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Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Tracheophyta Jaime Crosby, CHS

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1 Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Tracheophyta Jaime Crosby, CHS
Kingdom Plantae Phylum Bryophyta Phylum Tracheophyta Jaime Crosby, CHS

2 The first plants were water plants (algae)
Adaptations necessary for life on land The ability to acquire water The ability to conserve water The ability to transport water The ability to reproduce without water

3 The first land plants… Fossils didn’t tell us much as they had soft bodies, so they didn’t preserve well 500 to 600 mya Phylum Bryophyta: Mosses, liverworts and hornworts Phylum Tracheophyta: Ferns and higher plants

4 Difficult Adaptations to land
Requirements for life on land: All cells need a constant supply of water, especially those exposed to dry air like stems All plants must prevent water from escaping once it is obtained Food making parts must have a support system that exposes them to the sunlight

5 Plants must be able to transport water up and food down the stem
Exchange water and CO2 without dessication Reproduction in an environment that lacks standing water for the sperm to swim, and to prevent embryo from drying out

6 Have bryophytes adapted?
PARTIALLY! They live on land, but still need to remain moist. Tracheophytes continued to evolve

7 Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts
Exhibit alternation of generations between haploid gametophyte and diploid sporophyte stages Gametophyte: dominant in mosses—the stage we SEE Sporophyte: dependant diploid phase

8 Grow in swamps, near streams in rainforests and in other moist areas
Perform photosynthesis (green) Only grow a few cm tall because they don’t have xylem and phloem! Non-vascular

9 Structure of Bryophytes
Rhizoids (not roots!) branch into the ground to anchor plants Mature gametophyte stage makes small umbrellas which release eggs and sperm

10 Liverworts: flat green leaves
Hornworts: flat green leaves with a sporophyte generation that looks like a tiny french horn

11 Differences from other, more advanced plants—this is what limits Bryophytes
Lack vascular tissue Water passes from cell to cell by osmosis…thus mosses are short Lack cuticle Lose water very quickly Lack true roots Inefficient absorption and transport of water Rhizoids anchor but do not absorb Have sperm cells with flagella that have to swim to fertilize eggs

12 For these reasons, bryophytes must live in areas that are wet for at least part of the year. They can live in dry areas, but cannot grow while they are dry.

13 Alternation of Generations in mosses
Life Cycle: KNOW THIS! Gametophyte stage Antheridium-male reproductive structure; produces sperm cells Archaegonium-female reproductive structure;produces egg cells Both are designed to avoid dessication

14 Alternation of Generations
Sporophyte stage A diploid capsule that emerges above moss plant (foot + stalk + capsule) Inside, haploid spores are produced Capsule opens, spores carried away Spore lands in wet area, grows into PROTENEMA, which grows rhizoids and becomes the moss

15 Summary of Life Cycle Haploid gametophyte is dominant, obvious stage
Diploid sporophyte is DEPENDENT, because it requires energy from the gametophyte to occur Some mosses are hermaphrodites, self or cross-fert. Water must be present for sperm to swim and syngamy to occur

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