Presentation on theme: "Stalking Awareness through education. By the end of the show you will... Be confident that you know exactly what stalking is Be knowledgeable of the key."— Presentation transcript:
By the end of the show you will... Be confident that you know exactly what stalking is Be knowledgeable of the key statistics surrounding stalking Be aware of the legislation which is used to protect against it (UK)
So what is stalking? Hunting? A joke? Not serious? Flattering? Nothing dangerous? Something to be ignored?
No. Take Stalking Seriously Stalking can ultimately lead to murder. (76% of women murdered by their ex partner were stalked in the lead up to their death (McFarlane et al)) The very nature of stalking means it is not a one off event, the victim can suffer for years The stalker will often involve on average 21 people to try to get to their victim (Sheridan 2009) For the effects of stalking please see the accompanying PowerPoint
A definition It is hard to give a definition to stalking, stalkers often use multiple and varying methods to harass their victim. Mullen (1999) describes stalking as ‘ a constellation of behaviour’s in which an individual inflicts upon another repeated unwanted intrusions and communications’. Intrusions include making approaches, maintaining surveillance and gathering information.
Definition cont.. Communication and stalking behaviour can include: Calls, texts, letters, cards, emails, internet harassment, faxes, graffiti, gifts, ordering goods and services on the victim's behalf, hacking computers and phones, following and criminal damage. Stalkers will find many ways to harass and this list is not exhaustive
Who stalks? Anyone can be a stalker. However data from the National Stalking Helpline shows that: 67% are male 38% are ex intimates 21% are acquaintance’s 9.5% are strangers
Who are the victims of stalking Anyone can be stalked 1 in 5 stalking victims are male Same sex stalking happens Certain professionals such as teachers and nurses can be vulnerable to stalking There are also a number of secondary victims
The Law and stalking England and Wales Scotland Northern Ireland Possible Civil routes A Home Office consultation reviewing stalking and its legislation recently closed (5 th Feb). Try to make sure you keep an eye out for any changes
England and Wales In E&W stalking behaviour is dealt with under the Protection from Harassment Act of 1997 This Act states that it is unlawful for a person to pursue a course of conduct which they know or ought to know amounts to harassment A course of conduct is classed as two or more incidents which cause alarm, distress or fear of violence The full legislation is available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1997/40/contents http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1997/40/contents
Scotland In Scotland Stalking comes under the Criminal Justice and Licensing Act of 2010 Stalking is an offence under section 39 of this act. If a defendant is acquitted under this section they can be found guilty under section 38 The full legislation is available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/13/contents http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2010/13/contents
Northern Ireland In Northern Ireland stalking is dealt with under the Protection from Harassment Order 1997 This Act is almost identical to the PHA of E&W. It can be viewed at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nisi/1997/1180 /contents/made http://www.legislation.gov.uk/nisi/1997/1180 /contents/made
Civil Routes Some people may not wish to go to the police If this is the case it may be possible for the victim to seek legal advice and perhaps get a form of injunction put in place to try and protect them If an injunction is breached the perpetrator can be arrested The difficulties some find with this is that unless they are entitled to legal aid there will be costs that apply
For more information you can Check out the National Stalking Helpline’s website at: http://www.stalkinghelpline.org/http://www.stalkinghelpline.org/ Email us at- firstname.lastname@example.org@stalkinghelpline.org Ring us on 0808 802 0300 You may also find it useful to visit Network for Surviving Stalking, Protection Against Stalking and Suzy Lamplugh Trust websites
References National Stalking Helpline Statistics 2012 Pathe, M (2002) Surviving Stalking. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Mullen, P et al (2009) Stalkers and their Victims: Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge McFarlane et al http://hsx.sagepub.com/content/3/4/300.abstract http://hsx.sagepub.com/content/3/4/300.abstract Sheridan, L. (2009) http://www.le.ac.uk/press/stalkingsurvey.htm http://www.le.ac.uk/press/stalkingsurvey.htm