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Pregnancy • —time from fertilization until infant is born

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Presentation on theme: "Pregnancy • —time from fertilization until infant is born"— Presentation transcript:

0 Fertilization & Pregnancy

1 Pregnancy • —time from fertilization until infant is born
• —developing offspring • —period of time from fertilization until week 8 • —week 9 until birth • date of last period until birth (approximately 280 days)

2 Journey to Fertilization
•The oocyte is viable for hours after • are viable for hours after ejaculation •For fertilization to occur, sexual intercourse must occur no more than and no later •Sperm cells must make their way to the for fertilization to be possible

3 Journey to fertilization
•When sperm reach the oocyte break down the follicle cells of the corona radiata around the oocyte •Once a path is cleared, sperm undergo an (acrosomal membranes break down and in the oocyte membrane) • on an oocyte pull in the head of the first sperm cell to make contact

4 Occurrence of fertilization
•The does not permit a second sperm head to enter •The oocyte then undergoes its to form the ovum and a polar body •Fertilization occurs when the of a sperm combines with that of an oocyte to form a zygote

5 Zygote •First cell of a new individual
•The result of the fusion of DNA from sperm and egg •The zygote begins cell divisions •The zygote stage is in the , moving toward the

6 Cleavage… not what you think
•Rapid series of that begins with the zygote and ends with •Zygote begins to after fertilization •3 to 4 days after ovulation, the pre embryo reaches the uterus and floats freely for 2 to 3 days •Late blastocyst stage—embryo implants in (day 7 after ovulation)


8 Embryonic Development
• —period of time from fertilization until week 8 • —16-cell stage • (chorionic vesicle)—hollow, ball- like structure containing about 100 cells

9 The Embryo •The embryo first undergoes division without growth
•The embryo enters the uterus at the 16-cell state ( ) about 3 days after ovulation •The embryo floats free in the uterus temporarily •Uterine secretions are used for

10 The Blastocyst •Ball-like circle of cells
•Begins at about the ___________________ •Secretes (hCG) to induce the corpus luteum to continue producing hormones •The late implants in the wall of the uterus (by day 14)

11 Development after Implantation
• (projections of the blastocyst) develop •Cooperate with cells of the uterus to form the placenta • —fluid-filled sac that surrounds the embryo •__________________ •Blood vessel-containing stalk of tissue •Attaches the embryo to the placenta

12 Placenta •Forms a barrier between (blood is not exchanged)
•Delivers _____________________________ • from embryonic blood •Becomes an (produces hormones) and takes over for the corpus luteum (by end of second month) by producing •Estrogen •Progesterone •Other hormones that maintain pregnancy

13 The Fetus •Fetus–week 9 until birth
•All organ systems are formed by the end of the __________ •Activities of the fetus are specialization •This is a stage of tremendous growth and change in appearance

14 Embryo Fertilization 1-week conceptus 3-week embryo (3 mm) 5-week embryo (10 mm) 8-week embryo (22 mm) 12-week fetus (90 mm)

15 Effects on Female Body •Anatomical changes
•Enlargement of the _______________ •Accentuated ______________(lordosis) •Relaxation of the and ___________due to production of relaxin

16 Physiological changes
•Gastrointestinal system •Morning sickness is common due to ____________ _____________ •_______________ is common because of organ crowding by the fetus •Constipation is caused by declining motility of the digestive tract

17 Physiological Changes
•Urinary system •Kidneys have additional _________ _________________ •The uterus compresses the bladder, causing stress incontinence

18 Physiological Changes
•Respiratory system •Nasal mucosa becomes ________________ •Vital capacity and respiratory rate increase •Dyspnea (_______________) occurs during later stages of pregnancy

19 Physiological Changes
•Cardiovascular system •Blood volume increases by ______ percent •__________________________increase •Varicose veins are common

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