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Semester Wrap-Up and Final Exam Review BSC 2010 Fall 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Semester Wrap-Up and Final Exam Review BSC 2010 Fall 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Semester Wrap-Up and Final Exam Review BSC 2010 Fall 2013

2 Final Exam SI Final Exam Review: Tuesday, December 3rd from 10:30 AM - 12:30 PM Student Union, 2nd floor, Key West 218ABCD room (minirooms A, B, C, and D will be combined into one room for this purpose).

3 Final Exam Final Exams: Section 2 (10:30 am – 11:20 am): Monday, Dec. 9 th from 10:00 am to 12:50 pm Section 3 (11:30 am – 12:20 pm): Wednesday, Dec. 4 th from 10 am to 12:50 pm – You must attend the final exam for your registered class – Exam collection will begin 1 hr after exam begins, no students will be permitted to begin exam after collection begins What You Need to Bring: – Pencil, Photo ID, Calculator

4 Final Exam Total Number of Questions: 75 questions + 5 bonus point questions – Old Material: 39 questions – New Material: 36 questions Review Document posted on Webcourses Types of Questions: 1.Multiple Choice 2.True/False

5 Final Exam Chapters 1 and 2 Main Concepts: Biology is the study of life – Taxonomy Chemistry – Molecular Bonds Scientific Method and Hypotheses Vocabulary: – Valence shell

6 Hypotheses H 0 = There is no difference Example: There will be no difference in the stalking behavior of lions born in zoos and lions born in the wild H A = There is a difference Example: Lions born in the wild will stalk prey more efficiently than those born in zoos.


8 Chapter 2 Molecular Bonds between Atoms The outermost orbital is called the valence shell. When the valence electrons of atoms interact chemical bonds are formed Several types are important in biological systems: – Covalent- electrons are shared – Ionic- transfer of electrons – Hydrogen- biologically important bonds

9 Final Exam Chapters 3 and 4 Main Concepts: Chemistry of Life – Acids, Bases, and pH scale – Functional Groups Vocabulary – Enantiomers


11 Final Exam Chapter 5 Main Concepts: Organic Molecules – Proteins – Nucleic Acids Vocabulary: – Denaturation

12 Protein Structure Primary Structure: Unique sequence of amino acids: sequence is determined by genetic material Secondary Structure: coiling /folding as a result of hydrogen bonding Tertiary Structure: 3-D shape due to bonding of R-groups Quaternary Structure: association of 2 or more polypeptides

13 Final Exam Chapter 6, 7, 8 Main Concepts: Cells – Cell Theory – Plasma Membrane Structure Active vs Passive Transport – Competitive Inhibitors Vocabulary: – Gap Junctions – Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes – Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic – Uniport, Symport

14 Introduction Cell is smallest functional unit of life Cell theory: – all organisms composed of cells – all existing cells arise from pre-existing cells There are two main types of cells: – Prokaryotes (lack nucleus) – Eukaryotes (true nucleus) Common characteristics of all cells: – cell contents surrounded by plasma membrane – cytoplasm consists of semifluid matrix – organelles are embedded in cytoplasm – contain genes in the form of DNA

15 Cell Membrane Structure Phospholipids of membranes form bilayers – phospholipids have polar “head” and nonpolar “tail” – form stable bilayer in water with heads out and tails in – hydrophobic interior forms barrier to hydrophilic molecules


17 Membrane Function Water balance between cells and surroundings critical – cell membranes semi-permeable – cells in isotonic solution do not change size -no osmosis – cells in hypotonic solution gain water – cells in hypertonic solutions lose water

18 Final Exam Chapters 9 and 10 Main Concepts: Energy Production – Cellular Respiration – Photosynthesis Vocabulary Autotrophs Heterotrophs Fermentation

19 Photosynthesis – Occurs in chloroplasts of autotrophs – Uses energy from sunlight to fix carbon dioxide into organic molecules (glucose) Cellular Respiration – Occurs in mitochondria – Glucose is broken down yielding energy (ATP) Overview of Energy Production

20 Final Exam Chapters 12 and 13 Main Concepts: Cellular Reproduction – Mitosis – Meiosis Vocabulary – Homologous Chromosomes – Sister Chromatids – Crossing Over

21 Mitosis vs Meiosis

22 Meiosis and Genetic Diversity Natural selection results in the accumulation of genetic variations favored by the environment Sexual reproduction contributes to the genetic variation in a population, which originates from mutations, through multiple processes: 1.Independent orientation of chromosomes 2.Random Fertilization 3.Homologous chromosomes can have different versions of genes 4.Crossing Over

23 Final Exam Review Chapters 14 and 15 Main Concepts: Patterns of Inheritance Gregor Mendel Punnett Square – 1 trait – 2 traits – Sex-linked Chromosome Theory of Inheritance Vocabulary: – Homozygous and Heterozygous – Alleles, genotypes, phenotypes – Dominant and recessive

24 Gregor Mendel Gregor Mendel, Austrian monk – Documented a particulate mechanism in the 1800s by experiments with garden pea plants 1860s- Studied inheritance patterns in pea plants – Character= heritable feature with multiple variations – Trait= each type of variation for a character – At this time, chromosomes and genes had not been discovered yet Used the term heritable factors to represent what we call a gene

25 Example: White Tigers White male mated with orange female All cubs = orange Aa A A a a Orange Female (AA) White Male (aa) Genotype Probability: 100% Heterozygous

26 Dihybrid Cross

27 Sex-linked genes have unique patterns of inheritance Sex-linked gene= genes located on sex chromosomes – X chromosome has many genes unrelated to sex – Y chromosome has very few genes The SRY gene on the Y chromosome codes for a protein that directs the development of male anatomical features Females- 2 copies of X chromosome – Typical dominant-recessive relationship – Females can be carriers of sex-linked disorders Males- 1 copy of X chromosome – Only needs one copy of allele to express trait – Sex-linked disorders tend to affect mostly males

28 Genetics Late 1800s- Mitosis and Meiosis described Early 1900s- Scientists noticed similarities between chromosome behavior and Mendel’s “heritable factors” Chromosome Theory of Inheritance: genes occupy specific loci on chromosomes and it is the chromosomes which undergo segregation and independent assortment during meiosis – The behavior of chromosomes during meiosis can account for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment

29 Final Exam Review Chapters 16 and 17 Main Concepts: DNA DNA Structure DNA Replication Transcription and Translation Genetic Code Vocabulary: – Codon and Anticodon – Dominant and recessive

30 DNA= Deoxyribonucleic acid Double helix structure – Nitrogenous bases pair in center, forming hydrogen bonds – Strands are complementary Adenine-Thymine Cytosine-Guanine Chargaff’s Rule – A=T and G=C – Strand are antiparallel

31 DNA Replication Purpose= copy genetic code Occurs in nucleus Occurs during S phase of cell cycle Necessary for cellular division

32 Flow of Genetic Information Transcription DNA RNA Protein Translation

33 Evolution of the Genetic Code Genetic code is nearly universal… From unicellular organisms… multicellular animals

34 Second mRNA base First mRNA base (5 end of codon) Third mRNA base (3 end of codon) UUU UUC UUA CUU CUC CUA CUG Phe Leu I le UCU UCC UCA UCG Ser CCU CCC CCA CCG UAU UAC Tyr Pro Thr UAA Stop UAG Stop UGA Stop UGU UGC Cys UGG Trp GC U U C A U U C C C A U A A A G G His Gln Asn Lys Asp CAU CGU CAC CAA CAG CGC CGA CGG G AUU AUC AUA ACU ACC ACA AAU AAC AAA AGU AGC AGA Arg Ser Arg Gly ACGAUG AAG AGG GUU GUC GUA GUG GCU GCC GCA GCG GAU GAC GAA GAG Val Ala GGU GGC GGA GGG Glu Gly G U C A Met or start UUG G Genetic code: -Redundant -Not Ambiguous

35 Final Exam Review Chapter 22 Main Concepts History of Evolution of Species – Jean Baptiste Lamarck and Charles Darwin Theory of Evolution – Unifying theory of biology Natural Selection

36 Evolutionary Adaptations of Organisms Evolution – Change through time – Descent with modification – Genetic changes in population from generation to generation Adaptations – Inheritable characteristic – Gives organism better chance of survival and reproductive success in a specific environment Natural Selection – Individuals with certain inheritable characteristics have better chance of survival and reproductive success compared to individuals without those characteristics – Unequal reproductive success leads to accumulation of favorable characteristics in population

37 Theory of Evolution Pattern of Evolution – Observations from natural world – Collected from variety of fields Biology, geology, physics, chemistry Process of Evolution – Mechanisms causing change Unifying theory of biology – Explains and connects observations from natural world

38 3 Key Points to Evolution by Natural Selection Individuals do not evolve, populations evolve – Evolution occurs as adaptations accumulate in populations over several generations Natural selection only works on heritable traits with variation in the population – Acquired traits are not passed to offspring Evolution is not working towards a specific goal or “perfect” organisms – Natural selection results from an organism interacting with a specific environment – Characteristics favorable in one environment may not be favorable in another

39 Final Exam Review Chapter 22 Vocabulary – Vestigial structures – Homologous structures – Intrasexual Selection – Intersexual Selection – Sexual Dimorphism

40 Final Exam Review Chapter 23 Main Concepts Types of Natural Selection Limits of Natural Selection Heterozygote Advantage Microevolution Hardy-Weinberg Principle

41 Evolution of a Population Types of Natural Selection – Directional Selection Highest reproduction in one extreme phenotype – Stabilizing Selection Highest reproduction of intermediate phenotypes – Disruptive Selection Highest reproduction of two extreme phenotypes Often leads to speciation Generations 123

42 Heterozygote Advantage Homozygous Dominant – No sickle cell allele – Susceptible to malaria Homozygous Recessive – Sickle-cell disease – Resistant to malaria Heterozygotes= co-dominant alleles, both types of blood cells – Heterozygotes have decreased symptoms of malaria and decreased symptoms of sickle-cell disease – Higher survival

43 Limits of Natural Selection Selection can only act on existing variation in a population. – New alleles do not appear when needed Evolution is limited by historical constraints. – Ancestral structures are adapted to new situations Adaptations are usually compromises. – One characteristic may be an adaptation in one situation, a disadvantage in another Natural selection interacts with chance/random events and the environment. – Chance events can alter allele frequencies in population – Environment can change

44 Types of Evolution Microevolution= change in the gene pool of a population over many generations 4 Methods of Microevolution – Mutations May be deleterious or neutral – Natural Selection Process in which individuals with favorable inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce – Genetic Drift= chance events cause genetic changes from one population to the next – Gene Flow= individuals or gametes move to a different population

45 Hardy-Weinberg Principle When allele frequencies remain constant from generation to generation, the population is in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium Equations: Allele Frequencies: p + q = 1 Genotype frequencies: p 2 + 2pq + q 2 = 1 Assumptions: – No natural selection – No mutation – No gene flow – Random mating – Large population

46 Final Exam Review Chapter 23 Vocabulary Cline Genetic Drift Bottleneck effect Founder effect Gene Flow

47 Final Exam Review Chapter 24 Main Concepts Speciation Biological Species Concept Reproductive Barriers – Pre-zygotic and Post-zygotic Macroevolution – Mass extinction and adaptive radiation

48 New species can arise from reproductive isolation between populations – No migration or gene flow Process of one species separating into 2 or more species – Development of new species leads to biodiversity Allopatric Speciation vs. Sympatric Speciation Speciation

49 Biological Species Concept – Group of populations with potential for successful breeding in nature and to create fertile offspring Biological Species Concept is widely accepted and used by biologists today Some situations require alternative concepts: – Identifying new species in the fossil record – Identifying prokaryotes (reproduce asexually) Defining a “Species”

50 Reproductive Barriers Two Types of Barriers: 1.Prezygotic Barriers= prevents mating or fertilization from happening 2.Postzygotic Barriers= happens after fertilization occurs, prevents viable, reproductive offspring

51 Macroevolution= change in groups above the level of species, often results in new taxonomic groups Methods of Macroevolution – Adaptive radiation= periods of change when many new species originate from a common ancestor – Mass extinctions= large number of species go extinct within a relatively short amount of time Environmental change 5 mass extinctions have occurred through geological time with 50% or more species lost – Plate tectonics and Continental drift= movement of Earth’s plates Types of Evolution

52 Final Exam Review Chapter 24 Vocabulary – Speciation – Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation – Mass extinction – Adaptive radiation – Continental drift

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