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CHAPTER 1 33,000 B.C –A.D. 1783 New World Beginnings.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 33,000 B.C –A.D. 1783 New World Beginnings."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 1 33,000 B.C –A.D. 1783 New World Beginnings

2 BELL RINGER What is the Black Legend? Is it true of false? EXPLAIN.

3 TIMELINE OF EVENTS 225 Million Years Ago- Pangaea started to break apart 10 Million Years Ago- North America was shaped by nature- Canadian Shield 2 Million Years Ago- Great Ice Age 35,000 Years ago- Oceans were glaciers and the sea level dropped- leaving an isthmus connection to Asia and North America. The Bering Isthmus was crossed by those going into N. America 10,000 Years Ago- Ice starts to melt, sea levels rise and “cover up” the Bering. *Evidence suggests that early people may have come to the Americas in crude boasts, or across the Bearing Isthmus –AND- according to some historians, the Vikings were technically the first Europeans to step on the continent.

4 PEOPLING THE AMERICAS

5 Groups that crossed the bridge spread across North, Central and South America Many tribes emerged/ approximately 2,000 languages were spoken  Incas: Peru- elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire.  Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula- step pyramids (served as a place of internment for powerful people)  Aztecs: Mexico- step pyramids and sacrificed conquered peoples

6 THE EARLIEST AMERICANS

7 5000 BC: Development of “maize”/ corn in Mexico revolutionizes society  Eliminates the need for hunting  People can settle down locally and become farmers  (Cause and Effect): towns and cities  Reaches present day U.S in 1200 B.C. Pueblo Indians  First American corn growers  Lived in villages: Adobe houses  cubicle shaped, dried mud, beneath cliffs  Elaborate irrigation system  would draw water away from rivers  corn Mound Builders  Inhabits of North America  Constructed several different types of clay mounds for religious, ceremonial, burial and elite residential purposes.  Located in the Ohio Valley Eastern Indians  “Three sister” farming: corn, beans and squash  corn grew in a stalk  provides “fence” for beans  beans grow up the stalk  squash’s leaves kept the sun off the ground  kept the moisture in the soil.  Most diverse diet, more than likely the best diet.  Demonstrated by the Cherokee, Creek and Choctaw tribes of the south. –AND- Iroquois tribe in the North.

8 CONTINUED… Iroquois Confederation  Lead by Hiawatha  abandon cannibalism and advance “peace, civil authority, righteousness, and the great law” = confederation  5 Nations/ tribes in New York state: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga & Seneca  Tribes were pretty united- as opposed to the norm  scattered & weak.  Motive: against invasion  common council  clan and village chiefs  each tribe had one vote  unanimity required for decisions  sachems embraced all civil affairs at the intertribal level.  Matrilineal (Mother’s surname is given)  authority / possessions passed down through the female line. Native Americans- Europeans: Points Of View  Native Americans: Communal (no ONE man owned the earth- the tribe did), nature mixed with many spirits and had little or no concept OR interest in money.  Europeans: Liked private property, Catholics and monotheistic (only one God) and loved money or gold.

9 INDIRECT DISCOVERERS OF THE NEW WORLD

10 Norse (Vikings): first Europeans to come to America  Led by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson  landed at about 1000 A.D. in Newfoundland  No written record = no credit  How, then, do we know they traveled to our continent? Christian Crusaders of the Middle Ages  Palestine  Regain Holy Land from Muslims (CAUSE AND EFFECT)  mixing of East & West creates “sweet-tooth”  Europeans now want the spices of the East (perfumes, sugar, colorful draperies, silk, drugs for “aching flesh”)  Muslin middleman exacted a heavy toll en route (very costly for the Europeans)  Therefore, they find their own route.

11 EUROPEANS ENTER AFRICA

12 Marco Polo  Spends many years in (or around) China  Returns to Europe in 1295  sparks interest  many attempt their own route to Europe  An East to West (Asia to Europe) trade grew / overland  new exploration in Africa  hopes for an easier “all water” route  Portugal starts a new sailing school  easier route to get to the “Spice Islands”  around Africa’s southern Cape of Good Hope  Leads to new developments (CAUSE AND EFFECT): 1. Caravel 2. Compass 3. Astrolabe  Slave trade begins: 1 st slave trade in Sahara Desert  West African Coast  Portuguese sugar plantations in Africa’s tropical islands around the coast  Spain wants a “piece of the pie”

13 COLUMBUS COMES UPON A NEW WORLD

14 COLUMBUS & THE NEW WORLD Columbus convinces Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain to fund his expedition Goal: To reach the East (East Indians) by sailing West  Take a route the Portuguese had not yet traveled (monopolized the around-Africa route) Although correct in his theory that the earth was round, he miscalculated the size of the earth  believed it was actually 1/3 the size it truly was. After striking land (after a month at sea), he believed he reached the East Indies  Indians (misconception) Spawns following system in this “New World”:  Europe would provide the market, capital and technology  Africa would provide the labor  New World would provide the raw materials  gold, soil, lumber

15 WHEN WORLDS COLLIDE

16 “Biological flip-flop” or AKA Columbus Exchange:

17 CONTINUED Simply put: items that were traded amongst the two worlds  plants, foods, animals & germs From the Old World (Europe) to the New (America)  Cows, pigs, horses, wheat, sugar cane, apples, cabbage, citrus, carrots, Kentucky bluegrass, etc…  Devastating diseases: smallpox, yellow fever, malaria  Native Americans had low/ no immunity From the New World to the Old  Corn, potatoes, tobacco, beans, peppers, manioc, pumpkin, squash, tomato, wild rice, etc…  Syphilis

18 THE SPANISH CONQUISTADORES

19 CONQUISTADORES Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)  Spanish and Portuguese feuded over who would get what land  Pope draws up this agreement (respected by both)  Line ran North-South (chopped off Brazilian coast of South America)  Portugal: keeps everything east of the line (including Brazil and land around/ under Africa)  Spain: keeps everything west of the line (didn’t realize how much more they were actually keeping at the time)

20 CONTINUED Vasco Balboa; “discovered” the Pacific Ocean across isthmus of Panama. Ferdinand Magellan; Strait of Magellan  separates South America’s southern tip from Tierra del Fuego.  First to circumnavigate the globe Juan Ponce de Leon; subjugated Puerto Rico  touches and names Florida  in “search” of the Fountain of Youth  finds his death instead (mortally wounded by an Indian arrow in Florida. Hernando Cortes; enters Florida  present day South Eastern U.S  dies/ “buried” in Mississippi River. Francisco Pizarro; conquers Incan Empire of Peru  ships gold/ silver back to Spain  European prices skyrocket (inflation)  European economy transformed (capitalism) Francisco Coronado; enters present day South Eastern U.S.  looked for El Dorado (City of Gold)  Finds the Pueblo Indians *1500s: Spain became the dominant exploring/ colonizing power.  Conquistadores come to New World in the service of God –AND- search of gold and glory.  Caribbean islands  offshore bases to aid the Spanish invasion in the American mainland  By the 1530s in Mexico and 1550s in Peru, colonial administrators had replaced the conquistadores  Many European colonial administrators wed Indian women and had children  mestizos  cultural/ biological bridge formed between Latin America’s European and Indian races. Encomienda System  government would “commend” Indians to colonists  colonists would have to “Christianize” Indians.  Slavery on a sugar plantation disguised as missionary work.  “A moral pestilence invented by Satan” – Bartolome de Las Casas (Spanish missionary)

21 THE CONQUEST OF MEXICO

22 CONQUEST OF MEXICO Hernan Cortes; travels from Cuba to Mexico with men and horses (1519)  rescues two translators captured by Mayans  Malinche female Indian slave who spoke Mayan & Nahuatl (Aztec)  learns Spanish and is later baptized and renamed Dona Maria.  Cortes now has firepower and the power of understanding Montezuma (Aztec King)  Believes Cortes is the god Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent)  welcomes Cortez to Tenochtitlan  The Spanish (Cortes) had the intention of stealing all the gold and other riches  amazed by the beauty of the capital  June 30, 1520 (noche triste)  Aztecs attacked the Spanish due to their greed (lust for riches)  Cortes fights back and the city surrenders on August 13, 1521  Spanish capital (Mexico City) built right over the Aztec city  Smallpox epidemic spreads in Mexico on the same year  Native population of Mexico drops from 20 million to 2 million in less than a century.

23 SPREAD OF SPANISH AMERICA

24 Spanish society quickly spreads through Peru and Mexico  Cathedrals spread across the land, printing presses, scholars studies at distinguished universities (85 years prior to Harvard) Threat comes from neighbors  Other powers “sniff around” for a share of the promised wealth of the New World  English send over John Cabot  touches the coast of the current day U.S (North America) 1497-1498  French send over Giovanni da Verrazano (Italian mariner)  eastern seaboard, 1524  French send over Jacques Cartier  St. Lawrence River (Canada) Spanish Response  Fortify the California Coast and Florida (St. Augustine  oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the U.S)  Don Juan de Onate followed Coronado’s old path (of the 1540s) into present day New Mexico in 1609  Battle of Acoma  Spanish in New Mexico find few furs and gold  Roman Catholic mission  1680 sparked by missionaries’ efforts to suppress Native American culture  Pope’s Rebellion (launched by natives)  natives destroy every Catholic church in the province and killed priests  rebuilt a KIVA on the ruins of the Spanish plaza at Santa Fe Meanwhile…  The French launched an expedition under Robert de LaSalle  Mississippi River  claimed the whole region for his king- Louis  Hence, named the area Louisiana  Slew of place-names for the area  LaSalle, Louisville, New Orleans (U.S counter of Joan of Arc’s famous victory at Orleans

25 BLACK LEGEND

26 Notion that Spaniards only brought bad things to the New World  Murder  Disease  Slavery Also brought good things  Law systems  Architecture  Christianity  Language  Civilization Black legend is PARTLY and not entirely accurate

27 END OF POWERPOINT - CHAPTER 1 Complete the “due today” section on the agenda (on APUSH board)

28 QUIZ QUESTIONS 1. When did the first European explorers reach the region that would become the Americas. 2. What proof has led researchers to conclude that the earth once contained one single continent? 3. What do the Incans, Mayans and Aztecs owe their development and sophisticated early society to? Explain. 4. Explain what the Columbus exchange is. 5. Explain what the Treaty of Tordesillas is. Who got the better end of the bargain? Why? 6. What did the Spanish conquistadores, traveling to the New World, hope to gain? Explain.


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