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- Classification - Classification is the grouping of things according to their similar characteristics - People classify things to give order to the world.

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Presentation on theme: "- Classification - Classification is the grouping of things according to their similar characteristics - People classify things to give order to the world."— Presentation transcript:

1 - Classification - Classification is the grouping of things according to their similar characteristics - People classify things to give order to the world and help them to survive, to help understand things better - Taxonomy - Taxonomy is the branch of biology that deals with classifying things - Binomial Nomenclature genus namespecies name - Binomial Nomenclature is a naming system that gives each organism two names - a genus name and species name

2 Examples of scientific names

3 Living things are classified into 7 major groups Kingdom Largest groupings Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Smallest groupings **King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup

4 - Kingdoms are the largest and most general groups in classification - Species is the smallest and most specific group There are 5 Kingdoms 1. Monerans (monera) – also called BACTERIA 2. Protists (protista) 3. Fungi 4. Plants 5. Animals

5 Moneran Kingdom - Monerans are tiny, single celled, do not have a nucleus and can be called bacteria - Two types of monerans include bacteria and blue-green algae - Bacteria come in 3 shapes; rod shaped, round and spiral cell wall cell membrane Hereditary material - Monerans have a cell wall; a tough, rigid outer covering that supports and protects. A cell membrane; controls what enters and leaves the cell. Hereditary material; in cytoplasm - not in a nucleus like other cells

6 flagellum - Bacteria cannot move on their own. They are carried by air, water, clothing, or other objects. Some may also have a flagellum (tail) ================================= harmful  They can be harmful - Can spoil food - Poison water supplies - caused by pollution - Damage property - breakdown leather, asphalt - Cause disease - strep, pneumonia, tetanus, Lyme disease, Bubonic plague

7 - Bacteria can also be helpful - They decompose dead organisms and return simpler substances to the environment to be used by other organisms - They produce oxygen; change environments - Help produce foods- cheese, yogurt, pickles - Breakdown garbage into methane gas - petroleum - Clean up the environment - decompose garbage, breakdown oil and plastic - Make vitamins and help animals digest - Produce antibiotics that kill other bacteria - Used in industry

8 The Protist Kingdom similar - Protists are similar to monerans because the are unicellular; one of the first organisms on earth; microscopic different - They are different than monerans because protists have a nucleus and other cell structures

9 Where and how do protists live? Where? - Most live in a watery environment- salty and fresh - Some live in moist soil - Some live in larger organisms and are called parasites - organisms that live on or in a host cell and harm itHow? - They live in individual cells - Some live in colonies (groups of cells)

10 Animal-like Protists - Protozoa - They contain a nucleus and have no cell wall - They are heterotrophs (cannot make their own food) - They can move

11 4 Types of Protists 1. Sarcodine - Animal-like protist that move by extensions of the cell membrane and cytoplasm called pseudopods EX: ameba

12 2. Ciliate cilia - Protist that moves by hairlike extensions called cilia that are on the outside of cells EX: paramecium

13 3. Flagellate flagellum - Protist that moves by flagellum - a long whiplike structure that propels a cell through its environment

14 4. Sporozoan - parasites that feed on the cells and body fluids of their host animals EX: malaria

15 Plant-Like Protists - Algae - They are unicellular - They are autotrophs - use light energy to make their own food - They are a vital part of the world because many other organisms rely on them for food

16 3 Types of Algae 1. Euglena - plantlike protist that contain chloroplasts, flagella and a reddish eyespot

17 2. Diatoms - most numerous protist made of glassy material

18 3. Dinoflagellates - plant like protist that have cell walls that look like plates of armour and also have 2 flagella to propel them through water

19 Fungus Like Protists - They are protists that are heterotrophs, have cell walls and at different stages of their life, have characteristics similar to protists like flagella and looking like amebas

20 - A slime mold is a fungus-like protist that is moist, flat, shapeless blob that live in dead trees, fallen leaves and compost heaps

21 Fungus Kingdom How do fungi feed? - Fungi feed by growing on their food. - They release chemicals that digest the food that they are growing on. - They then absorb the digested food. hyphae What are hyphae? - Hyphae (hi-fee) are threadlike tubes that make up multi-cellular fungi. - They branch out and weave together to produce many shapes of fungi. - They can grow quickly.

22 Fungus Kingdom

23 How do most fungi reproduce? - Fungi reproduce by spores (a form of asexual reproduction). - Spores are tiny reproductive cells that are enclosed in a protective case. - They are carried by wind and if they land in a place that is ideal they are able to sprout. - Fungi produce spores in fruiting bodies. EX: a puff ball can produce trillions of spores

24 FUNGI  Hypahe and sporesFruiting body (Puffball)

25 3 Forms of Fungi: 1. Mushrooms stalkcap - Fungi shaped like umbrellas with a stem-like structure called a stalk and a cap on top - Spores are produced on the underside of the cap 3 Parts of a mushroom are… Stalk - 1. Stalk - stem-like structure Cap - 2. Cap - on top of the stalk. Spores are produced here Gills - 3. Gills - thin sheets of tissue that go from stalk to cap. The spores are stored here

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27 2. Yeast - Single celled fungi used in bread making - Reproduce by budding

28 3. Molds - Fuzzy, shapeless, fairly flat fungi that grow on the surface of an object EX: Penicillin

29 Diseases caused by fungi Dutch Elm DiseaseChestnut Blight Dutch Elm Disease and Chestnut Blight both kill trees Toxin producing fungus Toxin producing fungus- produces cancer- causing substances that could injure or kill humans Ergot - Ergot - spiky poisonous growths on rye grain. It causes burning, prickling sensations, hallucinations and convulsions Athlete’s FootRingworm Athlete’s Foot and Ringworm both cause itchy, raw, red patches on the skin

30 What is a Lichen? - A lichen is a fungus and an alga that live together. - When they are together they can live in places that neither could survive in alone

31 What do the fungus and alga do for each other? - The fungus part provides the alga with water and minerals that the fungus absorbs from whatever it is growing on - The alga part uses the minerals and water to make food for the fungus and itself

32 Plant Kingdom - Multicellular algae lack transport tubes that other plants have. They do not contain roots, stems or leaves or produce seeds. They do contain pigments (colored chemicals) and live in or near a source of water - The 3 Phyla of algae are red, brown and green

33 Needs of Land Plants: 1. Need to support the leaves and other parts of the body so that they do not collapse 2. Need to obtain water and minerals 3. Need to transport food, water, minerals, and other materials from one part of the body to another 4. Need to get sperm cells and egg cells together so that reproduction can occur

34 Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts - These are tiny plants that live in moist places They do not have a lot of adaptations because: 1. They are small and live in places where water is plentiful 2. They do not need stems to support them 3. They do not need a special transport system 4. They do not need an adaptation to prevent water loss because they live in watery places

35 What is a fern? - A vascular plant. They have tiny tubes that transport water, food, and materials throughout its body. They also have leaves with a waxy covering to prevent water loss - Ferns adapt by having thick, strong cell walls for strong stems (they can grow taller) They also have roots that anchor them to the ground and absorb water and minerals for the plant - Ferns reproduce by having their sperm cells swim to the egg cells in standing water

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37 Seed Plant Structure - Xylem - Xylem is a vascular tissue that carries water and minerals from the roots to the rest of the plant - Phloem - Phloem carries food throughout the plant - Roots - Roots anchor the plant to the ground and absorb water and minerals from the soil - Stems - Stems provide the means by which water, minerals and food are transported between the roots and leaves of the plant. The stem also holds the plant up to get sunlight

38 - Leaves - Leaves make food for the plant by photosynthesis (use light to make food) - The purpose of the flower is to help the plant reproduce. The flower contains sperm and egg cells

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40 - An angiosperm is a plant where ovules and seeds are contained in an ovary

41 - A gymnosperm is a plant whose ovules and seeds are not surrounded by an ovary

42 The Animal Kingdom animal - An animal is a multi-cellular heterotroph whose cells lack cell walls vertebrate - A vertebrate is an animal that has a backbone or vertebral column nvertebrate - An invertebrate is an animal that does not have a back bone. This constitutes 95% of all animal species

43 Phylum Proifera sponge - A sponge is the smallest group of invertebrates. They grow attached to one spot and contain many pores. How do they feed? - Water carries food and oxygen as it moves though the pores of the sponge. The sponge’s cells remove food and oxygen from the water and release waste products in the water spicule - A spicule is a tiny spiny structures that form the skeleton of many sponges. It is made of a glassy material

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45 Phylum Cnidaria - Organisms include hydra, jellyfish, corals, sea anemones polyp - A polyp is a type of cnidaria that stays in one place. (shaped like a vase) medusa - A medusa is a cnidaria that can move from place to place (shaped like a bowl) Basic Characteristics 1. Hollow body cavity with only one opening called the mouth nematocysts 2. They have nematocysts or stinging cells to stunor kill prey 3. They have special tissues 4. They reproduce sexually or asexually

46 hydra jellyfish coral sea anemone

47 Phylum Platyhelminthes - Flatworms - Flatworms are flat bodied worms. They can regenerate lost body parts and some are parasite EX: Planaria - A tapeworm is another example

48 Phylum Nematoda roundworm - A roundworm can live on land or in water - Some are parasites and live in animals - These worms have tube-like digestive systems (mouth and anus) Ex: Trichinella and hookworms

49 Phylum Annelida ¢ Segmented worms ¢ Segmented worms are worms with segmented bodies ¢ They live in oceans, lakes, streams and soil ¢ They have specialized cells, a circulatory system and a nervous system ¢ EX: Earthworm, sandworm

50 Phylum Mollusca mollusk ¢ A mollusk Is a soft bodied animal that have inner or outer shells Characteristics 1. Foot - thick muscle used to open and close their shell or for movement 2. Head - contains mouth and sense organs (eyes) 3. Mantle- produces material that makes up the hard shell

51 - Gastropods - Gastropods are mollusks that have a single shell or no shell at all. They live in fresh or salt water and on land EX: Snail, slug, sea butterflies

52 bivalve - A bivalve is a two-shell mollusk. The two shells are held together by a powerful muscle. They are filter feeders - filter food out of their body. EX: clams, oysters, scallops, mussels

53 cephalopod - A cephalopod is a mollusk with tentacles. They do not have an outer shell but have one within some part of their body. They are very quick; some produce ink when they are frightened Ex: octopuses, squids, nautiluses

54 Phylum Arthropoda Characteristics 1. Live in air, on land, or in water 2. Exoskeleton - skeleton on the outside of the body 3. Segmented body 4. Jointed appendages ¢ Crustaceans ¢ Crustaceans are an arthropod with a hard exoskeleton, 2 pairs of antennae and mouth parts for crushing food. Most live in water some live on land EX: Crabs,lobster, shrimp, barnacles

55 ¢ Centipedes ¢ Centipedes are arthropods with many legs. They have one pair of legs in each segment millipede ¢ A millipede is an arthropod with many legs. They have two pairs of legs in each segment arachnid ¢ An arachnid has 2 body parts - a head/chest and an abdomen part. They have 8 legs (4 pairs) Ex: spider, scorpion, tick, mites insects ¢ The insects are the most numerous arthropods. Their bodies are divided into 3 parts- a head, a chest, and an abdomen. They have 6 legs attached to the chest Ex: grasshoppers, ants, flies

56 Phylum Echinodermata Characteristics 1. They have spiny skin 2. They have an internal skeleton and 5 body parts 3. A water vascular system 4. Tube feet EX: Starfish, sea lilies, sea urchins, sand dollar

57 Phylum Chordata vertebrate ¢ A vertebrate is an animal with a backbone. A vertebral column is used to protect the spinal cord which runs through the center of the backbone endotherm ¢ An endotherm is a warm-blooded animal. They are able to maintain their body temperatures internally (endo=inside) ectotherm ¢ An ectotherm is a cold-blooded animal. They rely on the environment for heat

58 Cold Blooded Animals ¢ Fish are water dwelling vertebrates that are characterized by scales, fins and throats with slits. ***Although some do not have all of these characteristics**** jaw-less fish ¢ A jaw-less fish is a fish with no jaw or scales - they are the most primitive fish. They do have paired fins and an entire skeleton made of cartilage. EX: lamprey, hagfishes = hagfish

59 cartilaginous fish ¢ A cartilaginous fish has a skeleton make entirely of cartilage. Most have tooth-like scales covering the body. Body shape most represents a torpedo. EX: Shark, skates, rays bony fish ¢ A bony fish has a skeleton made of bones. These fish have a swim bladder- gas filled sac that helps the fish to float (buoyancy). EX: eels, remora, tuna, flounder

60 What is an amphibian? ¢ Vertebrates that are fishlike and breath through gills when immature ¢ They live on land, breathe through lungs and have moist skin when adults ¢ No scales or claws ¢ Most live in the water for the first part of their life and then on land for the second part of their life ¢ EX: Frogs, newts, toads, salamanders

61 What are reptiles ? ¢ Vertebrates with lungs, scaly skin, and special egg types ¢ Their scaly skin is very hard, waterproof and prevents the reptile from drying out EX: lizards, snakes, turtles, alligators, crocodiles

62 Warm-Blooded Animals ¢ Birds are warm-blooded, egg laying vertebrates that have feathers. ¢ The feathers are made of dead cells. They are used to insulate, fly and attract mates Ex: birds of prey, perching birds, waterfowl, flightless birds

63 What are Mammals? ¢ Mammals ¢ Mammals are warm blooded vertebrates that have hair or fur and that feed their young with milk produced in mammary glands ¢ Egg laying Mammals ¢ Egg laying Mammals are mammals that lay eggs. This is primitive. Also called monotrenes EX: duckbilled platypus, spiny anteaters ¢ Pouched mammals ¢ Pouched mammals give birth to young that are not well developed. The young spend time in a pouch in the mother’s body. They are called marsupials Ex: Kangaroo, opossums ¢ Placental Mammals’ ¢ Placental Mammals’ young develop more fully within the female. EX: elephant, giraffe, hippopotamus, gorilla

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65 What is a Virus? A virus is a tiny particle that can invade living cells. They contain hereditary material Is a virus a living cell? NO!!! They do not carry out all the life functions and cannot reproduce on their own What can’t a virus do? Perform life processes or reproduce on their own What can a virus do? Can reproduce inside cells and cause disease

66 Parts of a virus - The hereditary material takes control of the cells activities - The protein coat protects the virus

67 Viral Replication - Bacteriophage attaches to host cell and inject its hereditary material into the cell - The virus’ hereditary material takes control over the cell causing it to make bacteriophage parts

68 - Bacteriophage parts assemble (come together) into complete virus’ - Host cell bursts and releases newly produced virus

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70 Virus Life Cycle Summary - First a virus gets its hereditary material into the host cell. Then the host cell makes more virus particles. Finally the virus particles leave the original host cell and it infects new hosts - The host cell is KILLED


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