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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 33 Invertebrates

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Life Without a Backbone Invertebrates are animals that lack a backbone They account for 95% of known animal species

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

4 LE 33-2 Deuterostomia Bilateria Eumetazoa Ancestral colonial choanoflagellate Porifera Cnidaria Other bilaterians (including Nematoda, Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Annelida) ChordataEchinodermata

5 LE 33-3a 250 µm A sponge A jelly A placozoan (LM) A kinorhynch (LM) 0.5 mm A marine flatworm A rotifer (LM) EctoproctsPhoronids

6 LE 33-3b A brachiopod A ribbon worm 5 mm An acanthocephalan A ctenophore, or comb jelly A marine annelid An octopus A loriciferan (LM) 50 µm A priapulan

7 LE 33-3c A roundworm A scorpion (an arachid) 100 µm A cycliophoran (colorized SEM) 100 µm Tardigrades (colorized SEM) An onychophoran An acorn worm A sea urchin A tunicate

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.1: Sponges are sessile and have a porous body and choanocytes Sponges, phylum Porifera, live in both fresh and marine waters Sponges lack true tissues and organs

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sponges are suspension feeders, capturing food particles suspended in the water that passes through their body

10 LE 33-4 Choanocytes Flagellum Osculum Phagocytosis of food particles Food particles in mucus Choanocyte Amoebocyte Collar Spicules Amoebocyte Water flow Mesohyl Epidermis Porocytes Spongocoel Azure vase sponge (Callyspongia plicifera)

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Choanocytes, flagellated collar cells, generate a water current through the sponge and ingest suspended food Most sponges are hermaphrodites: Each individual functions as both male and female

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.2: Cnidarians have radial symmetry, a gastrovascular cavity, and cnidocytes All animals except sponges belong to the clade Eumetazoa, animals with true tissues Phylum Cnidaria is one of the oldest groups in this clade

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cnidarians have diversified into a wide range of both sessile and floating forms including jellies, corals, and hydras They exhibit a relatively simple diploblastic, radial body plan

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The basic body plan of a cnidarian is a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity A single opening functions as mouth and anus There are two variations on the body plan: the sessile polyp and floating medusa Video: Hydra Eating Daphnia (time lapse) Video: Hydra Eating Daphnia (time lapse)

15 LE 33-5 Tentacle Gastrovascular cavity Gastrodermis Mesoglea Epidermis Tentacle Mouth/anus Polyp Body stalk Medusa

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cnidarians are carnivores that use tentacles to capture prey The tentacles are armed with cnidocytes, unique cells that function in defense and capture of prey Video: Hydra Releasing Sperm Video: Hydra Releasing Sperm Video: Hydra Budding Video: Hydra Budding

17 LE 33-6 Tentacle “Trigger” Nematocyst Coiled thread Cnidocyte Prey Discharge of thread

18 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phylum Cnidaria is divided into four major classes: – Hydrozoa – Scyphozoa – Cubozoa – Anthozoa

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

20 LE 33-7 Hydrozoans Scyphozoans (jellies) Cubozoan (sea wasp)Anthozoan (sea anemone)

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Video: Jelly Swimming Video: Jelly Swimming Video: Thimble Jellies Video: Thimble Jellies Video: Clownfish and Anemone Video: Clownfish and Anemone Video: Coral Reef Video: Coral Reef

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Hydrozoans Most hydrozoans alternate between polyp and medusa forms

23 LE 33-8–3 Key Feeding polyp Reproductive polyp Medusa bud Gonad Medusa Haploid (n) Diploid (2n) ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION (BUDDING) Portion of a colony of polyps 1 mm MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION Egg Sperm Zygote SEXUAL REPRODUCTION Developing polyp Planula (larva) Mature polyp

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Scyphozoans In the class Scyphozoa, jellies (medusae) are the prevalent form of the life cycle

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cubozoans In the class Cubozoa, which includes box jellies and sea wasps, the medusa is box-shaped and has complex eyes

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Anthozoans Class Anthozoa includes the corals and sea anemones, which occur only as polyps

27 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.3: Most animals have bilateral symmetry The vast majority of animal species belong to the clade Bilateria, which consists of animals with bilateral symmetry and triploblastic development

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flatworms Members of phylum Platyhelminthes live in marine, freshwater, and damp terrestrial habitats They are flattened dorsoventrally and have a gastrovascular cavity Although flatworms undergo triploblastic development, they are acoelomates

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flatworms are divided into four classes: – Turbellaria (mostly free-living flatworms) – Monogenea (monogeneans) – Trematoda (trematodes, or flukes) – Cestoda (tapworms)

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

31 Turbellarians Turbellarians are nearly all free-living and mostly marine The best-known turbellarians are commonly called planarians

32 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

33 Planarians have light-sensitive eyespots and centralized nerve nets The planarian nervous system is more complex and centralized than the nerve nets of cnidarians

34 LE Gastrovascular cavity Pharynx Ganglia Eyespots Ventral nerve cords

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Monogeneans and Trematodes Monogeneans and trematodes live as parasites in or on other animals They parasitize a wide range of hosts Trematodes that parasitize humans spend part of their lives in snail hosts

36 LE Mature flukes live in the blood vessels of the human intestine Larvae penetrate skin and blood vessels of humans. Asexual reproduction within snail results in another type of motile larva. Blood flukes reproduce sexually in the human host. Fertilized eggs exit host in feces. Male Female 1 mm Snail host Eggs develop in water into ciliated larvae. Larvae infect snails.

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most monogeneans are parasites of fish

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tapeworms Tapeworms are also parasitic and lack a digestive system

39 LE Proglottids with reproductive structures Scolex Hooks Sucker 200 µm

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rotifers Rotifers, phylum Rotifera, are tiny animals that inhabit fresh water, the ocean, and damp soil Rotifers are smaller than many protists but are truly multicellular and have specialized organ systems Video: Rotifer Video: Rotifer

41 LE mm

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rotifers have an alimentary canal: a digestive tube with a separate mouth and anus that lies within a fluid-filled pseudocoelom Rotifers reproduce by parthenogenesis, in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

43 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lophophorates: Ectoprocts, Phoronids, and Brachiopods Lophophorates have a lophophore, a horseshoe- shaped, suspension-feeding organ with ciliated tentacles

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ectoprocts are colonial animals that superficially resemble plants

45 LE Lophophore Ectoprocts PhoronidsBrachiopods Lophophore

46 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Phoronids are tube-dwelling marine worms ranging from 1 mm to 50 cm in length

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brachiopods superficially resemble clams and other hinge-shelled molluscs, but the two halves of the shell are dorsal and ventral rather than lateral, as in clams

48 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nemerteans Members of phylum Nemertea are commonly called proboscis worms or ribbon worms

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

50 The nemerteans’ unique proboscis is used for defense and prey capture and is extended by a fluid-filled sac Nemerteans also have a closed circulatory system, in which the blood is contained in vessels distinct from fluid in the body cavity

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.4: Molluscs have a muscular foot, a visceral mass, and a mantle Phylum Mollusca includes snails and slugs, oysters and clams, and octopuses and squids Most molluscs are marine, though some inhabit fresh water and some are terrestrial Molluscs are soft-bodied animals, but most are protected by a hard shell

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings All molluscs have a similar body plan with three main parts: – Muscular foot – Visceral mass – Mantle

53 LE Nephridium Coelom Mantle Heart Anus Mantle cavity Radula Shell Stomach Intestine Nerve cords Esophagus Mouth Gill Foot Radula Mouth Visceral mass Gonads

54 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most molluscs have separate sexes with gonads located in the visceral mass The life cycle of many molluscs includes a ciliated larval stage called a trochophore

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings There are four major classes of molluscs: – Polyplacophora (chitons) – Gastropoda (snails and slugs) – Bivalvia (clams, oysters, and other bivalves) – Cephalopoda (squids, octopuses, cuttlefish, and chambered nautiluses)

56 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chitons Class Polyplacophora consists of the chitons, oval-shaped marine animals encased in an armor of eight dorsal plates

57 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

58 Gastropods About three-quarters of all living species of molluscs belong to class Gastropoda Video: Nudibranchs Video: Nudibranchs

59 LE A land snail A sea slug. Nudibranchs, or sea slugs, lost their shell during their evolution.

60 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most gastropods are marine, but many are freshwater and terrestrial species Most have a single, spiraled shell Slugs lack a shell or have a reduced shell The most distinctive characteristic of gastropods is torsion, which causes the animal’s anus and mantle to end up above its head

61 LE Stomach Intestine Mouth Anus Mantle cavity

62 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bivalves Molluscs of class Bivalvia include many species of clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops They have a shell divided into two halves

63 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

64 The mantle cavity of a bivalve contains gills that are used for feeding as well as gas exchange

65 LE Mouth Anus Mantle Shell Gut Hinge area Coelom Heart Excurrent siphon Adductor muscle Water flow Incurrent siphon Gill Mantle cavity Foot Palp

66 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cephalopods Class Cephalopoda includes squids and octopuses, carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by tentacles of their modified foot

67 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Most octopuses creep along the sea floor in search of prey

68 LE 33-22a Octopuses are considered among the most intelligent invertebrates.

69 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Squids use their siphon to fire a jet of water, which allows them to swim very quickly

70 LE 33-22b Squids are speedy carnivores with beaklike jaws and well- developed eyes.

71 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings One small group of shelled cephalopods, the nautiluses, survives today

72 LE 33-22c Chambered nautiluses are the only living cephalopods with an external shell.

73 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.5: Annelids are segmented worms Annelids have bodies composed of a series of fused rings The phylum Annelida is divided into three classes: – Oligochaeta (earthworms and their relatives) – Polychaeta (polychaetes) – Hirudinea (leeches)

74 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

75 Oligochaetes Oligochaetes (class Oligochaeta) are named for relatively sparse chaetae, bristles made of chitin They include the earthworms and a variety of aquatic species Earthworms eat through soil, extracting nutrients as the soil moves through the alimentary canal Video: Earthworm Locomotion Video: Earthworm Locomotion

76 LE Epidermis Coelom Circular muscle Longitudinal muscle Dorsal vessel Chaetae Cuticle Septum (partition between segments) Metanephridium Anus Clitellum Crop Ventral vessel Nephrostome Nerve cords Intestine Esophagus Pharynx Cerebral ganglia Mouth Giant Australian earthworm Subpharyngeal ganglion Circulatory system Ventral nerve cords with segmental ganglia Gizzard Intestine Metanephridium

77 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Polychaetes Members of class Polychaetes have paddlelike parapodia that work as gills and aid in locomotion Video: Tubeworms Video: Tubeworms

78 LE Parapodia

79 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Leeches Members of class Hirudinea are blood-sucking parasites, such as leeches

80 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

81 Concept 33.6: Nematodes are nonsegmented pseudocoelomates covered by a tough cuticle Nematodes, or roundworms, are found in most aquatic habitats, in the soil, in moist tissues of plants, and in body fluids and tissues of animals The cylindrical bodies of nematodes (phylum Nematoda) are covered by a tough coat called a cuticle Video: C. elegans Embryo Development (time lapse) Video: C. elegans Embryo Development (time lapse) Video: C. elegans Crawling Video: C. elegans Crawling

82 LE µm

83 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some species of nematodes are important parasites of plants and animals

84 LE µm Encysted juveniles Muscle tissue

85 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 33.7: Arthropods are segmented coelomates that have an exoskeleton and jointed appendages Two out of every three known species of animals are arthropods Members of the phylum Arthropoda are found in nearly all habitats of the biosphere

86 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings General Characteristics of Arthropods The diversity and success of arthropods are largely related to their segmentation, hard exoskeleton, and jointed appendages

87 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Early arthropods, such as trilobites, showed little variation from segment to segment

88 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

89 As arthropods evolved, the segments fused, and the appendages became more specialized The appendages of some living arthropods are modified for many different functions Video: Lobster Mouth Parts Video: Lobster Mouth Parts

90 LE Antennae (sensory reception) Head Thorax Cephalothorax Abdomen Swimming appendages (two sets located under abdomen Walking legs Mouthparts (feeding) Pincer (defense)

91 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The body of an arthropod is completely covered by the cuticle, an exoskeleton made of chitin When an arthropod grow, it molts its exoskeleton in a process called ecdysis

92 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arthropods have an open circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph is circulated into the spaces surrounding the tissues and organs A variety of organs specialized for gas exchange have evolved in arthropods

93 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Molecular evidence suggests that living arthropods consist of four major lineages that diverged early in the phylum’s evolution: – Cheliceriforms (sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, mites, and spiders) – Myriapods (centipedes and millipedes) – Hexapods (insects and relatives) – Crustaceans (crabs, lobsters, shrimps, barnacles, and many others)

94 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

95 Cheliceriforms Cheliceriforms, subphylum Cheliceriformes, are named for clawlike feeding appendages called chelicerae Most marine cheliceriforms are extinct, but some species survive today, including horseshoe crabs

96 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

97 Most modern cheliceriforms are arachnids, which include spiders, scorpions, ticks, and mites

98 LE 33-31a Scorpions have pedipalps that are pincers specialized for defense and the capture of food. The tip of the tail bears a poisonous stinger.

99 LE 33-31b Dust mites are ubiquitous scavengers in human dwellings but are harmless except to those people who are allergic to them (colorized SEM). 50 µm

100 LE 33-31c Web-building spiders are generally most active during the daytime.

101 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Arachnids have an abdomen and a cephalothorax, which has six pairs of appendages, the most anterior of which are the chelicerae

102 LE Intestine Silk gland Gonopore (exit for eggs) Sperm receptacle Book lung Chelicera Pedipalp Poison gland Eyes Brain Stomach Heart Spinnerets Anus Ovary Digestive gland

103 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Myriapods Subphylum Myriapoda includes millipedes and centipedes Millipedes, class Diplopoda, have many legs Each trunk segment has two pairs of legs

104 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

105 Centipedes, class Chilopoda, are carnivores with jaw-like mandibles They have one pair of legs per trunk segment

106 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

107 Insects Subphylum Hexapoda, insects and relatives, has more species than all other forms of life combined They live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water The internal anatomy of an insect includes several complex organ systems

108 LE Compound eye Antennae Abdomen Thorax Head Anus Vagina Heart Malpighian tubules Ovary Tracheal tubes Nerve cords Mouthparts Cerebral ganglion Crop Dorsal artery

109 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Flight is one key to the great success of insects An animal that can fly can escape predators, find food, and disperse to new habitats much faster than organisms that can only crawl

110 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Many insects undergo metamorphosis during their development In incomplete metamorphosis, the young, called nymphs, resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size

111 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Insects with complete metamorphosis have larval stages known by such names as maggot, grub, or caterpillar The larval stage looks entirely different from the adult stage Video: Butterfly Emerging Video: Butterfly Emerging

112 LE Larva (caterpillar) Pupa Emerging adult Adult

113 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Insects are classified into about 26 orders Video: Bee Pollinating Video: Bee Pollinating

114 LE 33-37aA Blattodea 4,000Cockroaches have a dorsoventrally flattened body, with legs modified for rapid running. Forewings, when present, are leathery, whereas hind wings are fanlike. Fewer than 40 cockroach species live in houses; the rest exploit habitats ranging from tropical forest floors to caves and deserts. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES German cockroach

115 LE 33-37bA Coleoptera 350,000 Beetles comprise the most species-rich order of insects. They have two pairs of wings, one of which is thick and leathery, the other membranous. They have an armored exoskeleton and mouthparts adapted for biting and chewing. Beetles undergo complete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Japanese beetle

116 LE 33-37cA Dermaptera 1,200 Earwigs are generally nocturnal scavengers. While some species are wingless, others have two pairs of wings, one of which is thick and leathery, the other membranous. Earwigs have biting mouthparts and large posterior pincers. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Earwig

117 LE 33-37dA Diptera 151,000 Dipterans have one pair of wings; the second pair has become modified into balancing organs called halteres. Their head is large and mobile; their mouthparts are adapted for sucking, piercing, or lapping. Dipterans undergo complete metamorphosis. Flies and mosquitoes are among the best-known dipterans, which live as scavengers, predetors, and parasites. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Horsefly

118 LE 33-37eA Hemiptera 85,000 Hemipterans are so-called “true bugs,” including bed bugs, assassin bugs, and chinch bugs. (Insects in other orders are sometimes erroneously called bugs.) Hemipterans have two pairs of wings, one pair partly leathery, the other membranous. They have piercing or sucking mouthparts and undergo incomplete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Leaf- footed bug

119 LE 33-37fA Hymenoptera 125,000 Ants, bees, and wasps are generally highly social insects. They have two pairs of membranous wings, a mobile head, and chewing or sucking mouthparts. The females of many species have a posterior stinging organ. Hymenopterans undergo complete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Cicada-killer wasp

120 LE 33-37gA Isoptera 2,000 Termites are widespread social insects that produce enormous colonies. It had been estimated that there are 700 kg of termites for every person on Earth! Some termites have two pairs of membranous wings, while others are wingless. They feed on wood with the aid of microbial symbionts carried in specialized chambers in their hindgut. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Termite

121 LE 33-37aB Lepidoptera120,000 Butterflies and moths are among the best-known insects. They have two pairs of wings covered with tiny scales. To feed, they uncoil a long proboscis. Most feed on nectar, but some species feed on other substances, including animal blood or tears. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Swallowtail butterfly

122 LE 33-37bB Odonata 5,000 Dragonflies and damselflies have two pairs of large, membranous wings. They have an elongated abdomen, large, compound eyes, and chewing mouthparts. They undergo incomplete metamorphosis and are active predators. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Dragonfly

123 LE 33-37cB Orthoptera13,000 Grasshoppers, crickets, and their relatives are mostly herbivorous. They have large hind legs adapted for jumping, two pairs of wings (one leathery, one membranous), and biting or chewing mouthparts. Males commonly make courtship sounds by rubbing together body parts, such as a ridge of their hind leg. Orthopterans undergo incomplete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Katydid

124 LE 33-37dB Phasmida 2,600 Stick insects and leaf insects are exquisite mimics of plants. The eggs of some species even mimic seeds of the plants on which the insects live. Their body is cylindrical or flattened dorsoventrally. They lack forewings but have fanlike hind wings. Their mouthparts are adapted for biting or chewing. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Stick insect

125 LE 33-37eB Phthiraptera 2,400 Commonly called sucking lice, these insects spend their entire life as an ectoparasite feeding on the hair or feathers of a single host. Their legs, equipped with clawlike tarsi, are adapted for clinging to their hosts. They lack wings and have reduced eyes. Sucking lice undergo incomplete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Human body louse

126 LE 33-37fB Siphonaptera 2,400 Fleas are bloodsucking ectoparasites on birds and mammals. Their body is wingless and laterally compressed. Their legs are modified for clinging to their hosts and for long-distance jumping. They undergo complete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Flea

127 LE 33-37gB Thysanura 450 Silverfish are small, wingless insects with a flattened body and reduced eyes. They live in leaf litter or under bark. They can also infest buildings, where they can become pests. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Silverfish

128 LE 33-37hB Trichoptera 7,100 The larvae of caddisflies live in streams, where they make houses from sand grains, wood fragments, or other material held together by silk, Adults have two pairs of hairy wings and chewing or lapping mouthparts. They undergo complete metamorphosis. ORDER APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF SPECIES MAIN CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES Caddisfly

129 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Crustaceans While arachnids and insects thrive on land, crustaceans, for the most part, have remained in marine and freshwater environments Crustaceans, subphylum Crustacea, typically have branched appendages that are extensively specialized for feeding and locomotion

130 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Decapods are all relatively large crustaceans and include lobsters, crabs, crayfish, and shrimp

131 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

132 Planktonic crustaceans include many species of copepods, which are among the most numerous of all animals

133 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

134 Barnacles are a group of mostly sessile crustaceans They have a cuticle that is hardened into a shell

135 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

136 Concept 33.8: Echinoderms and chordates are deuterostomes Sea stars and other echinoderms, phylum Echinodermata, may seem to have little in common with phylum Chordata, which includes the vertebrates

137 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chordates and echinoderms share characteristics of deuterostomes: – Radial cleavage – Development of the coelom from the archenteron – Formation of the mouth at the end of the embryo opposite the blastopore

138 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Echinoderms Sea stars and most other echinoderms are slow- moving or sessile marine animals A thin, bumpy or spiny skin covers an endoskeleton of hard calcareous plates Unique to echinoderms is a water vascular system, a network of hydraulic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange Video: Echinoderm Tube Feet Video: Echinoderm Tube Feet

139 LE Digestive glands Ring canal Central disk Anus Stomach Spine Gills Madreporite Radial nerve Gonads Ampulla Podium Tube feet Radial canal

140 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Radial anatomy of many echinoderms evolved from the bilateral symmetry of ancestors Living echinoderms are divided into six classes: – Asteroidia (sea stars) – Ophiuroidea (brittle stars) – Echinoidea (sea urchins and sand dollars) – Crinoidea (sea lilies and feather stars) – Holothuroidea (sea cucumbers) – Concentricycloidea (sea daisies)

141 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

142 Sea Stars Sea stars, class Asteroidea, have multiple arms radiating from a central disk The undersurfaces of the arms bear tube feet, each of which can act like a suction disk

143 LE 33-40a A sea star (class Asteroidea)

144 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Brittle Stars Brittle stars have a distinct central disk and long, flexible arms

145 LE 33-40b A brittle star (class Ophiuroidea)

146 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sea Urchins and Sand Dollars Sea urchins and sand dollars have no arms but have five rows of tube feet

147 LE 33-40c A sea urchin (class Echinoidea)

148 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sea Lilies and Feather Stars Sea lilies live attached to the substrate by a stalk Feather stars crawl using long, flexible arms

149 LE 33-40d A feather star (class Crinoidea)

150 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sea Cucumbers Sea cucumbers do not look much like other echinoderms They lack spines, and their endoskeleton is much reduced

151 LE 33-40e A sea cucumber (class Holothuroidea)

152 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sea Daisies Sea daisies were discovered in 1986, and only two species are known

153 LE 33-40f A sea daisy (class Concentricycloidea)

154 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chordates Phylum Chordata consists of two subphyla of invertebrates as well as hagfishes and vertebrates Chordates share many features of embryonic development with echinoderms

155 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings


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