Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 33,000 B.C –A.D. 1783 New World Beginnings."— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 1 33,000 B.C –A.D. 1783New World Beginnings
2Bell ringerWhat is the Black Legend?Is it true of false? EXPLAIN.
3Timeline of events225 Million Years Ago- Pangaea started to break apart10 Million Years Ago- North America was shaped by nature- Canadian Shield2 Million Years Ago- Great Ice Age35,000 Years ago- Oceans were glaciers and the sea level dropped- leaving an isthmus connection to Asia and North America. The Bering Isthmus was crossed by those going into N. America10,000 Years Ago- Ice starts to melt, sea levels rise and “cover up” the Bering.*Evidence suggests that early people may have come to the Americas in crude boasts, or across the Bearing Isthmus –AND- according to some historians, the Vikings were technically the first Europeans to step on the continent.
5Peopling the AmericasGroups that crossed the bridge spread across North, Central and South AmericaMany tribes emerged/ approximately 2,000 languages were spokenIncas: Peru- elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire.Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula- step pyramids (served as a place of internment for powerful people)Aztecs: Mexico- step pyramids and sacrificed conquered peoples
7The Earliest Americans 5000 BC: Development of “maize”/ corn in Mexico revolutionizes societyEliminates the need for huntingPeople can settle down locally and become farmers(Cause and Effect): towns and citiesReaches present day U.S in 1200 B.C.Pueblo IndiansFirst American corn growersLived in villages: Adobe houses cubicle shaped, dried mud, beneath cliffsElaborate irrigation system would draw water away from rivers cornMound BuildersInhabits of North AmericaConstructed several different types of clay mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial and elite residential purposes.Located in the Ohio ValleyEastern Indians“Three sister” farming: corn, beans and squash corn grew in a stalk provides “fence” for beans beans grow up the stalk squash’s leaves kept the sun off the ground kept the moisture in the soil.Most diverse diet, more than likely the best diet.Demonstrated by the Cherokee, Creek and Choctaw tribes of the south. –AND- Iroquois tribe in the North.
8Continued… Iroquois Confederation Lead by Hiawatha abandon cannibalism and advance “peace, civil authority, righteousness, and the great law” = confederation5 Nations/ tribes in New York state: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga & SenecaTribes were pretty united- as opposed to the norm scattered & weak.Motive: against invasion common council clan and village chiefs each tribe had one vote unanimity required for decisions sachems embraced all civil affairs at the intertribal level.Matrilineal (Mother’s surname is given) authority / possessions passed down through the female line.Native Americans- Europeans: Points Of ViewNative Americans: Communal (no ONE man owned the earth- the tribe did), nature mixed with many spirits and had little or no concept OR interest in money.Europeans: Liked private property, Catholics and monotheistic (only one God) and loved money or gold.
10Indirect discoverers of the new world Norse (Vikings): first Europeans to come to AmericaLed by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson landed at about 1000 A.D. in NewfoundlandNo written record = no creditHow, then, do we know they traveled to our continent?Christian Crusaders of the Middle AgesPalestineRegain Holy Land from Muslims (CAUSE AND EFFECT) mixing of East & West creates “sweet-tooth” Europeans now want the spices of the East (perfumes, sugar, colorful draperies, silk, drugs for “aching flesh”)Muslin middleman exacted a heavy toll en route (very costly for the Europeans) Therefore, they find their own route.
12Europeans enter Africa Marco PoloSpends many years in (or around) ChinaReturns to Europe in 1295 sparks interest many attempt their own route to EuropeAn East to West (Asia to Europe) trade grew / overland new exploration in Africa hopes for an easier “all water” routePortugal starts a new sailing school easier route to get to the “Spice Islands” around Africa’s southern Cape of Good HopeLeads to new developments (CAUSE AND EFFECT): 1. Caravel 2. Compass 3. AstrolabeSlave trade begins: 1st slave trade in Sahara Desert West African Coast Portuguese sugar plantations in Africa’s tropical islands around the coast Spain wants a “piece of the pie”
14Columbus & the new world Columbus convinces Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to fund his expeditionGoal: To reach the East (East Indians) by sailing WestTake a route the Portuguese had not yet traveled (monopolized the around-Africa route)Although correct in his theory that the earth was round, he miscalculated the size of the earth believed it was actually 1/3 the size it truly was.After striking land (after a month at sea), he believed he reached the East IndiesIndians (misconception)Spawns following system in this “New World”:Europe would provide the market, capital and technologyAfrica would provide the laborNew World would provide the raw materials gold, soil, lumber
16When worlds collide“Biological flip-flop” or AKA Columbus Exchange:
17continuedSimply put: items that were traded amongst the two worlds plants, foods, animals & germsFrom the Old World (Europe) to the New (America)Cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc…Devastating diseases: smallpox, yellow fever, malaria Native Americans had low/ no immunityFrom the New World to the OldCorn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc…Syphilis
19Conquistadores Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Spanish and Portuguese feuded over who would get what land Pope draws up this agreement (respected by both)Line ran North-South (chopped off Brazilian coast of South America)Portugal: keeps everything east of the line (including Brazil and land around/ under Africa)Spain: keeps everything west of the line (didn’t realize how much more they were actually keeping at the time)
20ContinuedVasco Balboa; “discovered” the Pacific Ocean across isthmus of Panama.Ferdinand Magellan; Strait of Magellan separates South America’s southern tip from Tierra del Fuego.First to circumnavigate the globeJuan Ponce de Leon; subjugated Puerto Rico touches and names Florida in “search” of the Fountain of Youth finds his death instead (mortally wounded by an Indian arrow in Florida.Hernando Cortes; enters Florida present day South Eastern U.S dies/ “buried” in Mississippi River.Francisco Pizarro; conquers Incan Empire of Peru ships gold/ silver back to Spain European prices skyrocket (inflation) European economy transformed (capitalism)Francisco Coronado; enters present day South Eastern U.S. looked for El Dorado (City of Gold) Finds the Pueblo Indians*1500s: Spain became the dominant exploring/ colonizing power.Conquistadores come to New World in the service of God –AND- search of gold and glory.Caribbean islands offshore bases to aid the Spanish invasion in the American mainlandBy the 1530s in Mexico and 1550s in Peru, colonial administrators had replaced the conquistadoresMany European colonial administrators wed Indian women and had children mestizos cultural/ biological bridge formed between Latin America’s European and Indian races.Encomienda System government would “commend” Indians to colonists colonists would have to “Christianize” Indians.Slavery on a sugar plantation disguised as missionary work.“A moral pestilence invented by Satan” – Bartolome de Las Casas (Spanish missionary)
22Conquest of MexicoHernan Cortes; travels from Cuba to Mexico with men and horses (1519) rescues two translators captured by Mayans Malinche female Indian slave who spoke Mayan & Nahuatl (Aztec) learns Spanish and is later baptized and renamed Dona Maria. Cortes now has firepower and the power of understandingMontezuma (Aztec King)Believes Cortes is the god Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent) welcomes Cortez to TenochtitlanThe Spanish (Cortes) had the intention of stealing all the gold and other riches amazed by the beauty of the capitalJune 30, 1520 (noche triste) Aztecs attacked the Spanish due to their greed (lust for riches)Cortes fights back and the city surrenders on August 13, 1521 Spanish capital (Mexico City) built right over the Aztec citySmallpox epidemic spreads in Mexico on the same yearNative population of Mexico drops from 20 million to 2 million in less than a century.
24Spread of Spanish America Spanish society quickly spreads through Peru and MexicoCathedrals spread across the land, printing presses, scholars studies at distinguished universities (85 years prior to Harvard)Threat comes from neighborsOther powers “sniff around” for a share of the promised wealth of the New WorldEnglish send over John Cabot touches the coast of the current day U.S (North America)French send over Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian mariner) eastern seaboard, 1524French send over Jacques Cartier St. Lawrence River (Canada)Spanish ResponseFortify the California Coast and Florida (St. Augustine oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the U.S)Don Juan de Onate followed Coronado’s old path (of the 1540s) into present day New Mexico in 1609 Battle of Acoma Spanish in New Mexico find few furs and gold Roman Catholic mission1680 sparked by missionaries’ efforts to suppress Native American culture Pope’s Rebellion (launched by natives) natives destroy every Catholic church in the province and killed priests rebuilt a KIVA on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa FeMeanwhile…The French launched an expedition under Robert de LaSalle Mississippi River claimed the whole region for his king- Louis Hence, named the area LouisianaSlew of place-names for the area LaSalle, Louisville, New Orleans (U.S counter of Joan of Arc’s famous victory at Orleans
26Black legendNotion that Spaniards only brought bad things to the New WorldMurderDiseaseSlaveryAlso brought good thingsLaw systemsArchitectureChristianityLanguageCivilizationBlack legend is PARTLY and not entirely accurate
27End of PowerPoint - Chapter 1 Complete the “due today” section on the agenda (on APUSH board)
28Quiz questions1. When did the first European explorers reach the region that would become the Americas.2. What proof has led researchers to conclude that the earth once contained one single continent?3. What do the Incans, Mayans and Aztecs owe their development and sophisticated early society to? Explain.4. Explain what the Columbus exchange is.5. Explain what the Treaty of Tordesillas is. Who got the better end of the bargain? Why?6. What did the Spanish conquistadores, traveling to the New World, hope to gain? Explain.