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Identifying Coronal Holes in Solar Disk Images (and how to compare to models) Working Group Report Nick Arge  Rachel Hock  Carl Henney.

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Presentation on theme: "Identifying Coronal Holes in Solar Disk Images (and how to compare to models) Working Group Report Nick Arge  Rachel Hock  Carl Henney."— Presentation transcript:

1 Identifying Coronal Holes in Solar Disk Images (and how to compare to models) Working Group Report Nick Arge  Rachel Hock  Carl Henney

2 Definitions (from our invited speakers) Coronal holes: observable used as a proxy for open field regions – Dark regions in the EUV/X-ray (bright in He I 1083) which correspond to regions of reduced density and temperature – Predominately unipolar – Sources of high speed solar wind (While true, perhaps not the best observational criteria.) Open field regions: regions of magnetic field that extend far into the solar wind

3 One of Many Motivations How can we validate solar wind models? Coronal holes/open field regions are heavily influenced by non-potential fields. We know that the magnetic fields in/near filaments and active regions are non- potential. Can we use observations of coronal holes to constraint/validate solar wind models?

4 Invited talk by Larisza Krista – Overview of coronal hole observations – Range of historic/current detection methods Consensus: EUV images especially with AIA/STEREO + magnetograms (or ADAPT for farside??) give nice coronal hole maps. But there are MANY techniques. We need VALIDATION and estimates of the UNCERTAINTIES. – Not all dark regions are coronal holes (i.e. filaments) – Line-of-sight issues make some coronal holes less dark than others Session 1: Observations and Methods

5 Session 1: Validation Legitimate resistance to hand-drawn maps as "ground truth" as they are subjective – Maybe maps shouldn't be binary (confidence levels)? Many observers/many times  “fuzzy” coronal hole maps – Still subject to human error but does provide something to quantitatively compare methods to If not hand-drawn maps, then what? USE OTHER DATA that is less ambiguous – Doppler maps – White light/limb synoptic maps (Nishu Karna) – Spectroscopic observations (Michael Hahn) – He I (less issues with the limb) – H-alpha for filaments Improving/validating the techniques for space weather and modeling may, at the same time, might lead to new understanding of coronal hole physics

6 Invited talk by Jon Linker – Coronal holes and open magnetic field – Deficiencies in the observations that impact models – Lack of polar field observations – Magnetograph calibration issues – No far side data... can have flux imbalance when AR comes over east limb – Total open magnetic flux: models that match coronal hole boundary underestimate the flux; models that overestimate the coronal holes get the flux right! – In models, closed magnetic fields near open flux regions can be dark! – Is this an artifact of evolving the model to a steady state? Session 2: Modeling and Theory


8 Spiro Antiochos started the discussion on the dynamics of the boundaries of open field regions – It is not an either (open)... or (closed)! – How does this relate to the boundary of coronal holes? – What are the time- and length- scales? – Larisza: from SOHO, observationally coronal holes boundaries vary: few hours/~30 Mm – AIA observations are perfect for this! – Should spectroscopic observations be used as emissivity in the EUV might not be enough? – Dynamics of boundaries should be observable both in coronal and solar wind observations – Streamer stalk/HCS: currently observed in solar wind data – Plumes/jets/rays: observed in coronal images – Plasma sheet/pseudostreamers Session 2: Modeling and Theory OpenClosedInterface

9 EUV images (AIA & STEREO) + magnetograms are great for routine automated detection of coronal holes. Other observations need to be used to improve our understanding of how EUV coronal holes relate to open magnetic field regions  improve the utility of using EUV coronal holes in validating models

10 Coronal holes and open magnetic field regions are dynamic and their boundaries may not be the same! What does this mean for static/steady state solar wind models? There is a lot of work still to be done!

11 When (if funded): January 2014 Where: New Mexico State University (NMSU) Las Cruces, New Mexico Objectives: 1)Review and discussing the latest techniques for identifying coronal holes in solar disk data 2)Ascertaining how modelers and other users can best make use of coronal hole identifications. A workshop to identify coronal holes & how best to compare them with models Organizing Committee: James McAteer, Rachel Hock, Nick Arge, & Carl Henney If interested, please send email to:

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