 1. A summary of US EV penetration forecasts. (link)(link)

98 Management Issues (1/14) Marketing : Leasing 1. Swapping and leasing batteries seems to be a new business model allowing buyers of EVs to amortize over time the cost and the technological obsolescence risk of batteries. "In the future, proposes Charles Gassenheimer, chairman and CEO of battery manufacturer Ener1, electric-vehicle battery leasing should be added to the options. “We can come up with a creative lease finance model that more appropriately allocates [the cost of] battery use,” he said. Currently, the battery represents up to 45 percent of the cost of an electric vehicle. Getting that cost down will be crucial to widespread consumer acceptance of plug-in vehicles, according to virtually all reports. (...) Gassenheimer suggested that consumers could buy a service agreement under which they pay $100 to $150 a month to use the battery. Every three to five years, the battery could be swapped out. It wouldn’t go to that great battery farm in the sky, however. It could still be used for storage. (link) (link)

99 Management Issues (2/14) Marketing : EV car rental The Hertz Corporation announced last year (Dec ) that New York will be the first city to receive electric vehicles (EV) as part company's Hertz Global EV initiative. "Daily rental firm Hertz has also signed a two-year 500-unit electric vehicle supply deal with Renault. The four Renault EVs launched in the next 18 months – the Kangoo van, lower medium Fluence, Supermini Zoe and Twizy scooter/city car – are all included in the deal. Hertz said there will be an allocation for corporates as they’re seen as early adopters, although couldn’t say how many cars would be devoted here. “Our partnership with Hertz will allow the public to experience our innovative driving technology first-hand, as well as developing their understanding of the environmental benefits of our Renault ZE Range,” said Uwe Hochgeschurtz, senior VP of Renault’s corporate sales division." (link1) For the original press release, see link2.link1link2

100 Management Issues (3/14) Mobility Services : EV car sharing 1. Nice (see Panorama 0) opens its first car sharing station (link) and video :linkvideo

101 Management Issues (4/14) Mobility Services : Electricity for EVs Markets One-Stop integrated solutions for EVs and certification of renewable energy sources The partnership of the Renault-Nissan Alliance and The Mobility House (Austria) intends to :“ give our EV customers in Austria and Switzerland a competitive one-stop solution at our dealerships for all their e- mobility needs, including domestic charging, installation by a certified technician, and electricity. The Mobility House will provide seamless access to energy and energy-related services to all Renault and Nissan EV customers anywhere anytime,” said Thomas Raffeiner, Founder and CEO of The Mobility House. In Austria, TMH will also provide customers with certification that the electricity from their charging unit is derived from renewable energy sources, making them eligible for electricity subsidies in that market. (link) (From the press release)(link)press release

102 Trend 18 : Numerous new partnerships between energy producers, car manufacturers, telecommunication operators, research teams, …. (Cf P0)

103 Management Issues (5/14) New partnerships (1/4) 1.Mercedes is now leading a research group that includes representatives from all major German and French manufacturers, Detroit’s Big Three and Toyota to make their vehicle to grid communications interface standard on all future EVs from these companies. See also Technology > Recharging > Recharging by wire > Panorama 1 (link)(link) 2.Bolloré and Gruau have partenered to conceive and produce the microbus Gruau electicty using LMP batteries and supercapacitors. (link) See also Technology > Type of vehicles > ebus > Panorama1 (link)(link) 3.Daimler (Mercedes) and Torray have partenered to mass produce CFRP auto parts to be used in all Mercedes models starting in 2012 by using a new production method called Short Cycle Resin Transfer Molding (SCRTM).(link) See also Technology > EV conception >Materials> Panorama 1 (link)(link) 4.A new research consortium has been founded around the MIT, called the MIT Energy Initiative (MITei). Its numerous members are big energy corporations togheter with electronic firms, electricity distribution societies, academic institutions, etc. (link).(link)

104 Management Issues (6/14) New partnerships (2/4) 5.ZAP and Jonway have partenered in a JV owned for 51% by ZAP : “Jonway Automobile’s revenues from selling its gasoline vehicles will help build the foundation for ZAP Jonway’s growth in the electric vehicle market, allowing ZAP to focus on further strengthening its EV technology, reinforced by Jonway’s manufacturing production expertise and ready market access to China,” said Dr. Priscilla Lu, founder and general partner of Cathaya Capital, a Cross Border Fund focused on China. (link)(link) 6.The Saab ePower is the first electric vehicle from Saab and is a result of a private public partnership between Saab Automobile, Boston Power (batteries), Electroengine in Sweden AB (battery management system), Innovatum (project management), Power Circle (Sweden’s electric power industry trade organization) and the Swedish Energy Agency (partial financing). (link)(link) 7.ENERDEL has developed numerous partnerships to develop its activities (p.34 in link)

105 Management Issues (7/14) New partnerships (3/4) 8. EDTA, Electric Drive Transportation Association, is "the preeminent US industry association dedicated to the promotion of electric drive as the best means to achieve the highly efficient and clean use of secure energy in the transportation sector." (link) It groups the main US carmakers, energy companies, batteries and battery components manufacturers, component suppliers, infrastructure developers, industry trade associations, defense contractors, governemental agencies and other interest associations.(link) 9.After a similar experience I North America, Tesla launches a battery recycling program throughout Europe through a partnership with Umicore. It intents to do the same in Asia. (link)(link) 10.BMW Peugeot Citroën Electrification is the name of the new BMW PSA partnership. "BMW Peugeot Citroen Electrification will focus on the development and manufacture of components for hybrid vehicles (battery packs, electrical machinery, generators, power electronics, chargers), as well as the software for the operation of hybrid systems. (link)(link)

106 Management Issues (8/14) New partnerships (4/4) 11.A group of large Japanese compnies, heavy-weights in EV technologies, including NEC, Nissan, NTT Docomo, JX Nikko Nisseki Energy Group, and Nihon Unisys, announced their intentions to work together in the “Smart Network Project” in developing communication standards for both networked home appliances and electric vehicles. (...) Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) communication is therefore an important area of research in Japan. (link)(link) 12.In January 2007, Volvo Cars and Vattenfall launched an industrial partnership whose aim was to test and develop plug-in technology. This cross-border initiative resulted in the foundation of a jointly owned company - V2 Plug- in-Hybrid Vehicle Partnership. The V60 Plug-in Hybrid, which will be launched on the market in 2012, is the result of this close cooperation. (link).link 13.The EASYBAT consortium (link) has been awarded a grant of 2.4 millions € to better study battery swapping, See Technology review › Recharging › Wireless recharging › Battery Swapping › Panorama 1linkPanorama 1 14.Renault and Hertz partner for an Ev rental initiative. See : Management issues › Marketing strategies › Rental › PanoramaPanorama

107 Trend 19 : New opportunities for business : 1. Innovative and integrated charging stations 2. "To close the loop" with battery recycling 3. Subscription of mobility services 4. Integrated EV solutions for the mobility plans of the travelers 5. Retroffiting of vehicles 6. More work for electricians

108 Management Issues (9/14) New Opportunities for Business (1/6) 1.Innovative and integrated charging stations The ECOtality’s Blink smart charging station is an innovative charging station that will be able to communicate with Cisco’s Home Energy Controller. Part of the growing Smart Grid phenomenon, the Cisco Home Energy Controller (HEC) allows consumers to monitor and control their home energy use. By integrating the Blink charging stations with Cisco’s HEC, electric car owners will be able to view and control their electric car charging from anywhere and ensure that their vehicle is charged at times when there is low demand on the electricity grid, reducing cost and carbon emissions. (link)link

109 Management Issues (10/14) New Opportunities for Business (2/6) 2."To close the loop" with battery recycling To "close the loop" with battery recycling is seen by a new business opportunity, see for instance (link1) the partnership between Tesla and Kinsbursky Brothers, Inc., an environmental management company that specializes in the management and recycling of waste materials specifically noted for battery recycling, as well as the one with Umicore. For the Tesla announcement, see (link2), but the appropriation of the rent of this opportunity is a subject of debate. (link)(link1)(link2)link 3.Subscription of mobility services "Better Place opened today (March 3, 2011) together with its partner Renault, Europe’s first Better Place center. Visitors will now be able to experience sustainable mobility and will have the opportunity to place an order for a Renault Fluence Z.E. with the Renault staff and sign up with the Better Place team for a subscription of mobility services – conveniently packaged for consumers, fleet managers and the public sector. (link)link

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111 Management Issues (11/14) New Opportunities for Business (3/6) 4.Intregrated EV solutions for the mobility plans of the travelers Wattmobile is a French operator developing intregrated solutions for its customers for their mobility plans, by promoting EV travel means. (link1)link1 From the Wattmobile website :

112 Management Issues (12/14) New Opportunities for Business (5/6) 5.Retroffing of vehicles Balqon Corporation, a California-based developer and manufacturer of zero-emissions heavy-duty electric vehicles, lithium battery energy storage products and electric drive systems, has received an order from Winston Global Energy, headquartered in Shenzhen China, for 300 electric drive systems at a purchase price of around $53,000 per unit. Winston Global Energy will integrate Balqon's electric drive systems into a fleet of buses ranging in size from 15 to 40 passenger capacity and market them to local private and government fleet operators in China.. (link)link

113 Management Issues (13/14) New Opportunities for Business (6/6) 6.More work for electricians "Roughly 100 electricians turned out, some having traveled from as far away as New Jersey to attend for Tuesday’s seminar. The presentation featured electric car chargers from Leviton, a Melville-based manufacturer of electrical wiring devices. (...) “There are a greater number of charging units that will be placed in the home initially, because that’s the first place you’re going to want to charge your car,” said Mr. Mattei, Leviton’s vice president and general manager, who owns a Chevy Volt.. “But, the opportunity on the dollar side – if you can envision going to do a commercial install – the product is more expensive and it requires more labor, so the dollars are higher. It’s a great mix, electricians can promote this to both commercial and residential customers.” (link)link Nancy Gioia, director Ford electrification program, using a Levition Station to charge a Focus Plug-in

114 Management Issues (14/14) New Risks for Business : The Energy Critical Elements (ECE) question Japanese companies especially Toyota and Misubishi have suffered from a disrupted supply of rare earths caused by the reduction of the Chinese export quota of those rare earths. They moved quickly to ensure both alternative supplies and a technology moves to avoid using the rare earth in motors and other components. (See infra Socio-political aspects > Strategic views > Public views > Panorama 1 (link)) ”(link)

115 Trend 20 : I nteresting moves in the EU policy about EVs : EASYBAT (more efficient battery swapping), SOMABAT (more affordable and efficient batteries), the transport roadmap, … and several new voluntary national plans.

116 Trend 21 : More and more academic reports and scientific congresses about “Integrated Solutions for the Transportation Electrification”

117 Sociopolitical Aspects (1/13) Strategic views : General : EU (1/2) 1. The EC has published its rolling plan for "A EUROPEAN STRATEGY FOR CLEAN AND ENERGY EFFICIENT VEHICLES " In particular : The European standardization bodies established a Joint Focus Group whose task is to consider European requirements relating to electric vehicle standardization and related issues, and assess ways to address them. This Group will not develop standards itself but will issue a Report assessing European needs and seeking to ensure that international standards meet these needs, and hopes to deliver its Report by 31 March 2011 (today) (file1) (file1) And 2., it has published its " ROAD MAP ON TRANSPORT " (28 March 2011) : The EU executive considers ways to increase alternative means of transport, other than oil-fuelled cars. (…) A massive shift toward electric cars and clean vehicles is also a key objective. In order to do so, the Commission aims at achieving “co2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030”. Promoting “joint public procurement for low emission vehicles in commercial fleets”, such as delivery vans or taxis, is also under consideration. (link)(link)

118 Sociopolitical Aspects (2/13) Strategic views : General : EU (2/2) The role of the European Investment Bank The EIB has completed the first phase of devising an appropriate lending policy for the electric vehicles infrastructure sector. The relevant stakeholders, their overall situation and objectives have been analysed in detail. Contacts have been established with a number of both public and private-sector promoters. 1 (link)(link) The EBI finances the development of Bolloré LMP batteries for an amount of 130 millions € completed by a 50 millions € by the French government (EIB press release (link1) ) (link2).(link1)(link2) However : “The Lisbon Strategy was just hot air.. And Strategy 2020 is no better. What we have to fear is less to China than our organized weakness.” (P. Defraigne - Le Soir)

119 Sociopolitical Aspects (3/13) Strategic views : General : the Energy Critical Elements (ECE) Reactions to the December crisis and long term views

120 Sociopolitical Aspects (4/13) Strategic views : General : the Energy Critical Elements (ECE) Reactions to the crisis (1/2) : 1. Diversion from Chinese exports As an example of breaking China's monopoly, is now a major focus of EV industry outside China. For example, Japanese trading house Toyota Tsusho and other firms recently reached a strategic deal with India and other countries to secure rare earths. (link)(link) 2. Recourse to alternatives Electric component vehicle makers are gradually designing out rare earths. For example, the latest lithium batteries are replacing NiMH, which are best for high-energy density, pure Evs. (link) AC Propulsions notes its builds induction electric motors for EVs since more than 20 years without using any rare earths. (link) Japanese car markers abandon permanent magnet motors for induction motors.(link)

121 Sociopolitical Aspects (5/13) Strategic views : General : the Energy Critical Elements (ECE) Reactions to the crisis (2/2) : 3. Creation of national strategic reserves and development of strategic policies In Japan and USA, draft of bills where prepared to prepare the development of domestic rare earth materials programs to address short-term scarcities and ensure long-term supply. The House of Representatives U.S. even passed a bill to authorize it. ( H.R. 6160, the Rare Earths and Critical Materials Revitalization Act of 2010) (link) (link)

122 Sociopolitical Aspects (6/13) Strategic views : National plans 1. USA : Obama’s State of the Union Speech (25 Jan. 2011) : (...) ‘With more research and incentives, we can break our dependence on oil with biofuels…’ (...) ‘…and become the first country to have 1 million electric vehicles on the road by We need to get behind this innovation’. (...) (link)(link) And VP J. Bidden’s statement (26 Jan. 2011) : ‘… through: 1.Generous new consumer rebates making electric vehicles more affordable and accessible for American consumers. 2.Advancing innovative vehicle and battery technologies through increased R&D. 3.Rewarding communities for leadership in reducing regulatory barriers and developing comprehensive electric vehicle-friendly infrastructure. ’ (link) (link)

123 Sociopolitical Aspects (7/13) Strategic views : National plans 2. Denmark : "The Commission has approved an aid of approximately €2 million (DKK 15 million) for a pilot scheme which will support projects aimed at testing and test running electric vehicles under realistic conditions, with the aim to identify the main obstacles related to their use." (file)file 3. Estonia : (link)(link) "The Government has approved the sale of 10 million AAUs to Mitsubishi Corporation. The proceeds will be invested into establishment of a country- wide charging infrastructure for electric vehicles. In addition, around 500 electric cars will be provided to the use of social workers and a grant scheme will be launched to support the purchase of electric cars by private individuals. (…) The charging infrastructure will be installed over and will cover all major cities, main highways and important transport links. " 4. Israël : (link1) (link2).link1link2 Israël will complete its infrastructure of 40 BSS and several thousands charging points for the end of the year.

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125 Sociopolitical Aspects (8/13) Policy Proposals : A Feb Report of an Expert Panel on A Practical Plan for Progress of Plug-in Electric Vehicles held in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs at Indiana University led to the next 8 policy recommendations (pp. 7-9 in file) :file 1.Technology-Neutral Policies. 2.Support to Electromobily ecosystems andNational Demonstration of PEVs, 3.Global Leadership Position in Technology, 4.International Collaboration. 5.Cost-Effective Consumer Incentive Programs. a.Government and commercial fleet purchases ; b.PEV access to HOV lanes and parking in congested urban areas ; c.Battery warranty adjustments or guarantees ; and d.Targeted public information programs to dispel myths and reduce confusion.

126 Sociopolitical Aspects (9/13) Policy Proposals : policy recommendations (pp. 7-9 in file) ctn’d :file 6.Support for Recharging Infrastructure. (Note : Excessive spending on community stations may result in severely underutilized infrastructure, which can damage public support for PEVs.) 7.Modernizing the Electric Power System : 1.Accelerate “smart grid” research, standards, and implementation ; 2.Expand the availability of lower electricity prices during off-peak periods ; 3.Increase the availability of metering, recharging, and vehicle technologies that will enable these time-of-use adjustments to electricity prices ; and 4.Encourage or require enhanced efficiency and the movement toward a cleaner power generation system. 8.Long-Term R&D Commitments. into innovative battery chemistries, prototyping, and manufacturing processes.

127 Trend 9-3 Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified : charge, signal, delivery, …

128 Sociopolitical Aspects (10/13) Consumer awareness and concerns : Remember : over the range anxiety, appear the delivery and signal anxieties. And they should also be educated to precondition their HEV, BEV or PHEV to siginificantly save range : (link)(link)

129 Sociopolitical Aspects (11/13) A study conducted by IBM's Institute for Business Value division has found that nearly one-fifth of potential car buyers are either "likely" or "very likely" to consider purchasing an electric vehicle (EV) when the time comes to replace their current ride. Furthermore, the study claims that forty percent of consumers would be willing to pay up to a 20 percent premium to purchase a battery-powered vehicle. (...)This is similar to a Nielson poll last fall that found that 17 percent of people would be willing to pay up to $5,000 premium to go electric. (link)(link) Consumer awareness and concerns : 20% of drivers "likely" to consider buying an electric vehicle next time out : (link)(link)

130 Sociopolitical Aspects (12/13) Electrification progresses (1/2) 1. Fleet become electric a.‘While the trucks cost 50 percent more than diesel-powered rivals, Smith Chief Executive Officer Bryan Hansel says buyers will make up for that premium with lower fuel costs and a better image. Office supply retailer Staples says the benefits are clear. The company has 41 Newtons—about 3 percent of its total delivery fleet—in California, Missouri, and Ohio. Staples is considering an order for more this fall as leases expire on 140 diesels. The company says the Newtons have helped it cut fuel use by 4 percent in the past three months.’ (link) (link)

131 Sociopolitical Aspects (13/13) Electrification progresses (2/2) b.Post fleet, as taxi fleet, are a prime target for electrification, after the French initiative : b)Japan Post has decided to electrify 100% of its fleet by retrofitting (See : Technology > EV Conception > Retrofitting ) c)20 Ford Transit Connect power will equip Posten, the Norway Post. (link) (link)

132 3. Panorama 1 : Conclusions 1.Global trends : 1.A confirmation of significative progresses in battery capacities (and a correlative decrease in their cost) (cf P0) but also a growing interest for hybridization with supercapacitors to get bacitors, the best of both worlds 2.Not better market penetration forecasts for EVs with the observation that fleet begin their electrification (even by retrofitting) given the relatives advantages provided by their electrification. 3.New technologies (3D nanostructures, solid state, printing, …) to increase the energy density, the charge/discharge efficiency, … 4.Propositions and business moves to decrease the cost of batteries : Second life market and Large scale stationary electricity storage. 5.Prototypical metal-air batteries close to the energy density that petroleum products currently provide.

133 Conclusions (2/5) 6.Practical progresses in battery recycling but a political question about the rent distribution between the manufacturer, the consumer and the recycler. 7.Research on batteries is federating in the US and EU with precise progress objectives. 8.A recurrent question : how to avoid public overexpenditure in public charging stations, as private agents should take the initiative. However PPP are recommended to start the process. 9.The offer of sophisticated services with charging points for EV drivers, charge point owners, grid managers, … and a preoccupation to integrate all the different systems in the cloud charging of EVs. 10.Lot of so-called anxieties so far identified : charge, signal, range, technological, delivery, …

134 Conclusions (3/5) 11.A growing interest for induction charging to ease the life of EV owners with a significative progresses both in charging efficiency and in induction for moving vehicles. 12.Battery swapping for cars and trucks is more than an idea. 13.A multiplicity of actors, products, research agendas, opportunities, partnerships, policies. (cf P0) 14.A lot of world premières during those three last months and first experiences with real customers. (cf P0) 15.A significative accent on practicability and security of electric cars, vans, taxis, The renewed interest in retrofitting. 17.The integration of IC technologies in EVs to provide useful services inside and with the vehicle. 18.A political will and business moves to avoid a dependency to Energy Critical Elements.

135 Conclusions (4/5) 19.Not better market penetration forecasts for EVs. However the observation that fleet begin their electrification (even by retrofitting) given the relatives advantages provided by their electrification. 20.Numerous new partnerships between energy producers, car manufacturers, telecommunication operators, research teams, …. 21. New opportunities for business. 22.Interesting moves in the EU policy about EVs : EASYBAT (more efficient battery swapping), SOMABAT (more affordable and efficient batteries), the transport roadmap, … and several new voluntary national plans. 23.More and more academic reports and scientific congresses on Integrated Electrification Plans.

136 Conclusions (5/5) 2.Too much information, even more difficult to prioritize and to sort than in January, to be presented in such a short time. 3.So the need for a more powerful means of information : the beevinternational.be CMS on internet for the members of Be.eV.

137 4. The Be.eV CMS :

138 If you are interested to get an access : 1.Please fill in the form in your folder and give it back at the desk before leaving. (A valid adress is needed). 2.Or send your request to with your first and last names and a valid In both cases, you will receive a confirmation that you should validate in the next 48 hours.

139 Ultimate conclusion : Take care, besides the false spying case of Renault, arson is also a weapon used in the world of electromobilty :

140 Thanks for your attention


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