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1 Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Production Adapted from presentation by: Michelle Grabowski and Jeff Hahn University of Minnesota Extension.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Production Adapted from presentation by: Michelle Grabowski and Jeff Hahn University of Minnesota Extension."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Integrated Pest Management for Vegetable Production Adapted from presentation by: Michelle Grabowski and Jeff Hahn University of Minnesota Extension Presenter’s Name Presenter’s Title Presenter’s Organization

2 2 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. WHAT IS A PEST?  A living organism that is disruptive to - human interests - activities - valued resources  An organism out of place  Name given to problem organisms  No organism is inherently a pest

3 3 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. WHY MANAGE PESTS  Crop health  Nuisance  Preserve natural ecosystems  Property damage

4 4 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. WHAT IS INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM)? IPM is a sustainable approach to reduce pests to a tolerable level by using the best balance of cultural, physical, biological, & chemical methods while minimizing economic, environmental, and health risks.

5 5 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. IPM INCLUDES  A decision making system using researched-based information  Understanding of pest biology & interaction with environment  Is proactive, not reactive to pest problems - advocates avoidance and proper timing - on going process  Some pests and damage tolerated  Sets threshold of acceptable damage

6 6 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. IPM INCLUDES  Site specific management  Applicable for all pests in all sites - insect, disease, weed, wildlife and others - indoors, outdoors - natural and managed landscapes  Integration of diverse control methods (biological, cultural, physical, chemical etc.)  Judicious use of pesticides Many are already doing many of these steps

7 7 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. IPM FITS WITH…  Organic gardening  Sustainable production  Use of native plants  Efforts to protect water quality  Protection of non-target organisms (bees, beneficial insects, endangered species, humans, others)

8 8 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. IPM -THE ESSENTIAL STEPS  Plan ahead  Monitor for pests  Identify pests and learn biology  Establish your injury & action thresholds  Select management strategies acceptable & practical for you  Evaluate and record results

9 9 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. PLAN AHEAD  Anticipate potential pest problems - Know common pest problems in the area - Review records of pest problems at the site - Be aware of pest problems in surrounding areas  Consider time of year to most effectively implement management strategies - Make sure staff and supplies are prepared to respond in a timely manner

10 10 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Use tools to help detect pests  Calendar dates  Phenological development  Traps TOOLS TO HELP DETECT PESTS

11 11 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MONITOR FOR PESTS  Establish a scouting strategy  Know how frequently to inspect the site  Learn to identify the pest & the damage it causes umn.edu/garden

12 12 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Recognize conditions conducive to pests  Consider past pest occurrence  Who else is having this problem this season USE ALL INFORMATION

13 13 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. ESTABLISH ACTION THRESHOLDS  Highest number of pests tolerable before unacceptable damage occurs  Could also be expressed in terms of yield loss  Assess damage that is present and potential damage that could occur

14 14 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. INSECT PESTS OF VEGETABLES

15 15 Identify Pests

16 16 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.

17 17 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MONITOR FOR INSECTS  Regularly check your plants for signs of insects.  Also check for symptoms.  Use tools to help detect pests  Recognize pest habitats  Keep records of infestation dates from previous years.

18 18 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Understanding vegetable diseasesBacteria Nematode Phytoplasma Virus Fungi

19 19 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Unusual random patterns of greens and yellows (mottling), wavy lines or rings on leaves and fruit.  Odd color variations and malformed leaves and fruit. VIRAL SYMPTOMS

20 20 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Severe infections may completely stunt and deform plants.  Symptoms are often most obvious on young or developing plant parts VIRAL SYMPTOMS

21 21 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. SQUASH ARE MOST COMMONLY AFFECTED BY VIRUS  Mosaic patterns on their leaves and unusual color patterns on fruit.  Both malformed fruits and leaves.  Spread from plant to plant by aphids  Infected seed can also bring virus into garden.

22 22 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. TREATMENT  Control weeds within and around the field.  Manage aphids and cucumber beetles.  If disease appears in a few plants, remove them to prevent further spread of the disease.  Clean tools and workers hands with soap and water after working with infected plants.  There are no pesticides that can be applied to reverse or limit the symptoms of viral infection.

23 23 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. FUNGI & BACTERIA  Can survive the winter in the soil or in plant debris.  Both need moisture to reproduce and spread.  Spread leaf to leaf and plant to plant from raindrops or overhead irrigation.  Spread by the wind  Spread by unclean tools. Powdery mildew Green Bean Rust Bacterial Leaf blight

24 24 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. FUNGAL DISEASES Late Blight in Tomatoes Botrytis Blight in Lettuce

25 25 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. FUNGAL DISEASES Damping off Anthracnose in Beans

26 26 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. FUNGAL DISEASES Downy Mildew on Cucumber Fusarium Wilt on Tomatoes Verticillium Wilt on Eggplant

27 27 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. EXAMPLES OF CONVENTIONAL ROTATION WISDOM  Avoid planting the same crop family in the same field too often.  Alternate cover crops with cash crops.  Alternate deep-rooted crops with shallow, fine- rooted crops.  Precede heavy feeders with nitrogen fixing cover crops.  Avoid following a root crop with another root crop.

28 28 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.

29 29 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MONITOR VEGETABLES REGULARLY  Catch problems early before they become too large to treat.  Check lower leaves of plants for new infections.  Examine upper and lower sides of leaves, stems and fruit.  Pinch off infected parts of plants.  Identify pest before starting chemical treatment.

30 30 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. Something can be done Too Late FUNGICIDES  Fungicides are preventative and Protective –Will not cure leaf spots –Will protect healthy leaves  Must be applied before disease is severe  Spray contact fungicides for 100% coverage

31 31 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. LOW IMPACT FUNGICIDES  Horticultural Oils –Effective against powdery mildew and other fungal infections.  Potassium Bicarbonate –Closely related to baking soda, safe for humans and the environment. –Effective against powdery mildew and other fungal diseases. –Must contact fungi to kill it.  Sulfur: Effective against some diseases. –Can burn plants, especially if applied in the heat of the day.

32 32 Biological Controls Trichoderma harzianum Parasitizes fungal pathogens Only controls fungi in the soil Root Shield or Plant Shield

33 33 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES USED IN IPM  Do Nothing  Genetic – Tolerant & Resistant Plants  Cultural and Sanitation  Physical/Mechanical  Biological  Chemical

34 34 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. CHOOSING A MANAGEMENT STRATEGY  Effectiveness of treatment  Cost and ease of treatment  Availability of equipment, supplies and expertise  Environmental protection  Human safety and health  Use/function/purpose of site  History of the site

35 35 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. DO NOTHING  Does not negatively affect site  Damage level is tolerable  Insects are not pests  Further damage cannot be prevented  Management is not practical

36 36 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. GENETIC  A resistant plant can defend itself against a pathogen or insect  Varying levels of resistance exist  Resistance is specific to one pathogen or insect

37 37 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Resistant – A host plant that will not become diseased. However often qualified as ‘partially’ or ‘moderately’ resistant.  Tolerant – A host plant that will become diseased but will not be seriously affected. PLANT RESISTANT OR TOLERANT VARIETIES

38 38 © 2010 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Scarlet Nantes variety carrots is resistant to aster leafhopper  Ruby Perfection Cabbage resistant to thrips GENETIC RESISTANCE TO INSECTS Whitney Cranshaw

39 39 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. DISEASE RESISTANT VARIETIES  Look for resistant varieties on seed packets and in plant catalogues  Be suspicious of general statements like ‘Good Disease Resistance’

40 40 © 2010 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. RESISTANT VARIETIES  Look for statements that identify a specific pathogen or disease

41 41 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. CULTURAL CONTROL  Improve plant growth or vigor  Make the environment unfavorable for pests - Change moisture through irrigation or mulch - Change light exposure and air movement through pruning, plant spacing or mulch  Reduce compaction

42 42 Cultural/Sanitation Manage weeds to reduce food sources for Colorado Potato Beetle, stalk borers… Moisture Management: water deeply and less frequently for slugs Clean debris to eliminate habitat for overwintering squash bugs

43 43 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.  Physically removing pests  Fencing, screening or other barriers to block pests  Traps PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL

44 44 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. SANITATION  Remove infested material - Remove diseased plant material to reduce spread and to prevent overwintering - Remove plant material that may contain insect eggs  Remove weed flower stalks before they set seed

45 45 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL  Recognize, protect & attract natural predators –Encourage natural enemies by planting a variety of flowering plants that bloom throughout the season.  Microbial pesticides

46 46 Biological Recognize natural enemies Biorational controls: parasitic nematodes lacewing Assassin bug Syrphid Fly Robber Fly Ichneumon Wasp Lady Bug

47 47 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. CHEMICAL  Not used if other management strategies effectively manage pest  When necessary, used in addition to other management strategies  Use low impact pesticides when effective and practical

48 48 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. INSECTICIDES  Generally used as protective –Treat where you see problem (don’t anticipate where insect could occur –Generally don’t treat preventatively –In some cases preventative treatment is warranted.  Must be applied before damage is severe

49 49 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. LOW IMPACT PESTICIDES  have a minimal negative effect on –the environment, –non target organisms (e.g. bees, wildlife) –human health  Often are natural compounds or quickly biodegradable  Examples –Horticultural oils –Potassium bicarbonate –Sulfur –Insecticidal soap –Spinosad

50 50 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. MICROBIAL PESTICIDES  Active ingredient is microscopic organism –fungus, bacterium or nematode  Biological control agents –directly attack the pest –create a product toxic to the pest –physically block the pest  Many are low impact pesticides  Examples –Parasitic nematodes, Steinernema spp. and Heterohabditis spp. –Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) –Trichoderma harzianum –Bacillus subtilis

51 51 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. EVALUATE & RECORD RESULTS  Was management effective?  If not, why not?  Plan ahead for next year

52 52 © 2014 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer. In accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, this PowerPoint is available in alternative formats upon request. Direct requests to Thank You for Attending! This product was developed with support from the Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture — National Institute of Food and Agriculture (USDA-NIFA). Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed within do not necessarily reflect the view of the SARE program or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer.


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