Presentation on theme: "Cardiac tumors Dr Shreetal Rajan Nair"— Presentation transcript:
1 Cardiac tumors Dr Shreetal Rajan Nair Senior Resident, Department of Cardiology,Calicut Medical College
2 History 1559 : Columbus , a noted pathologist – first to report 1934 : first report of a primary sarcoma of the heart diagnosed in a living patient by Barnes1942 : surgical resection of intrapericardial teratoma by Beck1951 : The first successful excision of a cardiac tumor performed by Maurer1952 : Goldberg diegnosed intracavitary myxoma by angiocardiography1968 : Shattenberg used echo to diagnose cardiac tumors
8 Tumors of the heart - Constitutional or systemic Embolic Cardiac Phenomena secondary to metastatic diseases.Specific signs and symptoms generally are determined by the location of the tumor, size, friability , mobility in the heart and depends least on the histopathology
9 Tumors of the heart- clinical presentations Primary tumors most commonly involve the endocardium, followed by myocardium and then epicardiumMetastatic involvement of heart is reverse that of primary tumorsEndocardium- obstruction to flow of blood through heartMyocardium - rhythm abnormalitiesEpicardium – pericardial effusion, cardiac tamponade
10 Approach to a cardiac tumor Differential diagnosisPUOIE/CONNECTIVE TISSUE DISEASESVALVULAR LESIONSCCFCONDUCTION ABNORMALITIESEMBOLISMSYNCOPEPERICARDIAL EFFUSION
12 Diagnostic evaluation Confirm the diagnosislocate the lesion within the heartWhether benign or malignant
13 Echocardiography Simple, noninvasive technique for initial evaluation. Images myocardium and the cardiac chambers Identify the presence of a mass and its mobility.Information about any obstruction to the circulation & whether the tumor could be a source of emboli
14 Echocardiography - TEE vs TTE Transthoracic echocardiography – the initial diagnostic toolTransesophageal echocardiography (TEE)-more informative.This is due to the proximity of the esophagus to the heart, the lack of intervening lung and bone, and the ability to use high-frequency imaging transducers that afford superior spatial resolution
15 CARDIAC MRI VS CTBoth provide noninvasive, high resolution images of the heart, but MRI generally is preferred.cMRI -detailed anatomic imagesT1- and T2-weighted sequences help to identify the chemical microenvironment within a tumorCT -useful when calcification is present and MRI is not available or is contraindicated.
16 CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY Mapping the blood supply of tumors arising from the epicardial surfacesvital to the success of excising such tumors.Significant involvement of coronary arteries - resection and grafting of such arteries
17 Role of Transvenous biopsy Limited data are available on the risks and benefitsconsidered reasonable if potential benefits outweigh risks and there is diagnostic dilemma
18 Benign tumors Around 75 percent of primary cardiac tumors are benign In adults, most common- myxomas (50%)Other common benign lesions-papillary fibroelastomas and lipomas.In children, the most common-rhabdomyomas and fibromas
19 Myxomas Most common primary cardiac neoplasm. Histology- scattered cells within a mucopolysaccharide stroma which originate from multipotent mesenchymal cells capable of neural and endothelial differentiation .Hallmark histological feature is myxoma (lepidic) cellProduce VEGF-induction of angiogenesis and the early stages of tumor growth&IL 6 -responsible for the constitutional features.
22 MyxomasTypically pedunculated and gelatinous in consistency; smooth, villous, or friable.Calcification , necrosis and cystic changes seenMostly (90%) solitaryAbout 35 % of are friable or villous, these tend to present with emboli.Larger tumors -smooth surface and associated with cardiovascular symptoms.
23 MyxomasThe cardiovascular manifestations depend upon the anatomic location of the tumor.Mostly seen in females40-60 years of age80% -originate in the left atrium,most of the remainder is found in the right atriumconstitutional symptoms (eg, weight loss, fever) and laboratory abnormalities
24 Syndrome Myxoma Characteristics Syndromic associations Younger than 40 yearsBiatrial ,ventricular , valvesall first degree relatives should be screenedRecurrent – 30%No gender predilectionLAMB (lentigines, atrial myxomas,mucocutaneous myxomas, and blue nevi),NAME (nevi, atrial myxomas, myxoid neurofibroma, and ephelidesCarney syndrome (atrial, cutaneous and mammary myxomas, lentigines, blue nevi, endocrine disorders and testicular tumours)
25 Myxoma Carney syndrome Histological features Mutations in : PRKAR1A (protein kinase A regulatory subunit 1A )MYH8 - myosin isoformPASVimentinS100 and NSE- POSITIVITY
26 TreatmentPrompt resection-due to the risk of embolization or cardiovascular complications, including sudden deathResult of surgical resection is good ( <5% mortality)Cardiac autotransplantation
27 Papillary fibroelastomas Second most common primary cardiac tumor in adultsTheir appearance is compared to pom-pom or sea anemones
28 Clinical featuresSymptoms -caused by embolization of the tumor/thrombus.most common clinical presentation- stroke /TIA.Commonly attached to the aortic valve30%- incidentally diagnosed by echocardiography, at cardiac surgery, or at autopsy
29 TREATMENTSURGERY –1. patients who have had embolic events or complications directly related to tumor mobility (eg, coronary ostial occlusion)2.Those with highly mobile or large (≥1 cm) tumorsRecurrence not reported
31 LipomasLipomas &fibrolipomas - characterized by a predominance of benign fatty cells.About half of these tumors occur in the subendocardial region.Others in the myocardial and subepicardial regionsThey may also occur on valves
33 LipomasSymptoms- generally related to local tissue encroachment (arrhythmias, conduction block, sudden death)valvular tumors – insufficiency & symptoms of heart failureDiagnosis - echocardiography and the distinctivefat pattern on MRI.Require resection.
34 Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum Exaggerated growth of normal fat existing within the septum and is not a true tumor.Developmental disorder caused by expansion of adipose tissue trapped in the interatrial septum during embryogenesisThe septal hypertrophy may be as much as 2 cm in thickness and is seen primarily in older patients and in those who are obese
35 Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum Associated with the presence of CAD in proportion to the degree of atrial septal thicknessIndistinguishable from lipoma except that the former occurs in the atrial septum with a typical distribution (generally sparing the fossa ovalis).In the absence of symptoms of atrial arrhythmias, heart block or rare vena caval obstruction, they do not require resection
36 Pericardial lipomas Incidental finding and clinically insignificant. Rarely assumes gigantic proportions and its appearance on a chest radiograph may be mistaken for a huge pericardial effusion or massive cardiomegalyBenign pericardial lipomas can infiltrate the myocardium. If the ventricular septum is invaded, communication between the pericardial space and the right ventricular cavity may result.
37 RhabdomyomasDevelop almost exclusively in children, mostly <1 year of age80 to 90% are associated with tuberous sclerosisUsually found in the ventricular walls/AV valves.Most regress spontaneouslyResection is usually not required unless symptomaticSymptoms –due to obstruction of blood flow through the heart or consist of rhythm disturbancesPresent with features of preexcitation on the ECG
39 Rhabdomyositis A rare form of cardiomyopathy in infants Tumor nodules are not grossly apparentMicroscopically, the cardiac muscle fibers and conduction system are diffusely involved with rhabdomyomatous histologic changesRecurrent atrial tachycardia and sudden death from intractable ventricular tachycardia
40 Why rhabdomyomas regress? High expression of ubiquitin which starts expressing from 32 week onwardsAbsent mitotic activityUbiquitin is responsible for the degradation of rhabdomyoma cells and hence tumor regressionCharacteristic spider cells are formed in the process.
42 Fibromas Second most common pediatric cardiac tumor and can also occur in adultsHistologically similar to fibromas arising elsewhere in the body.Usually arise in the ventricular muscle and may become quite large.Do not regress spontaneously.Arise approximately 5 times more frequently in the LV than RV
43 FibromasMost common symptom, due to obstruction of blood flow or interference with valvular function.Myocardial dysfunction and conduction disturbancesEchocardiography, supplemented with CT/MRI confirms the diagnosis.Symptomatic tumors should be resected. Complete resection of very large tumors may require cardiac transplantation.
45 TeratomasArise within the pericardium, but do not originate from cardiac structuresAlthough generally benign,can have serious mechanical consequences by causing tamponade or through direct pressure on the heart.Risk of death in-utero or immediately after birth
46 TeratomasTreatment therefore requires either fetal tumor excision, or caesarean section and immediate operation on the newbornHave a single blood supply and are not invasive, properly timed tumor surgery is straightforward and successful
47 Purkinje cell tumors/hamartomas Consist of small, flat sheets of cells most frequently located in the left ventricle, and on the endocardial and epicardial surfacesUndetectable by echocardiographic or radiologic techniques.Tumors of young children and present with incessant ventricular tachycardiaECGs often demonstrate a bundle branch pattern (right bundle branch block when the tumor is in the left ventricle). Electrophysiologic studies can localize the tumors, facilitating surgical excision.
48 ParagangliomasNeuroendocrine tumors that can be hormonally active or inactive.In tumors not producing catecholamines, symptoms are due to cardiac compression or tamponade.In contrast, cardiac paragangliomas that are hormonally active primarily produce norepinephrine and may cause systemic symptoms (eg, headache, sweating, tachycardia, hypertension)Hormonally inactive tumors are more frequent in the pericardium
49 Paragangliomas May be localized with echocardiography. Extremely vascularCoronary angiography -to plan the operative resection
50 ParagangliomasParagangliomas (benign/malignant) within the pericardium parasitize the cardiac blood supply and hence are very difficult to exciseAll intrapericardial paragangliomas require resectionCardiopulmonary bypass and even circulatory arrest may be required due to the high degree of vascularity, or to moderate the extreme hypertension possible from tumor manipulation or hormonally active tumorsIf complete resection is not possible, cardiac transplantation may be required
51 PRIMARY MALIGNANT TUMORS Malignant tumors constitute approx 15% of primary cardiac tumorsSarcomas are the most commonVirtually all types of sarcomas have been reported in the heartPrognosis depends on Mitotic activity, extent of tumor necrosis and cellular differentiation.
52 Malignant cardiac tumors Clinical presentation is largely determined by the location of the tumor, rather than its histopathology.The diagnostic approach relies upon echocardiography, MRI, and CT to define the presence of a tumor and its anatomic relationship to normal structuresIncreased mitoses
54 Angiosarcomas Composed of malignant cells that form vascular channels. Pathology may overlap with Kaposi's sarcoma, which can also involve the myocardiumArise predominantly in the right atrium
55 RhabdomyosarcomasConstitute as many as 20% of all primary cardiac sarcomasMost commonly found in adults, although they have also been described in children.Multiple sites of myocardial involvement are common, No predominant localization within any area of the heart.
56 FibrosarcomasFibrosarcomas and malignant fibrous histiocytomas are white fleshy ("fish flesh") tumors that are composed of spindle cells, and may have extensive areas of necrosis and hemorrhageThese tumors tend to extensively infiltrate the myocardium
57 LeimyosarcomasSpindle-celled, high-grade tumors that arise more frequently in the left atriumThese sarcomas have both a high rate of local recurrence and systemic spread.
58 Mesothelioma Although most arise in the pleura, these can also arise from the pericardium, where they are usually malignantThose arising in the pericardium produce tamponade and constrictionSeen with echocardiography, CT scan, MRI and sometimes by chest x-rayPericardiocentesis may yield a cytologic diagnosis
59 MesotheliomaMore rarely they may arise as benign tumors of the AV node where they may produce heart blockCan be confirmed with echocardiographyResection is the treatment of choice for mesothelioma, but the prognosis with malignant pericardial mesotheliomas is very poorThe addition of radiation and/or chemotherapy has been attempted but has not been shown to be of value.
60 Treatment and prognosis In general, sarcomas proliferate rapidly, and cause death through widespread infiltration of the myocardium, obstruction of blood flow through the heart, and/or distant metastases.Although complete resection is the treatment of choice, most patients develop recurrent disease and die of their malignancy even if their tumor can be completely resected.
61 Treatment and prognosis The median survival is typically 6 to 12 months although long-term survival has been reported with complete resection.Low-grade sarcomas may have a better prognosisAdjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy have been used infrequently either after resection to improve results or in metastatic involvement.Rhabdomyosarcomas may have a better outcome with chemotherapy
62 Treatment and prognosis The poor results with surgical resection have led to occasional attempts to treat patients with cardiac transplantation, if extracardiac disease is not presentcardiac autotransplantation is another novel approach.Here, the heart is excised, tumor resected ex vivo, and the heart is reconstructed before being reimplanted. The advantage of this procedure is the increased ease with which major resection and reconstruction can be performed, while at the same time avoiding the need for antirejection treatment
63 Lymphomas and other tumors Primary lymphomas arising in the myocardium have been reported.In a review of 40 cases identified from the literature between 1995 and 2002, the outlook was generally poorHowever, 38 percent of cases achieved a complete response with systemic therapy.Other tumors may also arise in the heart, including paragangliomas and extramedullary plasmacytomas
64 SECONDARY CARDIAC TUMORS Cardiac involvement may arise from hematogenous metastases, direct invasion from the mediastinum, or tumor growth into the vena cava and extension into the right atriumMalignant melanomas are particularly likely to metastasize to the heart. Other solid tumors commonly associated with cardiac involvement include lung cancer, breast cancer, soft tissue sarcomas, renal carcinoma, esophageal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. There is also a high prevalence of secondary cardiac involvement with leukemia and lymphoma
65 Secondary cardiac tumors Cardiac or pericardial metastasis should be considered whenever a patient with known malignancy develops cardiovascular symptoms, particularly if this occurs in conjunction with cardiomegaly, a new or changing heart murmur, electrocardiographic conduction delay, or arrhythmia.Emboli thought to originate in the heart should also raise the possibility of cardiac involvement with tumor.Cardiac metastases rarely may be the first manifestation of malignant disease
66 Secondary cardiac tumors The specific symptoms reflect the site of cardiac involvement.The diagnostic evaluation is the same as that for primary cardiac tumors and relies upon echocardiography, MRI, and CT.Resection of cardiac metastases has been used to provide symptom palliation and prolong life
67 Summary Cardiac tumours are rare. A cardiac mass most likely represents a thrombus or vegetation.Most cardiac tumours are secondary, ie, originate from a primary tumour elsewhere.Most primary cardiac tumours are benignIn addition to history, a non- invasive diagnosis of cardiac tumours can usually be made by the following:-Histology based likelihood.-Tumour location.-Age at presentation.-Imaging characteristics
71 Imaging features of cardiac features – in a nut shell
72 Summary Rhabdomyomas usually decrease in size with age. The most common cardiac tumour involving valves is a papillary fibroelastoma.The most common primary malignant tumour is a sarcoma.Angiosarcomas are the most common histologic subtype of sarcoma and are usually found in the right atriumThe most common benign cardiac tumour is a myxoma.Myxomas are generally found in the left atrium arising from a stalk attached to the fossa ovalis membrane.The most common primary cardiac tumours in children are rhabdomyomas and fibromas, both of which are benign.