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1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 ] Boundless.com/biology Protists Eukaryotic Origins Characteristics of Protists Groups of Protists Ecology of Protists Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 Introduction Characteristics of Eukaryotes Endosymbiosis and the Evolution of Eukaryotes Mitochondria Plastids Eukaryotic Origins Protists > Eukaryotic Origins Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

6 On a geological time line, protists are among the first organisms that evolved after prokaryotes. Today's eukaryotes evolved from a common ancestor with the following features: a nucleus that divided via mitosis, DNA associated with histones, a cytoskeleton and endomembrane system, the ability to make cilia/flagella. Protists vary widely in size, from single cells approximately 10 µm in size to multicellular seaweeds that are visible with the naked eye. Introduction Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protist varieties View on Boundless.com Protists > Eukaryotic Origins

7 Prokaryotic genomic DNA is attached to the plasma membrane in the form of a nucleoid, in contrast to eukaryotic DNA, which is located in a nucleus. Eukaryotic DNA is linear, compacted into chromosomes by histones, and has telomeres at each end to protect from deterioration. Prokaryotes contain circular DNA in addition to smaller, transferable DNA plasmids. Eukaryotic cells contain mitochondrial DNA in addition to nuclear DNA. Eukaryotes separate replicated chromosomes by mitosis, using cytoskeletal proteins, whereas prokaryotes divide more simply via binary fission. Characteristics of Eukaryotes Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Cellular location of eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA View on Boundless.com Protists > Eukaryotic Origins

8 Endosymbiosis is the concept of one cell engulfing another and both cells benefiting from the relationship. Endosymbiosis was originally considered after the observation of the similarity between plant chloroplasts and free-living cyanobacteria. Peroxisomes may have been the first endosymbionts, caused by the increasing amount of atmospheric oxygen at that point in geological time. Over time, endosymbionts may have transferred some of their DNA to the host nucleus, thus becoming dependent on the host for survival and completing full integration into a single organism. Endosymbiosis and the Evolution of Eukaryotes Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at eukaryotes Endosymbiosis View on Boundless.com Protists > Eukaryotic Origins

9 Eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of mitochondria, depending on the cells' energy needs. Mitochondria have many features that suggest they were formerly independent organisms, including their own DNA, cell-independent division, and physical characteristics similar to alpha-proteobacteria. Some mitochondrial genes transferred to the nuclear genome over time, yet mitochondria retained some genetic material for reasons not completely understood. The hypothesized transfer of genes from mitochondria to the host cell's nucleus likely explains why mitochondria are not able to survive outside the host cell. Mitochondria Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Micrograph of mammaliam mitochondria View on Boundless.com Protists > Eukaryotic Origins

10 Chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and leucoplasts are each a type of plastid. Plastids in eukaryotes derive from primary endosymbiosis with ancient cyanobacteria. Chlorarachniophytes are a type of algae that resulted from secondary endosymbiosis, when a eukaryote engulfed a green alga (which itself was a product of primary endosymbiosis with a cyanobacterium). Plastids share several features with mitochondria, including having their own DNA and the ability to replicate by binary fission. Plastids Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Chloroplast View on Boundless.com Protists > Eukaryotic Origins

11 Cell Structure, Metabolism, and Motility Life Cycles and Habitats Characteristics of Protists Protists > Characteristics of Protists Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

12 Protist cells may contain a single nucleus or many nuclei; they range in size from microscopic to thousands of meters in area. Protists may have animal-like cell membranes, plant-like cell walls, or may be covered by a pellicle. Some protists are heterotrophs and ingest food by phagocytosis, while other types of protists are photoautotrophs and store energy via photosynthesis. Most protists are motile and generate movement with cilia, flagella, or pseudopodia. Cell Structure, Metabolism, and Motility Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at motility Protist metabolism View on Boundless.com Protists > Characteristics of Protists

13 Slime molds are categorized on the basis of their life cycles into plasmodial or cellular types, both of which end their life cycle in the form of dispersed spores. Plasmodial slime molds form a single-celled, multinucleate mass, whereas cellular slime molds form an aggregated mass of separate amoebas that are able to migrate as a unified whole. Slimes molds feed primarily on bacteria and fungi and contribute to the decomposition of dead plants. Life Cycles and Habitats Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Plasmodial slime mold life cycle View on Boundless.com Protists > Characteristics of Protists

14 Excavata Chromalveolata: Alveolates Chromalveolata: Stramenopiles Rhizaria Archaeplastida Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta Groups of Protists Protists > Groups of Protists Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

15 Excavata are a supergroup of protists that are defined by an asymmetrical appearance with a feeding groove that is "excavated" from one side; it includes various types of organisms which are parasitic, photosynthetic and heterotrophic predators. Excavata includes the protists: Diplomonads, Parabasalids and Euglenozoans. Diplomonads are defined by the presence of a nonfunctional, mitochrondrial- remnant organelle called a mitosome. Parabasalids are characterized by a semi-functional mitochondria referred to as a hydrogenosome; they are comprised of parasitic protists, such as Trichomonas vaginalis. Euglenozoans can be classified as mixotrophs, heterotrophs, autotrophs, and parasites; they are defined by their use of flagella for movement. Excavata Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Giardia lamblia View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

16 Alveolates are classified under the group Chromalveolata which developed as a result of a secondary endosymbiotic event. Dinoflagellates are defined by their flagella structure which lays perpendicular and fits into the cellulose plates of the dinoflagellate, promoting a spinning motion. Apicomplexans are defined by the asymmetrical distribution of their microtubules, fibrin, and vacuoles; they include the parasitic protist Plasmodium which causes malaria. Ciliates are defined by the presence of cilia (such as the oral groove in the Paramecium), which beat synchronously to aid the organism in locomotion and obtaining nutrients. Ciliates are defined by the presence of cilia, which beat synchronously, to aid the organism in locomotion and obtaining nutrients, such as the oral groove in the Paramecium. Chromalveolata: Alveolates Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Dinoflagellates View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

17 Stramenophiles, also referred to as heterokonts, are a subclass of chromalveolata, and are identified by the presence of a "hairy" flagellum. Diatoms, present in both freshwater and marine plankton, are unicellular photosynthetic protists that are characterized by the presence of a cell wall composed of silicon dioxide that displays intricate patterns. Golden algae, present in both freshwater and marine plankton communities, are unicellular photosynthetic protists characterized by the presence of carotenoids (yellow-orange photosynthetic pigments). Oomycetes, commonly referred to as water molds, are characterized by their fungus-like morphology, a cellulose-based cell wall, and a filamentous network used for nutrient uptake. Oomycetes, commonly referred to as water molds, are characterized by their fungus-like morphology, a cellulose-based cell wall and a filamentous network used for nutrient uptake. Chromalveolata: Stramenopiles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Stramenophile structure View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

18 The needle-like pseudopodia are used to carry out a process called cytoplasmic streaming which is a means of locomotion or distributing nutrients and oxygen. Two major subclassifications of Rhizaria include Forams and Radiolarians. Forams are characterized as unicellular heterotrophic protists that have porous shells, referred to as tests, which can contain photosynthetic algae that the foram can use as a nutrient source. Radiolarians are characterized by a glassy silica exterior that displays either bilateral or radial symmetry. Rhizaria Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Ammonia tepida View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

19 Archaeplastida are typically associated with their relationship to land plants; in addition, molecular evidence shows that Archaeplastida evolved from an endosymbiotic relationship between a heterotrophic protist and a cyanobacterium. Red algae (rhodophytes), are classified as Archaeplastida and are most often characterized by the presence of the red pigment phycoerythrin; however, there are red algae that lack phycoerythrins and can be classified as parasites. Red algae typically exist as multicellular protists that lack flagella; however, they can also exist as unicellular organisms. Green algae are the most abundant group of algae and can be further classified as chlorophytes and charophytes. Charophytes are the green algae which resemble land plants and are their closest living relative. Chlorophytes are the green algae which exhibit a wide range of forms; they can be unicellular, multicellular, or colonial. Archaeplastida Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Volvox aureus View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

20 Amoebozoa (amoebas) can live in either marine and fresh water or in soil. Amoebozoa are characterized by the presence of pseudopodia, which are extensions that can be either tube-like or flat lobes and are used for locomotion and feeding. Amooebozoa can be further divided into subclassifications that include slime molds; these can be found as both plasmodial and cellular types. Plasmodial slime molds are characterized by the presence of large, multinucleate cells that have the ability to glide along the surface and engulf food particles as they move. Cellular molds are characterized by the presence of independent amoeboid cells during times of nutrient abundancy and the development of a cellular mass, called a slug, during times of nutrient depletion. Archamoebae, Flabellinea, and Tubulinea are also groups of Amoebozoa; their defining characteristics include: Archamoebae lack mitochondria; Flabellinea flatten during locomotion and lack a shell and flagella; Tubulinea have a rough cylindrical form during locomotion with cylindrical pseudopodia. Amoebozoa and Opisthokonta Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Pseudopodia structures View on Boundless.com Protists > Groups of Protists

21 Primary Producers/Food Sources Human Pathogens Plant Parasites and Agents of Decomposition Ecology of Protists Protists > Ecology of Protists Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

22 Photosynthetic protists serve as producers of nutrition for other organisms. Protists like zooxanthellae have a symbiotic relationship with coral reefs; the protists act as a food source for coral and the coral provides shelter and compounds for photosynthesis for the protists. Protists feed a large portion of the world's aquatic species and conduct a quarter of the world's photosynthesis. Protists help land-dwelling animals such as cockroaches and termites digest cellulose. Primary Producers/Food Sources Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Corals and dinoflagellates View on Boundless.com Protists > Ecology of Protists

23 The protist parasite Plasmodium must colonize both a mosquito and a vertebrate; P.falciparum, which is responsible for 50 percent of malaria cases, is transmitted to humans by the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. When P.falciparum infects and destroys red blood cells, they burst, and parasitic waste leaks into the blood stream, causing deliruim, fever, and anemia in patients. Trypanosoma brucei is responsible for African sleeping sickness which the human immune system is unable to guard against since it has thousands of possible antigens and changes surface glycoproteins with each infectious cycle. Another Trypanosoma species, T.cruzi, inhabits the heart and digestive system tissues, causing malnutrition and heart failure. Human Pathogens Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Plasmodium View on Boundless.com Protists > Ecology of Protists

24 Plasmopara viticola causes downy mildew in grape plants, resulting in stunted growth and withered, discolored leaves. Since downy mildew has a higher incidence in the late summer, planting early in the season can reduce the threat of downy mildew; fungicides are also somewhat effective at preventing downy mildew. Phytophthora infestans causes potato late blight (potato stalks and stems decay into black slime) and was responsible for the Irish potato famine in the nineteenth century. Protist saprobes feed on dead organisms, which returns inorganic nutrients to soil and water. Plant Parasites and Agents of Decomposition Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at decomposition Downy mildew View on Boundless.com Protists > Ecology of Protists

25 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

26 Key terms aerobic living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen amorphous lacking a definite form or clear shape chloroplast an organelle found in the cells of green plants and photosynthetic algae where photosynthesis takes place conjugation the temporary fusion of organisms, especially as part of sexual reproduction crista cristae (singular crista) are the internal compartments formed by the inner membrane of a mitochondrion cyanobacteria photosynthetic prokaryotic microorganisms, of phylum Cyanobacteria, once known as blue-green algae diploid of a cell, having a pair of each type of chromosome, one of the pair being derived from the ovum and the other from the spermatozoon downy mildew plant disease caused by oomycetes; causes stunted growth in plants as well as discolored, withered leaves endomembrane all the membraneous components inside a eukaryotic cell, including the nuclear envelope, endoplastic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus endosymbiont an organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism endosymbiosis when one symbiotic species is taken inside the cytoplasm of another symbiotic species and both become endosymbiotic Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

27 endosymbiotic that lives within a body or cells of another organism haploid of a cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes hydrogenosome a membrane-bound organelle found in ciliates, trichomonads, and fungi which produces molecular hydrogen and ATP kinetoplast a disk-shaped mass of circular DNA inside a large mitochondrion, found specifically in protozoa of the class Kinetoplastea mitosome an organelle found within certain unicellular eukaryotes which lack mitochondria multinucleate having more than one nucleus oomycete fungus-like filamentous unicellular protists; the water molds osmoregulation the homeostatic regulation of osmotic pressure in the body in order to maintain a constant water content pathogen any organism or substance, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease, such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or fungi pellicle cuticle, the hard protective outer layer of certain life forms peroxisome a eukaryotic organelle that is the source of the enzymes that catalyze the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide and are responsible for the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids phagocytosis the process where a cell incorporates a particle by extending pseudopodia and drawing the particle into a vacuole of its cytoplasm Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

28 phagosome a membrane-bound vacuole within a cell containing foreign material captured by phagocytosis plankton a generic term for all the organisms that float in the sea plasmid a circle of double-stranded DNA that is separate from the chromosomes, which is found in bacteria and protozoa plasmodium a mass of cytoplasm, containing many nuclei, created by the aggregation of amoeboid cells of slime molds during their vegetative phase plasmodium parasitic protozoa that must colonize a mosquito and a vertebrate to complete its life cycle plasmodium a mass of cytoplasm, containing many nuclei, created by the aggregation of amoeboid cells of slime molds during their vegetative phase plastid any of various organelles found in the cells of plants and algae, often concerned with photosynthesis primary producer an autotroph organism that produces complex organic matter using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis pseudopodia temporary projections of eukaryotic cells raphe a ridge or seam on an organ, bodily tissue, or other structure, especially at the join between two halves or sections rhizaria a species-rich supergroup of mostly unicellular eukaryotes that for the most part are amoeboids with filose, reticulose, or microtubule-supported pseudopods Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

29 saprobe an organism that lives off of dead or decaying organic material sporangia an enclosure in which spores are formed (also called a fruiting body) stipe the stem of a kelp taxis the movement of an organism in response to a stimulus; similar to kinesis, but more direct telomere either of the repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome, which protect the chromosome from degradation test the external calciferous shell of a foram thylakoid a folded membrane within plant chloroplasts from which grana are made, used in photosynthesis Trypanosoma infects a variety of hosts and cause various diseases, including the fatal African sleeping sickness in humans vacuole a large, membrane-bound, fluid-filled compartment in a cell's cytoplasm zooxanthella an animal of the genus Symbiodinium, a yellow dinoflagellate, notably found in coral reefs Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

30 Protist varieties Protists range from the microscopic, single-celled (a) Acanthocystis turfacea and the (b) ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila, both visualized here using light microscopy, to the enormous, multicellular (c) kelps (Chromalveolata) that extend for hundreds of feet in underwater "forests." Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44612/latest/Figure_B23_00_01abc.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

31 Cellular location of eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA Eukaryotic DNA is stored in a nucleus, whereas prokaryotic DNA is in the cytoplasm in the form of a nucleoid. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes." CC BY-SA 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Prokaryotes_and_Eukaryotes View on Boundless.com Protists

32 Endosymbiosis Modern eukaryotic cells evolved from more primitive cells that engulfed bacteria with useful properties, such as energy production.Combined, the once- independent organisms flourished and evolved into a single organism. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Endosymbiosis." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Endosymbiosis.svgView on Boundless.com Protists

33 Chloroplasts in plants A eukaryote with mitochondria engulfed a cyanobacterium in an event of serial primary endosymbiosis, creating a lineage of cells with both organelles.These cyanobacteria have become chloroplasts in modern plant cells.The cyanobacterial endosymbiont already had a double membrane. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Plagiomnium affine laminazellen." CC BY View on Boundless.comCC BYhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Plagiomnium_affine_laminazellen.jpegView on Boundless.com Protists

34 Micrograph of mammaliam mitochondria In this transmission electron micrograph of mitochondria in a mammalian lung cell, the cristae, infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane, can be seen in cross-section. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/Figure_23_01_01.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

35 Chloroplast (a) This chloroplast cross-section illustrates its elaborate inner membrane organization.Stacks of thylakoid membranes compartmentalize photosynthetic enzymes and provide scaffolding for chloroplast DNA.(b) The chloroplasts can be seen as small green spheres. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/Figure_23_01_02.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

36 Red and green algae (a) Red algae and (b) green algae (visualized by light microscopy) share similar DNA sequences with photosynthetic cyanobacteria.Scientists speculate that, in a process called endosymbiosis, an ancestral prokaryote engulfed a photosynthetic cyanobacterium that evolved into modern-day chloroplasts. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/Figure_23_01_03ab.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

37 Primary and secondary endosymbiosis The hypothesized process of endosymbiotic events leading to the evolution of chlorarachniophytes is shown.In a primary endosymbiotic event, a heterotrophic eukaryote consumed a cyanobacterium.In a secondary endosymbiotic event, the cell resulting from primary endosymbiosis was consumed by a second cell.The resulting organelle became a plastid in modern chlorarachniophytes. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Basic CMYK." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/Figure_23_01_05.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

38 Protist metabolism The stages of phagocytosis include the engulfment of a food particle, the digestion of the particle using enzymes contained within a lysosome, and the expulsion of undigested materials from the cell. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/Figure_B23_02_01.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

39 Different types of motility in protists Protists use various methods for transportation.(a) A paramecium waves hair-like appendages called cilia.(b) An amoeba uses lobe-like pseudopodia to anchor itself to a solid surface and pull itself forward.(c) Euglena uses a whip-like tail called a flagellum. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Basic CMYK." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/Figure_B23_02_02.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

40 Cellular slime mold life cycle Cellular slime molds may engage in two forms of life cycles: as solitary amoebas when nutrients are abundant or as aggregated amoebas (inset photo) when nutrients are scarce.In aggregate form, some individuals contribute to the formation of a stalk, on top of which sits a fruiting body full of spores that disseminate and germinate in the proper moist environment. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/View on Boundless.com Protists

41 Plasmodial slime mold life cycle Haploid spores develop into amoeboid or flagellated forms, which are then fertilized to form a diploid, multinucleate mass called a plasmodium.This plasmodium is net-like and, upon maturation, forms a sporangium on top of a stalk.The sporangium forms haploid spores through meiosis, after which the spores disseminate, germinate, and begin the life cycle anew.The brightly-colored plasmodium in the inset photo is a single-celled, multinucleate mass. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/View on Boundless.com Protists

42 Giardia lamblia The mammalian intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia, visualized here using scanning electron microscopy, is a waterborne protist that causes severe diarrhea when ingested. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_02.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

43 Life cycle of Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, spends part of its life cycle in the tsetse fly and part in humans. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_03.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

44 Dinoflagellates The dinoflagellates exhibit great diversity in shape.Many are encased in cellulose armor and have two flagella that fit in grooves between the plates.Movement of these two perpendicular flagella causes a spinning motion. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_04.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

45 Paramecium : sexual reproduction The complex process of sexual reproduction in Paramecium creates eight daughter cells from two original cells.Each cell has a macronucleus and a micronucleus.During sexual reproduction, the macronucleus dissolves and is replaced by a micronucleus. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_07.pngView on Boundless.com Protists

46 Parasitic apicomplexans (a) Apicomplexans are parasitic protists.They have a characteristic apical complex that enables them to infect host cells.(b) Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, has a complex life cycle typical of apicomplexans. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_05ab.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

47 Bioluminescence Bioluminescence is emitted from dinoflagellates in a breaking wave, as seen from the New Jersey coast. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_05.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

48 Paramecium Paramecium has a primitive mouth (called an oral groove) to ingest food and an anal pore to excrete it. Contractile vacuoles allow the organism to excrete excess water.Cilia enable the organism to move. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Basic CMYK." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_06ab.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

49 Diatoms Assorted diatoms, visualized here using light microscopy, live among annual sea ice in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.Diatoms range in size from 2 to 200 µm. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_09.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

50 Brown algae life cycle Several species of brown algae, such as the Laminaria shown here, have evolved life cycles in which both the haploid (gametophyte) and diploid (sporophyte) forms are multicellular.The gametophyte is different in structure from the sporophyte. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_10.pngView on Boundless.com Protists

51 Oomycete A saprobic oomycete engulfs a dead insect. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_11.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

52 Stramenophile structure This stramenopile cell has a single hairy flagellum and a secondary smooth flagellum. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "CNX_Biology_Colors_Spot_2." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_08.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

53 Ammonia tepida Ammonia tepida, a Rhizaria species viewed here using phase contrast light microscopy, exhibits many threadlike pseudopodia. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_12.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

54 Forams These shells from foraminifera sank to the sea floor. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_13.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

55 Radiolarian shell This fossilized radiolarian shell was imaged using a scanning electron microscope. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_14.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

56 Caulerpa taxifolia Caulerpa taxifolia is a chlorophyte consisting of a single cell containing potentially thousands of nuclei. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_16.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

57 Volvox aureus Volvox aureus is a green alga in the supergroup Archaeplastida.This species exists as a colony, consisting of cells immersed in a gel-like matrix and intertwined with each other via hair-like cytoplasmic extensions. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_15.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

58 Plasmodial slime mold: Physarum polycephalum Physarum polycephalum is an example of a cellular slime mold. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Fuligo " CC BY View on Boundless.comCC BYhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Fuligo jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

59 Badhamia utricularis Badhamia utricularis: an example of a plasmodial slime mold with the ability to form a fruiting body. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "Badhamia utricularis mature." CC BY View on Boundless.comCC BYhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Badhamia_utricularis_mature.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

60 Pseudopodia structures Amoebae with tubular and lobe-shaped pseudopodia, such as the ones seen under this microscope, would be morphologically classified as amoebozoans. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/Figure_23_03_17.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

61 Protists and aquatic organisms Virtually all aquatic organisms depend directly or indirectly on protists for food. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_02abcde.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

62 Corals and dinoflagellates Coral polyps obtain nutrition through a symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellates. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_01.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

63 Trypanosomes Trypanosomes are shown among red blood cells. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_04.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

64 Plasmodium Red blood cells are shown to be infected with P.falciparum, the causative agent of malaria.In this light microscopic image taken using a 100× oil immersion lens, the ring-shaped P.falciparum stains purple. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_03.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

65 Downy mildew Both downy and powdery mildews on this grape leaf are caused by an infection of P. viticola. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_05.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

66 Potato Late Blight These unappetizing remnants result from an infection with P. infestans, the causative agent of potato late blight. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/Figure_23_04_06.jpgView on Boundless.com Protists

67 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists What event is thought to have contributed to the evolution of eukaryotes? A) volcanic activity B) glaciation C) global warming D) oxygenation of the atmosphere

68 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Protists What event is thought to have contributed to the evolution of eukaryotes? A) volcanic activity B) glaciation C) global warming D) oxygenation of the atmosphere

69 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which characteristic is shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes? A) DNA-based genome B) cytoskeleton C) nucleus D) mitochondria

70 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Protists Which characteristic is shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes? A) DNA-based genome B) cytoskeleton C) nucleus D) mitochondria

71 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following eukaryotic organelles was created by endosymbiosis? A) chloroplasts B) endoplasmic reticulum C) lysosomes D) all of these answers

72 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following eukaryotic organelles was created by endosymbiosis? A) chloroplasts B) endoplasmic reticulum C) lysosomes D) all of these answers

73 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Mitochondria most likely evolved by A) a photosynthetic cyanobacterium B) cytoskeletal elements C) endosymbiosis D) membrane proliferation

74 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "OpenStax College." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://openstaxcollege.org/ Protists Mitochondria most likely evolved by A) a photosynthetic cyanobacterium B) cytoskeletal elements C) endosymbiosis D) membrane proliferation

75 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following features of mitochondria does NOT suggest that they were once a free-living organism? A) A double membrane B) They cannot live outside the cell C) The mitochondrial genome D) They arise by division of existing mitochondria

76 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following features of mitochondria does NOT suggest that they were once a free-living organism? A) A double membrane B) They cannot live outside the cell C) The mitochondrial genome D) They arise by division of existing mitochondria

77 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists The outer membrane of plastids derived from the ______ in the host, and the inner membrane derived from the plasma membrane of the _______. A) endosymbiont; vacuole B) chloroplast; protist C) vacuole; endosymbiont D) protist; chloroplast

78 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists The outer membrane of plastids derived from the ______ in the host, and the inner membrane derived from the plasma membrane of the _______. A) endosymbiont; vacuole B) chloroplast; protist C) vacuole; endosymbiont D) protist; chloroplast

79 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists What ability did endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria impart on the cells that engulfed it? A) Large growth B) Photosynthesis C) Terrestrial life D) Mobility

80 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists What ability did endosymbiosis of cyanobacteria impart on the cells that engulfed it? A) Large growth B) Photosynthesis C) Terrestrial life D) Mobility

81 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which protist motility organelle or physical extension would likely be the shortest in length? A) a flagella B) a cilium C) an extended pseudopod D) a saprobe

82 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "OpenStax College." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://openstaxcollege.org/ Protists Which protist motility organelle or physical extension would likely be the shortest in length? A) a flagella B) a cilium C) an extended pseudopod D) a saprobe

83 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Protists with the capabilities to both perform photosynthesis and to absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called A) mixotrophs B) photoautotrophs C) saprobes D) heterotrophs

84 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Protists Protists with the capabilities to both perform photosynthesis and to absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called A) mixotrophs B) photoautotrophs C) saprobes D) heterotrophs

85 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Protists that have a pellicle are surrounded by A) carbohydrates B) proteins C) calcium carbonate D) silica dioxide

86 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0 Protists Protists that have a pellicle are surrounded by A) carbohydrates B) proteins C) calcium carbonate D) silica dioxide

87 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following statements about the plasmodial slime mold life cycle is true? A) solitary amoebas aggregate and migrate B) individual cells can undergo either asexual or sexual reproduction C) solitary amoebas can undergo mitosis with cytokinesis D) it exists as a single-celled, mutlinucleate mass

88 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following statements about the plasmodial slime mold life cycle is true? A) solitary amoebas aggregate and migrate B) individual cells can undergo either asexual or sexual reproduction C) solitary amoebas can undergo mitosis with cytokinesis D) it exists as a single-celled, mutlinucleate mass

89 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following locations would a protist find the least habitable? A) the small intestine B) damp soil C) a desert D) a rotting tree

90 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following locations would a protist find the least habitable? A) the small intestine B) damp soil C) a desert D) a rotting tree

91 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists A new protist is discovered that: has two long flagella which provide a means of locomotion; has a distinct groove to one side; and can obtain nutrients by either a heterotrophic or autotrophic method. This protist can be classified as: A) a parabasalid B) a diplomonad C) a mitosome D) an euglenozoan

92 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists A new protist is discovered that: has two long flagella which provide a means of locomotion; has a distinct groove to one side; and can obtain nutrients by either a heterotrophic or autotrophic method. This protist can be classified as: A) a parabasalid B) a diplomonad C) a mitosome D) an euglenozoan

93 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following is a characteristic of Dinoflagellates? A) asymmetrically distributed vacuoles B) encased by interlocking plates made of cellulose C) covered in rows of tiny cilia D) surrounded by a pellicle for protection

94 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following is a characteristic of Dinoflagellates? A) asymmetrically distributed vacuoles B) encased by interlocking plates made of cellulose C) covered in rows of tiny cilia D) surrounded by a pellicle for protection

95 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists All of the following are Stramenopiles EXCEPT: A) heterokonts. B) diatoms. C) unikonts. D) oomycetes.

96 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists All of the following are Stramenopiles EXCEPT: A) heterokonts. B) diatoms. C) unikonts. D) oomycetes.

97 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following characteristics is unique to Diatoms? A) unicellular organisms B) photosynthetic activities C) live in colonies D) silicon dioxide shells

98 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at OpenStax OER. "OpenStax College." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://openstaxcollege.org/ Protists Which of the following characteristics is unique to Diatoms? A) unicellular organisms B) photosynthetic activities C) live in colonies D) silicon dioxide shells

99 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of these describes the largest difference between the shells of Foraminiferans and Radiolarians? A) Foram shells dissolve when the organism dies, while Radiolarian shells sink to the bottom. B) Foram shells have pointy spines,while Radiolarian shells are completely smooth. C) Foram shells are made of calcium carbonate, while Radilarians have shells made of silica. D) Foram shells exhibit radial symmetry, while Radiolarian shells exhibit bilateral symmetry.

100 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of these describes the largest difference between the shells of Foraminiferans and Radiolarians? A) Foram shells dissolve when the organism dies, while Radiolarian shells sink to the bottom. B) Foram shells have pointy spines,while Radiolarian shells are completely smooth. C) Foram shells are made of calcium carbonate, while Radilarians have shells made of silica. D) Foram shells exhibit radial symmetry, while Radiolarian shells exhibit bilateral symmetry.

101 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Red algae differ from green algae in that the red algae: A) can be subdivided into chlorophytes and charophytes B) are primarily multicellular C) must contain phycoerythrins to be classifed as a red algae D) contain flagella which are used a sensor

102 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Red algae differ from green algae in that the red algae: A) can be subdivided into chlorophytes and charophytes B) are primarily multicellular C) must contain phycoerythrins to be classifed as a red algae D) contain flagella which are used a sensor

103 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following traits are associated with the protists classified as slime molds? A) the pseudopodia associated with amoebozoa are hair-like B) the ability to produce spores that develop into a haploid zygote C) all these choices D) the ability to exist singly or as an aggregate of cells known as a slug

104 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following traits are associated with the protists classified as slime molds? A) the pseudopodia associated with amoebozoa are hair-like B) the ability to produce spores that develop into a haploid zygote C) all these choices D) the ability to exist singly or as an aggregate of cells known as a slug

105 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following describes the relationship between zooxanthellae and coral reefs? A) Zooxanthellae provide shelter for coral reefs. B) Zooxanthellae provide nutrients for coral reefs. C) Zooxanthellae cause coral bleaching in reefs. D) Coral reefs provide nutrients for zooxanthellae.

106 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following describes the relationship between zooxanthellae and coral reefs? A) Zooxanthellae provide shelter for coral reefs. B) Zooxanthellae provide nutrients for coral reefs. C) Zooxanthellae cause coral bleaching in reefs. D) Coral reefs provide nutrients for zooxanthellae.

107 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following explains why humans cannot gain resistance to the African sleeping sickness parasite? A) the parasite causes heart failure immediately after infection B) the parasite causes anemia, weakening the body's defenses C) the parasite constantly changes its glycoprotein coating D) all these answers

108 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following explains why humans cannot gain resistance to the African sleeping sickness parasite? A) the parasite causes heart failure immediately after infection B) the parasite causes anemia, weakening the body's defenses C) the parasite constantly changes its glycoprotein coating D) all these answers

109 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following describes the function of saprobes? A) act as a parasite for potato plants, causing potato late blight B) act as a parasite for grape plants, causing downy mildew C) return nurtrients to the soil by feeding on dead animals D) kill plants and animals to feed on their nutreints

110 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following describes the function of saprobes? A) act as a parasite for potato plants, causing potato late blight B) act as a parasite for grape plants, causing downy mildew C) return nurtrients to the soil by feeding on dead animals D) kill plants and animals to feed on their nutreints

111 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists Which of the following describes the results of P. viticola infecting a plant? A) stalks and stems decay into slime B) sustenance is generated for other organisms C) leaves become discolored and wither D) all of these answers

112 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Protists Which of the following describes the results of P. viticola infecting a plant? A) stalks and stems decay into slime B) sustenance is generated for other organisms C) leaves become discolored and wither D) all of these answers

113 Attribution Wikibooks. "General Biology/Classification of Living Things/Eukaryotes/Protists." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Introduction." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44612/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "endomembrane." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endomembrane Wiktionary. "aerobic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/aerobic Wiktionary. "cyanobacteria." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cyanobacteria Connexions. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Mitochondrial DNA." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Cellular Basis/Eukaryotic Cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wiktionary. "plasmid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plasmid Wiktionary. "telomere." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/telomere Connexions. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/The Endosymbiotic Theory." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikibooks. "An Introduction to Molecular Biology/Macromolecules and Cells." CC BY-SA 3.0 s_and_endosymbiotic_theoryCC BY-SA 3.0 s_and_endosymbiotic_theory Wiktionary. "cyanobacteria." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/cyanobacteria Wiktionary. "endosymbiont." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endosymbiont Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

114 Wiktionary. "peroxisome." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/peroxisome Connexions. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/The Endosymbiotic Theory." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wiktionary. "endosymbiosis." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endosymbiosis Wiktionary. "vacuole." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/vacuole Wikipedia. "crista." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/crista Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Cell Organelles/Plant Cell." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Eukaryotic Origins." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44614/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "chloroplast." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/chloroplast Wiktionary. "plastid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plastid Wiktionary. "thylakoid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/thylakoid Connexions. "Importance of Fungi in Human Life." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44629/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "multinucleate." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/multinucleate Wiktionary. "amorphous." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/amorphous Wiktionary. "taxis." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/taxis Wiktionary. "pellicle." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pellicle Wiktionary. "phagosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phagosome Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

115 Wiktionary. "phagocytosis." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/phagocytosis Connexions. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Characteristics of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44616/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/ Wikipedia. "sporangia." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sporangia Wiktionary. "plasmodium." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plasmodium Wiktionary. "diploid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/diploid Wiktionary. "haploid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/haploid Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "kinetoplast." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/kinetoplast Wiktionary. "hydrogenosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/hydrogenosome Wiktionary. "mitosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mitosome Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "conjugation." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/conjugation Wiktionary. "osmoregulation." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/osmoregulation Wiktionary. "plastid." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plastid Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "stipe." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/stipe Wiktionary. "saprobe." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/saprobe Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

116 Wiktionary. "raphe." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/raphe Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "test." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/test Wikipedia. "pseudopodia." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/pseudopodia Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "plankton." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plankton Wiktionary. "endosymbiotic." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/endosymbiotic Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikipedia. "Tubulinea." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubulinea Wikipedia. "Flabellinea." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flabellinea Wikipedia. "Archamoebae." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archamoebae Wikipedia. "Rhizaria." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhizaria Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Genome Analysis/Sequenced Genomes." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Wikipedia. "sporangia." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/sporangia Wiktionary. "plasmodium." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plasmodium Wikipedia. "rhizaria." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rhizaria Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Three Domains of Life/Eukarya." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Groups of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44617/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Ecology of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists

117 Connexions. "Ecology of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "primary producer." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/primary+producer Wiktionary. "zooxanthella." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/zooxanthella Connexions. "Ecology of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "Trypanosoma." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Trypanosoma Wiktionary. "plasmodium." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/plasmodium Wiktionary. "pathogen." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/pathogen Connexions. "Ecology of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Ecology of Protists." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44619/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikipedia. "Downy mildew." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Downy_mildew Wikibooks. "Horticulture/Downy Mildew." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Horticulture/Downy_Mildew Wiktionary. "oomycete." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/oomycete Wiktionary. "saprobe." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/saprobe Boundless Learning. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com//biology/definition/downy-mildew Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Protists


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