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Caitlin Andersen Washington Internships for Students of Engineering American Institute of Chemical Engineers University of Iowa College of Engineering.

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Presentation on theme: "Caitlin Andersen Washington Internships for Students of Engineering American Institute of Chemical Engineers University of Iowa College of Engineering."— Presentation transcript:

1 Caitlin Andersen Washington Internships for Students of Engineering American Institute of Chemical Engineers University of Iowa College of Engineering P RECISION A GRICULTURE T ECHNOLOGIES I MPROVED N ITROGEN E FFICIENCY AND A TMOSPHERIC P OLLUTION

2 O UTLINE It’s More than Corn Introduction Background Government Frameworks Issue Definitions Policy Suggestions Recommendations Acknowledgments Questions

3 I T ’ S MORE THAN C ORN “I knew farming was what I wanted to do ever since I was old enough to help my dad and drive a tractor. I farm because I want things to be here for years to come. I enjoy seeing the crops grow on land I’ve worked hard to preserve. I like knowing that I’m just not chasing money—I’m producing something that benefits millions of people. I’m growing food for the world.” --Robert Andersen

4 I NTRODUCTION “This is a basic problem, to feed 6.6 billion people. Without fertilizer, forget it. The game is over.” —Dr. Norman Borlaug

5 B ACKGROUND  Global Implications  87 million acres of corn, producing nearly 13.4 trillion bushels (750 trillion pounds) of corn in 2008  Improvements in past 40 years—less inputs, more outputs  Constant Changes and Growing Demands  Drought, excessive rain, hail, wind  100 corn-favoring pests  Crop diseases: smut, stalk rot, ear rot “Farming looks mighty easy when your plow is a pencil and you’re a thousand miles from the corn field.” -President Dwight D. Eisenhower

6 B ACKGROUND  Fertilizer Basics  Anhydrous Ammonia, UAN, Ammonium Nitrate, Manure, Nitrogen Stabilizers  Precision Agriculture and Best Management Practices  Information technologies and environmental stewardship  Nitrogen Modeling  Research—DAYCENT, weather, soil moisture  NERP and Nitrace

7 B ACKGROUND  One of 17 key nutrients—considered most important  Yield’s relationship to nitrogen application  Genetic implications Courtesy of /articles.08/floodingnitrogen-0613.html Grain Yield vs. Total Amount of N Fertilizer Applied

8 B ACKGROUND  Fixation  Atmosphere:78% nitrogen  Bacteria with nitrogenase converts nitrogen to ammonia  Nitrification  bacterial conversion of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate ions  Denitification  Reverse of nitrification  Anaerobic ammonium oxidation  Conversion of ammonium to nitrogen gas  Volatilization  Release of gases: N 2 and NO x

9 G OVERNMENT F RAMEWORKS  United State Department of Agriculture  Natural Resource Conservation Service Environmental Quality Initiative Program  National Institute for Food and Agriculture Air Quality Division  Agricultural Research Service  Extension Services  Environmental Protection Agency  Clean Air Act

10 I SSUE D EFINITION  Engineering Grand Challenge for management of nitrogen cycle  One of ten challenges selected  Complexity of agriculture industry  Key players: fertilizer manufacturers, distributors, growers, buyers, precision agriculture technology developers  Ultimate goal  Mitigation of emissions through optimization of environmental stewardship, nutrient application, and yield gains for global food security.

11 I SSUE D EFINITION Source:

12 P OLICY S UGGESTIONS  Monitoring technologies  Physical quantification at farm level  Precision agriculture implementation  Chlorophyll and soil sampling  Genetic advancements for NUE  Cap and Trade Programs  Shift from per bushel basis to value added crop market system

13 R ECOMMENDATIONS  Address unique layers of agriculture industry  Three-fold policy position  Expansion of supported research in area of nitrous oxide emission modeling with voluntary adaptation of nutrient management programs and precision agriculture technologies  Implementation of NUE genetics without hindrance from fertilizer industry  Shift from bushel basis market to value added crop market  Financial considerations for growers, fertilizer manufacturers, and corn processing industries  Focus on mitigation of nitrous oxide emissions in interest of a more sustainable environment for global food production

14 A CKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Washington Internships for Students of Engineering Program  Bill Behn  American Institute of Chemical Engineers  Dr. Rose Wesson and Steve Smith  Dr. Charles Stanier, University of Iowa Department of Chemical Engineering  Scott Coffel and Jennifer Ambrose, Hanson Center for Technical Communication, University of Iowa  Robert and Toni Andersen, Andersen Family Farms Inc.

15 Q UESTIONS


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