Presentation on theme: "Caitlin Andersen Washington Internships for Students of Engineering American Institute of Chemical Engineers University of Iowa College of Engineering."— Presentation transcript:
Caitlin Andersen Washington Internships for Students of Engineering American Institute of Chemical Engineers University of Iowa College of Engineering P RECISION A GRICULTURE T ECHNOLOGIES I MPROVED N ITROGEN E FFICIENCY AND A TMOSPHERIC P OLLUTION
O UTLINE It’s More than Corn Introduction Background Government Frameworks Issue Definitions Policy Suggestions Recommendations Acknowledgments Questions
I T ’ S MORE THAN C ORN “I knew farming was what I wanted to do ever since I was old enough to help my dad and drive a tractor. I farm because I want things to be here for years to come. I enjoy seeing the crops grow on land I’ve worked hard to preserve. I like knowing that I’m just not chasing money—I’m producing something that benefits millions of people. I’m growing food for the world.” --Robert Andersen
I NTRODUCTION “This is a basic problem, to feed 6.6 billion people. Without fertilizer, forget it. The game is over.” —Dr. Norman Borlaug
B ACKGROUND Global Implications 87 million acres of corn, producing nearly 13.4 trillion bushels (750 trillion pounds) of corn in 2008 Improvements in past 40 years—less inputs, more outputs Constant Changes and Growing Demands Drought, excessive rain, hail, wind 100 corn-favoring pests Crop diseases: smut, stalk rot, ear rot “Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil and you’re a thousand miles from the corn field.” -President Dwight D. Eisenhower
B ACKGROUND Fertilizer Basics Anhydrous Ammonia, UAN, Ammonium Nitrate, Manure, Nitrogen Stabilizers Precision Agriculture and Best Management Practices Information technologies and environmental stewardship Nitrogen Modeling Research—DAYCENT, weather, soil moisture NERP and Nitrace
B ACKGROUND One of 17 key nutrients—considered most important Yield’s relationship to nitrogen application Genetic implications Courtesy of http://www.agry.purdue.edu/Ext/corn/news /articles.08/floodingnitrogen-0613.html Grain Yield vs. Total Amount of N Fertilizer Applied
B ACKGROUND Fixation Atmosphere:78% nitrogen Bacteria with nitrogenase converts nitrogen to ammonia Nitrification bacterial conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ions Denitification Reverse of nitrification Anaerobic ammonium oxidation Conversion of ammonium to nitrogen gas Volatilization Release of gases: N 2 and NO x
G OVERNMENT F RAMEWORKS United State Department of Agriculture Natural Resource Conservation Service Environmental Quality Initiative Program National Institute for Food and Agriculture Air Quality Division Agricultural Research Service Extension Services Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act
I SSUE D EFINITION Engineering Grand Challenge for management of nitrogen cycle One of ten challenges selected Complexity of agriculture industry Key players: fertilizer manufacturers, distributors, growers, buyers, precision agriculture technology developers Ultimate goal Mitigation of emissions through optimization of environmental stewardship, nutrient application, and yield gains for global food security.
I SSUE D EFINITION Source: http://www.epa.gov/nitrousoxide/sources.html
P OLICY S UGGESTIONS Monitoring technologies Physical quantification at farm level Precision agriculture implementation Chlorophyll and soil sampling Genetic advancements for NUE Cap and Trade Programs Shift from per bushel basis to value added crop market system
R ECOMMENDATIONS Address unique layers of agriculture industry Three-fold policy position Expansion of supported research in area of nitrous oxide emission modeling with voluntary adaptation of nutrient management programs and precision agriculture technologies Implementation of NUE genetics without hindrance from fertilizer industry Shift from bushel basis market to value added crop market Financial considerations for growers, fertilizer manufacturers, and corn processing industries Focus on mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in interest of a more sustainable environment for global food production
A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS Washington Internships for Students of Engineering Program Bill Behn American Institute of Chemical Engineers Dr. Rose Wesson and Steve Smith Dr. Charles Stanier, University of Iowa Department of Chemical Engineering Scott Coffel and Jennifer Ambrose, Hanson Center for Technical Communication, University of Iowa Robert and Toni Andersen, Andersen Family Farms Inc.