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1893-1976 Mao. Mao Zedong  Communist  Political Leader  Military Strategist  Intellectual  Teacher  Poet  Calligrapher  Communist  Political.

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Presentation on theme: "1893-1976 Mao. Mao Zedong  Communist  Political Leader  Military Strategist  Intellectual  Teacher  Poet  Calligrapher  Communist  Political."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mao

2 Mao Zedong  Communist  Political Leader  Military Strategist  Intellectual  Teacher  Poet  Calligrapher  Communist  Political Leader  Military Strategist  Intellectual  Teacher  Poet  Calligrapher

3 Mao was born in Hunan Province

4 China Divided among Imperialists

5 Governed by a Nasty Old Lady and her Infant Grandson, Puyi The Dowager Empress Cixi of the Qing Dynasty Puyi reigned from the age of 2 until age 18

6 From Humble Beginnings Mao is the family name. Zedong was the eldest child of a fairly prosperous peasant family and so received some education Photo with siblings MAO ZEDONG

7 An Early Revolutionary Figure Mao served in a Hunan Province militia against imperial rule Emperor Puyi in 1911

8 Mao’s University Life Majored in education Worked at the library at Peking (Beijing) Read Karl Marx and followed Lenin’s lead

9 Mao Hones His Skills as a Rebel May 4, 1919 Mao participated in the May Fourth Movement, a student-led protest that called for the modernization of China

10 Mao Turns Toward Communism 1921 Mao participates in the founding of the Chinese Communist Party Under orders from the Comintern, Mao joins the Nationalists under Sun Yat-sen Sun in 1920, a hero to the peasants

11 The Alliance is Only Temporary Sun dies leaving Chaing Kai-shek as leader of the Kuomintang Mao establishes a rebel base to wage guerilla war in 1927 Chaing in 1930

12 The Long March   6000 mile retreat  87,000 Red Army soldiers  Kuomintang led by German Hans von Seeckt  Communists led by Russian agents under German Otto Braun  After the Reds lose ½ their men, Mao takes over

13 Mao’s Tactics “The enemy advances, we retreat. The enemy camps, we harass. The enemy tires, we attack. The enemy retreats, we pursue.” Mao is referred to as the father of modern guerilla tactics

14 Red Army v Kuomintang Red Army Officers forbidden to beat men in ranks All soldiers encouraged to speak their minds freely Mao orders 2000 Red Army soldiers shot for staging a rebellion in 1930 Kuomintang (Nationalists) Conventional tactics Strict obedience enforces severely Absolute hierarchy of rank

15 Peasant Support Turns the Tide Mao’s Six Principles of the Red Army Put back all doors when you leave a house Rice-stalk mattresses must be bundled up again and returned Be polite. Help people when you can. Give back everything you borrow, even if it’s only a needle. Pay for all things broken, even if only a chopstick. Don’t help yourself or search for things when people are not in their houses

16 Women and the Red Army Traditional Peasant Society Women were second class citizens Wives are expected to do what their husbands told them to do Unmarried women were the property of their family Under Communism Women were given far more rights (not equality) Women were recruited into the Red Army Traditional Peasant Society Women were second class citizens Wives are expected to do what their husbands told them to do Unmarried women were the property of their family Under Communism Women were given far more rights (not equality) Women were recruited into the Red Army

17 World War II Impacts Mao in China

18 Japan Eyes China’s Resources Puyi is placed on the thrown of Manchuria Japan invades the mainland in 1937 Japan’s Rape of Nanking shocks the world. Japan’s Emperor Hirohito Emperor Puyi

19 Mao’s Guerilla War against Japan Forces led by Zhu De and Lin Biao As soon as Japan surrenders, Mao turns on Chaing Chaing flees to Taiwan (Formosa) Forces led by Zhu De and Lin Biao As soon as Japan surrenders, Mao turns on Chaing Chaing flees to Taiwan (Formosa) ZHU BIAO

20 Mao Establishes the People’s Republic 1949 the Kuomintang are defeated at Nanking

21 The Great Leap Forward Announce in 1958 as an attempt to increase agricultural and industrial production Communes contain as many as 75,000 people Self-governing collective farms and factories Each family receives a share of the profits and a small plot of land Set-backs doom progress Three years of bad harvests and floods USSR decides to withdraw technical experts

22 Didn’t Look before He Leaped! Words and pictures (propaganda) didn’t measure up

23 Reliance on Industry Shortsighted Steel will lead the way

24 Mao “Retires” as Chairman-1962 Replaced by Liu Shaoqi Becomes highly critical of Khrushchev’s foreign policy By 1966, Mao springs back with a vengeance! Liu Shaoqi, China’s PRC Chairman Nikita Khrushchev, USSR Chairman

25 Cultural Revolution China, not the USSR will bring about World Revolution Mao and Lin Biao will purify China End wage differentials Strengthen collectives Establish a classless society Purge out all counter-revolutionaries Oust the revisionists with the Red Guard End of Soviet-Chinese Relations

26 Madame Mao (the 5 th ) Gains Control

27 That Old Gang of Mine…

28 Revolutionary or Reactionary? Four Cleansing Movement (1963) Politics Economics Ideas Organization

29 “Smash the old world/Establish a new world.” Classical example of Red art from the early Cultural Revolution. A worker (or possibly Red Guard) crushes the crucifix, Buddha and classical Chinese text with his hammer, 1967.

30 Cult of Personality Red Guard formed in a middle school Goal to punish Mao’s political enemies Neutralize intellectuals Deeper stage of the socialist system Abolish the Four Olds Instill the 16 Points

31 The 16 Points Freedom of speech People’s Liberation Army To air one’s view fully To write big-character posters To hold great debates The right to strike To end the bourgeoisie Change the mental attitudes of the whole of society To criticize and crush capitalists Repudiate reactionary academics Transform art Change the superstructure Consolidate socialism Discourage religion Purge all counter-revolution Cut class and travel to discuss Mao’s Thoughts

32 Victims of the Cultural Revolution Liu Shaoqi was sent to a detention camp and died Deng Xiaoping was sent 3 times for re- education The last emperor, Puyi became and gardener and a productive member of the proletariat

33 Some of the Effects of the Revolution Mass murder and forced suicides Millions were humiliated publically Leaders were forced to self-criticize Massive purges of local officials Down to the Countryside Movement Families limited to one child All Chinese are to wear simple peasant clothing Citizens must read Mao’s Quotations and memorize each one Two What-ever’s

34 Death of Mao Zedong (1976)


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