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I. Spinal cord A. Cross section

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1 I. Spinal cord A. Cross section
1. anterior median fissure 2. posterior median sulcus 3. white matter-three columns or funiculi 4. gray matter a. Anterior Ventral b. Posterior Dorsal c. Gray commissure 5. dorsal root ganglion 6. dorsal root 7. ventral root

2 B. Locations of function with regard to the spinal cord
1. dorsal root ganglion-pseudo-unipolar neurons 2. dorsal gray horn 3. lateral gray horn 4. ventral gray horn 5. ventral root 6. spinal nerve is mixed 7. interneuron

3 II. Reflex arcs A. Five basic parts
1. sensory receptor 2. afferent neuron 3. association/ interneuron 4. motor neuron 5. effector 6. traits a. Automatic b. Unconscious c. Homeostatic d. Mono vs. polysynaptic

4 B. Three types of reflexes 1. Simple stretch reflex
a. Monosynaptic b. Ipsilateral c. Intrasegmental d. Patellar reflex

5 2. Withdrawl reflex a. Polysynaptic b. Ipsilateral c. Intersegmental
d. Reciprocal innervation

6 3. Crossed extensor reflex
a. Polysynaptic b. Contralateral c. intersegmental

7 III. Structure of nerves
A. Epineurium B. Perineurium C. Endoneurium D. Fasicle

8 IV. Spinal cord and dermatomal map

9 V. Functional Anatomy of the Brain A. Introduction
1. difficult to talk about 2. two fistfuls of pinkish/gray 3. wrinkled 4. consistency of cold oatmeal 5. three pounds 6. hugely complex 7. four basic regions a. Cerebral hemispheres b. Diencephalon c. Brain stem d. cerebellum

10 B. Cerebral hemispheres
1. most important part 2. overshadows diencephalon and brain stem 3. mushroom cap covers top of stalk 4. gyri 5. sulci 6. fissures-ie longitudinal cerebral fissure 7. Lateral cerebral fissure

11 C. Parts of cerebrum 1. Frontal lobe
a. Frontal lobe controls mainly motor function b. Primary motor area is on the precentral gyrus -governs conscious motor control which can be mapped

12 Motor homunculus

13 c. Motor homunculus -specific regions of the precentral gyrus control specific body parts -finer the movements, the more brain area needed to control those movements

14 d. Premotor area -learned repetitive tasks Typing, playing piano
Athletes learn tasks by visualizing motions Ingrained in this area

15 e. Broca’s area speech center Usually located left cerebral hemisphere
Damage here causes inability to speak

16 f. Prefrontal area Motivation Planning Emotional behavior Moods One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

17 2. Parietal lobe-mainly sensory and association function
a. Post central gyrus mimics the precentral gyrus except that it is sensory in function b. Sensory information is directed to the postcentral gyrus where it reaches conscious level c. Seems to be upside down as you progress laterally d. projection

18 e. Other primary sensory areas
Taste area Olfactory area Primary auditory cortex Visual cortex

19 f. Association areas Second stop for sensory signals
Directed from primary sensory areas to association areas Association area compares present stimulus to previous experience Process of recognition

20 3. Basal Nuclei of cerebrum
a. A nucleus is an area of gray matter within CNS b. Deep in cerebral hemispheres are basal nuclei c. Concerned with gross motor movements d. Arms swinging and posture e. Parkinson’s disease is a basal nuclei disorder

21 C. Diencephalon Thalamus a. Encloses third vent.
b. Screens incoming sensory messages Hypothalamus a. ANS center for body temperature and water balance b. Regulates pituitary Epithalamus a. Pineal gland b. Choroid plexus

22 4. Role of thalamus is like a switchboard operator

23 Fig. 14.8 Somatic sensory cortex Cerebrum Tertiary neuron Thalamus
Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 14.8 cortex Somatic sensory Cerebrum Tertiary neuron Thalamus Midbrain Secondary neuron Pons Dorsal root ganglion Medulla oblongata Primary neuron cell body Spinothalamic tract of anterolateral system Primary neuron Spinal cord Free nerve endings Gray commissure Interneuron White commissure

24 D. Brain stem 1. size of thumb 2. midbrain 3. pons 4. medulla

25 5. medulla a. Reflex centers for heart rate, blood vessel diameter, respiration, swallowing, vomitting etc b. Anterior surface-pyramidal tracts c. Decussation of motor nerves consciously controlling voluntary function

26 6. pons a. Name means “bridge”
b. Contains fiber tracts specifically between cerebrum and cerebellum c. Basically an interchange d. Also contains nuclei for cranial nerves e. nuclei of respiratory reflex

27 7. midbrain a. Corpora quadrigemina b. superior and inferior colliculi
Reflex centers for vision and hearing

28 E. Cerebellum Cauliflower shape Controls balance and equilibrium
Produces smooth and coordinated muscular contractions Arbor vitae

29 F. Miscellaneous topics 1. Limbic system
a. The limbic system is a complex set of structures that lies on both sides of the thalamus, just under the cerebrum.  b. It includes the hypothalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala, and several other nearby areas.  c. It appears to be primarily responsible for our emotional life, and has a lot to do with the formation of memories.

30 2. Reticular Activating System (RAS)
a. Regulates sleep-wake cycles b. Works with thalamus to focus attention c. May be involved with ADHD

31 3. Corpus callosum Commisural fibers Connects right and left
Right side of brain is spatial and artistic Left side of brain is analytical and mathematical Two talk to each other through the corpus callosum

32 VI. Protection of the brain
A. Meninges 1. dura mater 2. arachnoid 3. pia mater B. CSF 1. produced choroid plexi 2. flow 3. functions 4. hydrocephalus

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