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DEVELOPMENT OF PROSENCEPHALON. PROSENCEPHALON (FOREBRAIN)  Telencephalon: Rostral part of forebrain Cerebral Hemispheres  Diencephalon: Caudal & median.

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Presentation on theme: "DEVELOPMENT OF PROSENCEPHALON. PROSENCEPHALON (FOREBRAIN)  Telencephalon: Rostral part of forebrain Cerebral Hemispheres  Diencephalon: Caudal & median."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEVELOPMENT OF PROSENCEPHALON

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3 PROSENCEPHALON (FOREBRAIN)  Telencephalon: Rostral part of forebrain Cerebral Hemispheres  Diencephalon: Caudal & median part optic cup & stalk Hypophysis/Pituitary Thalmus Hypothalmus Epiphysis

4 DIENCEPHALON Roof plate Alar plates = 2 Absent floor & basal plates

5 ROOF PLATE & EPIPHYSIS Roof plate 1.Choroid plexus of 3 rd ventricle 2.Most caudal part of roof plate develops into epiphysis/ pineal body

6 Pineal body Appears as epithelial thickening in the midline, but by 7 th week it begins to evaginate Eventually it becomes a solid organ on the roof of mesencephalon Function: Respond to light and darkness & affect the endocrine and behavioral rhythms In adults calcium is frequently deposited in the epiphysis and then serve as land marks on radiographs of skull.

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8 ALAR PLATES Forms lateral wall of diencephalon A groove hypothalamic sulcus divides it into: 1.Thalamus 2.Hypothalamus

9 THALAMUS Thalamus gradually projects into the lumen of diencephalon due to proliferation of cells Frequently the expansion is so great that two thalami fuse in mid line forming massa Intermedia or Interthalamic connexus

10 HYPOTHALMUS Forms the lower portions of alar plate Differentiate into number of nuclear masses that regulate visceral functions Mammillary body forms a distinct protuberance on the ventral surface of hypothalamus on each side of midline

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12 Hypophysis/Pituitary Gland- Ectodermal Develops from two sources: 1.An ectodermal outpocketing of the stomodeum---- Rathke’s pouch 2.Downward extension of diencephalon---- the infundibulum

13 Cont… At 3 weeks Rathke’s pouch appear as evagination that grows dorsally towards infundibulum. By the end of 2 nd month it loses its connection with the oral cavity Comes to lie in close contact with infundibulum

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15 Cont… Cells in the anterior wall rapidly proliferate and form the ---- anterior lobe/ adenohypophsis. A small extension of the lobe is pars tuberalis that surrounds the infundibulum The posterior wall of pouch forms the --- pars Intermedia Infundibulum give rise to stalk & pars nervosa----posterior lobe/Neurohypophysis

16 Hypophysis/Pituitary Gland- Ectodermal

17 HYPOPHYSEAL DEFECTS CRANIOPHARYNGIOMAS Remnant of Rathke’s pouch

18 Cerebral Hemispheres Arise by 5 th week as bilateral evaginations of lateral wall of forebrain Interventricular foramen

19 CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES Middle of 2 nd month the basal part/floor of hemispheres begins to grow & bulges into lumen of lateral ventricle & into floor of foramen of Monro In T.S this rapidly growing region has striated appearance therefore called Corpus striatum C.H become C-shaped Choroid plexus develop in the region where wall of hemisphere is attached to roof of diencephalon

20 CORPUS STRIATUM As the cerebral cortex differentiates the axons passing to & from the cortex (Internal capsule) break the nuclear masses into: dorsomedial portion caudate nucleus ventrolateral portion the lentiform nucleus Medial wall of C.H fuse with lateral wall of diencephalon

21 CHOROID FISSURE The Lateral ventricle become C- shaped due to growth & curvature of C.H The caudal end of each C.H turns ventrally & then rostrally, forming the temporal lobe & in so doing it carries the ventricle (forming temporal horn) & Choroid fissure with it.

22 CHOROID PLEXUS Choroid plexus protrude in the lateral ventricle along the choroid fissure The thin medial wall of the C.H is invaginated along the choroid fissure by vascular pia matter to form choroid plexus of temporal horn

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24 Growth of cerebral hemispheres C.H grow in anterior, posterior & inferior directions resulting in formation of frontal, occipital & temporal lobes. As growth in the region of corpus striatum slows the region b/w frontal & temporal lobes depressed & is called insula This region is later overgrown by other lobes Which completely covers it at birth.

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26 COMMISSURES Anterior commissure- 1 st to appear Hippocamphal commissure Corpus callosum- 10 th week Habenular commissure Posterior commissure Optic chiasma

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30 Congenital anomalies

31 Cranium Bifidum

32 Holoprosecrphaly

33 Schizencephaly

34 Anencephaly

35 Hydrocephalus

36 Arnold Chiari Malformation

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