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Order Hymenoptera Ants, Bees, Wasps, Parasitic Wasps and Sawflies.

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Presentation on theme: "Order Hymenoptera Ants, Bees, Wasps, Parasitic Wasps and Sawflies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Order Hymenoptera Ants, Bees, Wasps, Parasitic Wasps and Sawflies

2 Order Hymenoptera The order contains bees, wasps, ants, parasitic wasps and sawflies This order contains some of the most beneficial insects to humans Many are plant pollinators Many more are predators and parasites to insect pests Many Hymenoptera are pests as well They cover a large range of habitats

3 Order Hymenoptera Many insects in the order are flying insects They have four flight wings Many are also flightless Hymenoptera have both chewing mouthparts and mouthparts suited to lapping up liquid foods

4 Order Hymenoptera Some Hymenopterans cause damage to plants by cutting leaves for nesting materials Many lay eggs into leaves or stems causing gall structures There are very few controls for this type of damage

5 Order Hymenoptera Most have fairly long antenna Some have an ovipositor that has been developed into a sting In some cases the sting is defensive In some cases it is offensive – used for hunting Only females possess stings

6 Order Hymenoptera Hymenopterans undergo complete metamorphosis Larvae tend to be grub-like or maggot-like Sawfly larvae resemble Lepidoptera larvae – except…. They have more than 5 pair of prolegs without crochets Larvae may pupate or form in a cocoon in parasitic species

7 Order Hymenoptera Wasps, bees and ants exhibit “eusocial” behavior Definition – eusocial behavior is a condition of group living in which there is cooperation among members in rearing young, reproductive division of labor, and overlapping generations

8 Order Hymenoptera Sex of hymenopterans is controlled by fertilization of the egg Fertilized eggs become female Unfertilized eggs become male

9 Bees and Wasps Top row (left to right): bumble bee (Bombus sonorus), carpenter bee (Xylocopa californica arizonica). Bottom row (left to right): paper wasp (Polistes fuscatus aurifer), German yellowjacket (Vespula germanica), European honey bee (mix of several Apis mellifera subspecies), Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata from Tucson, Arizona).

10 Family Apidae Honey Bees

11 Family Apidae The Honey Bee This family is of extreme economic importance Honey and beeswax production is well in excess of $500 million dollars annually Their pollinating activities are worth 200 times that amount

12 Apis mellifera L. Honey Bee Introduced species from Europe Most colonies inhabit man-made hives Colonies are perennial The queen and workers overwinter in the hive The sex is largely controlled by fertilization of the egg Food given to the larvae ultimately determines the bee’s sex

13 Apis mellifera L.

14 Bees & Honeycomb

15 Subfamily Xylocopinae Carpenter Bees

16 Subfamily Xylocopinae Large Carpenter Bees Family Anthophoridae To 25 mm and resemble bumble bees These excavate nesting galleries in wood

17 Xylocopa californica arizonica

18

19 Nest Gallery

20 Family Vespidae Paper Wasps, Yellow Jackets and Hornets

21 Family Vespidae This is a large group of Hymenopterans in North America Represented by about 325 species These tend to be common and well-known Most are black with yellow or whitish markings, some brownish Some are eusocial with three castes in the nest – queen, workers and males Queens and workers possess a powerful sting

22 Family Vespidae Nests of the social varieties are made from a papery substance Wood, dried stems and foliage and paper are chewed and regurgitated to form the paper nests

23 Family Vespidae The queen overwinters to start new colonies in spring Larvae are fed on insects and other animals

24 Subfamily Polistinae Paper Wasps

25 Subfamily Polistinae Paper Wasps Usually reddish or brown with and marked with yellow Primitively eusocial Colonies are started by a single female or a small group of females The nest is a comb of several cells made of paper and suspended by a single stalk

26 Subfamily Polistinae The larvae live in the open cells The cells are closed when the larvae pupate The nest gains in size as new larvae are produced all season The most common species in North America is Polistes

27 Polistes species

28

29 Subfamily Vespinae Yellow Jackets & Hornets

30 Subfamily Vespinae 18 species in North America Eusocial and nests consist of one to several tiers of hexagonal papery cells Most nest in the ground Many nest in branches, under porches and in other protected locations Many are predaceous Many are opportunists

31 Vespula species

32 Yellow Jacket Nest

33 Superfamily Ichneumonoidae Parasitic Wasps Family Braconidae & Family Ichneumonidae

34 Family Braconidae Braconid wasps More than 1,900 species occur in North America These are beneficial parasitic wasps Both ectoparasitic and endoparasitic in nature Typically very small – usually less than 15 mm

35 Braconid Wasps Cocoons of an Ectoparasized Larvae Aleiodes texanus Adult

36 Parasitized Lepidoptera

37 Family Ichneumonidae Ichneumonid wasps One of the largest families in the entire Insecta There are more than 3,300 species in North America Ichneumonids vary greatly in size, form and color Beneficial parasitic wasps Larvae are parasitoids

38 Ichneumonid Wasps Cratichneumon subfilatus Heinrich

39 Superfamily Chalcidoidae The Chalcidoid Wasps

40 Chalcidoid Wasps Contains at least 20 families and about 2,200 species in North America Most are very small – 2 mm to 3 mm with some 10 mm to 15 mm Most are parasites of other insects Typically they attack the egg or larval stage of their host

41 Tetrastichus setifer

42 Parasitizing Larvae Tetrastichus setifer Parasitizing a Larvae

43 Family Formicidae Ants

44 Family Formicidae Common and widespread One of the most successful of all insect groups All ants are eusocial Most colonies have at least 3 castes – queens, males and workers

45 Family Formicidae Queens have wings and do most of the egg- laying in the nest Males also have wings, are short-lived and die soon after mating Workers are wingless females Capable of both stinging and biting Most are carnivorous, some eat nectar, honeydew, sap, nectar, fungus, etc.

46 Family Formicidae Colonies vary in size from a dozen or more to many thousands Nest can be found in all sorts of places Most nest in the ground and may extend several feet deep Chambers may be divided into brood chambers or food storage chambers

47 Spreading Out Once a year males and queens are produced in large numbers and take to the air They mate on the wing The males die The queens shed their wings and find suitable locations to start new colonies The queen lays eggs in a shallow nest and starts and cares for the first brood This first brood then takes over enlarging and caring for the queen and subsequent broods

48 Anatomy of an Ant

49 Argentine Ants Iridomyrmex humilis

50 Fire Ants Solenopsis spp.

51 Order Diptera Flies

52

53 Order Diptera Flies One of the largest orders Abundant in individuals and in species Found almost everywhere Dipterans possess only one pair of wings The hind wings are reduced to structures called halteres The word “fly” is written as a separate word in the common names of Diptera

54 Order Diptera Halteres

55 Order Diptera Most all are small, soft-bodied insects Some are quite minute Many are of great economic importance Many species are bloodsucking pests of humans and animals Many are pests to cultivated plants Some are predators or parasites to insect pests Some are pollinators

56 Diseases From Diptera Many vector serious diseases Diseases organisms include: Malaria, yellow fever, filarasis, dengue, sleeping sickness, typhoid fever, dysentery, etc.

57 Order Diptera Mouthparts can be piercing Some have mouthparts used for lapping Some have vestigial mouthparts Diptera undergo complete metamorphosis Larvae are typically called “maggots” and are worm-like and legless

58 Order Diptera Larvae occur in various habitat Many occur in aquatic habitats The larvae of plant-feeders typically live in plant tissue as leaf miners, stem borers, root borers and gall formers Many larvae are carrion feeders Predaceous larvae also occur in different habitats Adults of many species feed on various plant or animal juices Many adults are predaceous

59 Order Diptera Dipterans include: Mosquitoes, midges, gnats, crane flies, horse flies, deer flies, robber flies, bee flies, syrphid flies, fruit flies, small fruit flies, blow flies, flesh flies, and many more

60 Green Bottle Fly Phaenicia sericata

61 Pictured Wing Fruit Fly Strauzia longipennis

62 Crane Fly Tipula vitatta

63 Flesh Fly Sarcophaga sp.

64 Horse Fly Tabanus sulcifrons


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