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Endocrine system Chapter 13. Objectives:  Describe the vital function of the endocrine system  State the description and primary functions of the organs.

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Presentation on theme: "Endocrine system Chapter 13. Objectives:  Describe the vital function of the endocrine system  State the description and primary functions of the organs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Endocrine system Chapter 13

2 Objectives:  Describe the vital function of the endocrine system  State the description and primary functions of the organs and structures of the endocrine system  Identify some of the hormones produced  Identify medical words  Introduce and review Root words, prefixes and suffixes in the endocrine system

3 Contd:  Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system  Endocrinologist is a physician who specializes in the medical practice of endocrinology

4 Anatomy and Physiology:  the endocrine system influences almost every cell, organ, and function of our bodies.  It is instrumental in regulating mood, growth and development, tissue function, metabolism, and sexual function and reproductive processes.

5 Contd:  The vital function of the endocrine system involves the production and regulation of chemical substances called  Hormones  The word hormone is derived from the Greek language  Means to excite or urge on

6 Contd:  The foundations of the endocrine system are the hormones and glands.  hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another.  Each type of hormone is designed to affect only certain cells.

7 Contd:  Hyposecretion or hypersecretion of specific hormones can cause or be associated with many pathological conditions.  Too much or too little of any hormones can be harmful to the body  Controlling the production of or replacing specific hormones can treat many hormonal conditions

8 Parts of the Endocrine System:  The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are:  the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid's, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries and testes.

9 Glands: The Hypothalamus  a collection of specialized cells that is located in the lower central part of the brain  is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems.  The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland by producing chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary.

10 The Pituitary Gland:  it is no bigger than a pea  located at the base of the brain just beneath the hypothalamus  is considered the most important part of the endocrine system  It's often called the "master gland" because it makes hormones that control several other endocrine glands.

11 Contd:  The tiny pituitary gland is divided into two parts: the anterior lobe and the posterior lobe.  The anterior lobe regulates the activity of the thyroid, adrenals, and reproductive glands.  also secretes endorphins, chemicals that act on the nervous system to reduce sensitivity to pain.

12 Contd:  The anterior lobe also secretes hormones that signal the ovaries and testes to make sex hormones.  also controls ovulation and the menstrual cycle in women.

13 Contd:  The posterior lobe of the pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone, which helps control body water balance through its effect on the kidneys and urine output;  Also releases oxytocin, which triggers the contractions of the uterus that occur during labor.

14 The Pineal Gland:  is located in the middle of the brain.  It secretes melatonin, a hormone that may help regulate the wake- sleep cycle.  Cone shaped structure attached by a stalk to the posterior wall of the cerebrum

15 The Thyroid :  located in the front part of the lower neck  is shaped like a bow tie or butterfly  produces thyroid hormones  These hormones (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) control the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy.

16 Contd:  Thyroid hormones also play a key role in bone growth and the development of the brain and nervous system in children.  The production and release of thyroid hormones is controlled by thyrotropin, which is secreted by the pituitary gland.

17 Parathyroid:  Are four tiny glands attached to the thyroid that function together  They release parathyroid hormone, which regulates the level of calcium in the blood with the help of calcitonin, which is produced in the thyroid.

18 Pancreas:  The pancreas produces (in addition to others) two important hormones, insulin and glucagon.  They work together to maintain a steady level of glucose, or sugar, in the blood to help maintain and store energy  Composed of three major types of cells: alpha, beta and delta  See page 447 of your text for each function

19 The Adrenal Glands:  The body has two triangular adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney.  The adrenal glands have two parts, each of which produces a set of hormones and has a different function.

20 Contd:  The outer part, the adrenal cortex, produces hormones called corticosteroids that influence or regulate salt and water balance in the body  Also influences the body's response to stress, metabolism, the immune system, and sexual development and function.

21 Contd:  The inner part, the adrenal medulla, produces catecholamines, such as epinephrine.  Also called adrenaline, epinephrine  It increases blood pressure and heart rate when the body experiences stress.

22 Gonads:  The gonads are the main source of sex hormones.  In males, they are located in the scrotum.  Male gonads, or testes, secrete hormones called androgens, the most important of which is testosterone.  These hormones regulate body changes associated with sexual development.  Working with hormones from the pituitary gland, testosterone also supports the production of sperm by the testes.

23 Contd:  The female gonads, the ovaries, are located in the pelvis.  They produce eggs and secrete the female hormones estrogen and progesterone.  Estrogen is involved in the development of female sexual features.  Both estrogen and progesterone are also involved in pregnancy and the regulation of the menstrual cycle.

24 Thymus:  is an organ located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity just behind the sternum. anteriorchest cavitysternum  The main function of the thymus is to provide an area for T cell maturation, and is vital in protecting against autoimmunity.T cell autoimmunity

25 Abbreviations:  ADAAmerican diabetes Association  BMRBasal metabolic rate  DIDiabetes insipidus  DMDiabetes mellitus  FBSFasting blood sugar  GTTGlucose tolerance test

26 Contd:  IDDMInsulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (Type I)  NIDDMNon –insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 2)  PRLProlactin

27 Adenectomy  Adengland  -ectomysurgical excision  Surgical excision of a gland


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