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Biology The Study of Life.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology The Study of Life."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology The Study of Life

2 What is Biology in the 21st Century?
How is studying Biology different today than in the past? How does studying Biology affect your life? Why should you take this class? How has advancement in science benefited humanity?

3 Course Topics Unit 1 – Introduction Unit 2 - Cells Unit 3 – Genetics
Biology 21st century Chemistry of Life Unit 2 - Cells Structure and Function Energetics Growth and Division Unit 3 – Genetics Meiosis Mendelian Genetics DNA to Proteins Biotechnology Unit 4 – Evolution Evolution by Natural Selection Populations History of Life Unit 5 – Classification Systematic Taxonomy Phylogeny and the Tree of Life Biodiversity Unit 6 - Ecology Principles of Ecology Interdependence Biosphere Human Impact

4 Earth supports an amazing diversity of life
biosphere = everywhere life exists

5 Earth supports an amazing diversity of life
Every part of the biosphere is connected with every other part. The biosphere includes many environments. Biodiversity increases at the equator and decreases toward the poles

6 Earth supports an amazing diversity of life
All levels of life have systems of related parts Structure and function are interdependent in Biology All life maintains homeostasis to survive in diverse environments Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.

7 Earth supports an amazing diversity of life
A biological species is defined as a group of individuals that will breed to reproduce. Scientists have described over 1.7 million of the world's species of animals, plants and algae, as of 2010. Mammals make up one of the smallest groups, with just 5,490 members. Altogether the earth's oceans, lakes, continents and islands support over 62,000 identified species of vertebrate animals and 320,000 species of plants.

8 A small sample of biological diversity

9 Earth supports an amazing diversity of life
So...how many are there? According to a new report co-authored by Derek Tittensor at UNEP's World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC), in Cambridge, UK, the estimate is around 8.7 million. 86% of all species on land and 91% of those in the seas have yet to be discovered, described or catalogued.

10 All organisms share certain characteristics.
Biology is the scientific study of all forms of life

11 Life’s basic characteristic is a high degree of order

12 An organism is any individual living thing.
All are made of one or more cells.

13 What does all life have in common?
All are made of one or more cells. All need energy for metabolism. All respond to their environment. All have DNA that they pass on to offspring.

14 Properties of Life

15 cellular structure

16 Microscope Hooke (1665) English, observed cork- dead plant material, 30x, “cells” Leeuwenhoek (Dutch), observed pond water, 300x, 1st living cells “animacules”, protists, sperm, blood

17 Cell Theory Schleiden Schwann Virchow
All living things consist of cells. Cells are an organism’s basic unit of structure and function. All cells come from other cells.

18 Metabolism Energy Utilization

19 Energy Flow Activities of life require work
Sunlight Activities of life require work Work depends on sources of energy Energy exchange between an organism and environment often involves energy transformations In transformations, some energy is lost as heat Energy flows through an ecosystem, usually entering as light and exiting as heat Ecosystem Producers (plants and other photosynthetic organisms) Heat Chemical energy Consumers (including animals) Heat

20 Respond to their environment

21 Interaction With Environment and Energy Flow
Organisms are open systems The dynamics of an ecosystem include two major processes Cycling of nutrients, in which materials acquired by plants eventually return to the soil The flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers

22 reproduction

23 Heredity

24 The genetic material: DNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) The substance of genes- instructions to make protein and protein makes the organism what it is. Units of inheritance passed from parents to offspring. Double stranded molecule made of 4 nucleotides (ATGC). Human genome is 6 billion nucleotides long in 23 pairs of chromosomes.

25 Growth and Development

26 Unifying Themes in Biology
All levels of life have systems of related parts Structure and function are interdependent in Biology All life maintains homeostasis to survive in diverse environments Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.

27 Biological organization is based on a hierarchy of structural levels
The biosphere Organelles 1 µm Cell Ecosystems Cells Atoms Molecules Communities 10 µm Tissues 50 µm Populations Organs and organ systems Organisms

28 SYSTEMS and Emerging Properties
Each level, ATOM to the BIOSPHERE, is organized. Unique properties are revealed at each level- they “emerge” Properties result from interactions between the components. “The total is greater than the sum of it’s parts”… a hammer functions because of it’s head and handle- together. Example: Social interactions are affected by the interaction of chemicals in the brain.

29 Form fits function

30 Homeostasis

31 Evolutionary Adaptation

32 Evolution Evolution is the core theme of biology.
Evolution accounts for life’s unity and diversity Implies that all living things are related. The common ancestors are prokaryotes that existed 3.5 billion years ago.

33 Evolution unity: all species descended from a common ancestor
diversity: modifications that evolved as species branched from their common ancestors

34 Unity in the Diversity of Life
Underlying life’s diversity is a striking unity, especially at lower levels of organization In eukaryotes, unity is evident in details of cell structure 15 µm 5 µm Cilia of Paramecium Cilia of windpipe cells

35 Can you explain the architecture of eukaryotic cilia?

36 The Concept of Natural Selection.
Darwin The Concept of Natural Selection. Observations: a.)Individual variation. b.)Struggle for existence. Inference: a.)Differential reproductive success. b.)Evolutionary adaptation The evolutionary view of life came into sharp focus in 1859, when Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection “Darwinism” became almost synonymous with the concept of evolution Charles Darwin (1809–1882)

37 The Concept of Natural Selection
Darwin The Concept of Natural Selection The Origin of Species articulated two main points Descent with modification (the view that contemporary species arose from a succession of ancestors) Natural selection (a proposed mechanism for descent with modification)

38 Adaptation Natural selection is often evident in adaptations of organisms to their way of life and environment Bat wings are an example of adaptation

39 Is evolutionary adaptation a product of natural selection?
Thomas Malthus: organisms will produce more offspring than can be supported with available resources. Survival of the fittest- fitness is measured by reproductive success. Many related organisms have similar features adapted for specific ways of life. Such kinships connect life’s unity and diversity to descent with modification. Natural selection eventually produces new species from ancestral species. Thomas Malthus ( )

40 Diversification of finches on the Galápagos Islands

41 Scientific Inquiry Science “to know”
Has limits – only what can be observed and measured. Can’t prove – only disprove Must be able to test (hypotheses) Experimental results must be repeatable Utilizes modeling to represent ideas

42 Scientific Inquiry Inquiry is a search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questions The process of science blends two main processes of scientific inquiry: Hypothesis-based science attempts to seek natural causes and explanations of observations Proposes a possible explanation and tests its validity Discovery science describes nature through careful observation and data analysis Example of discovery science: understanding cell structure

43 Idealized version of Scientific Process

44 Where does it begin? Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. Your assignment Observe the object at your table Use your senses to describe the object. In your notebook, write a minimum of one page describing the object in front of you. You may not use the following terms in your writing Plant, flower, leaf, petal, stem, stalk

45 Theory Comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence.
Newton, Einstein, Darwin Gravity, Relativity, Natural Selection Idea that ties together observations and experimental results that previously seemed unrelated.

46 Science, Technology & Society
The goal of science is to understand natural phenomena Technology applies scientific knowledge for some specific purpose Research feeds technology and vice versa.

47 Data Data are recorded observations Two types
Quantitative data: numerical measurements Qualitative data: recorded descriptions Inductive reasoning involves generalizing based on many specific observation

48 Science is a social process

49 Paul Serrano is digging into the past
Behavioralist Jane Goodall recording observations on chimpanzees David Reznick conducting field experiments on guppy evolution in Trinidad Paul Serrano is digging into the past

50 Energy Interdependence Structure to function
Science, Technology & Society Energy Interdependence

51 Dilemma: How to study Biology?
something complex such as an organism or cell cannot be analyzed without taking it apart. If you take something apart it disrupts the system and interferes with the meaningful understanding of how it works.

52 Dilemma: How to study Biology?
Systems Biology seeks to understand the behavior of a whole system rather than its parts Seeks to create models of the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems An example is a systems map of how proteins interact in a fruit fly cell. The model may predict how a change in one part of a system will affect the rest of the system.

53 Systems biology uses three key research developments:
High-throughput technology: methods to generate large data sets rapidly Bioinformatics: using computers and software to process and integrate large data sets Interdisciplinary research teams

54


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