http://www.ncvc.org/src/ Creating An effective Stalking Protocol Help for Victims – Free brochure Stalking Laws Stalking Court Cases Statistics Resources Publications 202-467-8700 – firstname.lastname@example.org
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 During a 12 month period an estimated 14 in every 1,000 persons age 18 or older were victims of stalking – 3.4 million victims About half (46%) of stalking victims experienced at least on unwanted contact per week, and 11% of victims said they had been stalked for 5 years or more. The risk of stalking victimimization was highest for individuals who were separated or divorced – 34 per 1,000 individuals. Women were at greater risk than men for stalking victimization: however, women and men are equally likely to experience harassment.
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 The survey measured the following stalking behaviors ▫ Making unwanted phone calls ▫ Sending unsolicited letters or emails ▫ Following or spying on the victim ▫ Showing at places with no legitimate reason ▫ Waiting at places for the victim ▫ Leaving unwanted items - present – flowers in ▫ Posting information or spreading rumors about the victim on the internet, a public place, or by word of mouth.
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 To place this estimate in perspective there were about 5.2 million violent crimes - rape/sexual assault, robbery aggravated assault, and simple assault committed in 2005. National Crime Victimization Survey – US Dept of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics - 2009
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 Male (37%) and female (41%) stalking victimizations were equally likely to reported to the police. Approximately 1 in 4 stalking victims reported some form of cyber stalking such as email (83%) or instant messaging (35%) 46% of stalking victims felt fear of not knowing what would happen next Nearly 3 in 4 stalking victims knew their offender in some capacity. 29% of stalking victims reported the offender waited in places for them National Crime Victimization Survey – US Dept of Justice – Bureau of Justice Statistics - 2009
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 Males were as likely to report being stalked by a male as a female offender. 43 % of males stalking victims stated that the offender was a female, while 41 % reported the offender was male. Female victims of stalking were significantly more likely to be stalked by a male (67%) rather than a female (24%)
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 Nearly a quarter of victims stated that they had been stalked at least once a day (16%) More than 1 in 4 stalking victims had reported some sort of cyber stalking was used – email, instant message. Electronic monitoring was used in 1 in 13 victims. Video or digital cameras were likely as listening devices or bugs to be used to electronically monitor victims – GPS used in about 10%.
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 One in seven reported they moved because of the stalking The reason the stalking stop – highest perceived reason – the police warned the stalked – (15.6%) about a tenth believed the stalking stopped when they obtained a protective or restraining 130,000 reported that they had been fired or asked to leave their job Stalking offenders committed identity theft against 204,000 victims
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 About 40% reported that they had notified police once regarding the stalking, while 3% contacted the police in excess of 15 times. 20% reported the police took no action
National Crime Victimization Survey Stalking Victimization in the United States 2009 Stalking unlike most crimes because a course of conduct designed to create fear in another person does not necessarily require that the victim come in contact with the offender About a tenth of all victims were stalked by a stranger 36% of the victims reported the offender had some previous interaction with law enforcement Cyber stalking and electronic monitoring
Domestic Violence and Stalking 81% of stalking victims who were stalked by an intimate partner reported that they had also been physically assaulted by that partner. 31% were also sexually assaulted by that partner National Violence Against Women Survey -2000
Statistics on Stalking Victims in 69% of female homicide cases were stalked while in a relationship with their stalker Victims in 88% of female homicide cases were stalked after the relationship ended National Violence Against Women Survey -2000
Protective Orders National Council of Family and Juvenile Court Judges http://www.ncjfcj.org Family Violence Department - (800) 527- 3223 or (800) 52-PEACE Fax (775) 784-6160 - Wash. DC (202) 558-0026 - email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org
What is Stalking? Stalking general refers to repeated harassing or threatening behavior putting another person in fear. Examples?
Stalking Can seemingly non-threatening behavior be stalking? Can non-criminal acts be stalking?
Context is Everything The Criminal Justice System is by design and necessity, incident focused ▫What is the intent of the offender? ▫What is the meaning of the act to the victim? ▫What is the effect of the violence on the victim? ▫What is the context of any given act of violence? ▫Consider the particulars, how much violence, coercion or intimidation accompanying the violence
Recognizing The Stalking Case Any time a victim reports any type of “harassing” behavior responding officers/advocates should be thinking about the possibility of stalking.
What About Stalking Can Make It Easy to Investigate? Stalking Is a Course of Conduct ▫Ongoing Long-Term Same Victim Same Offender Same Locations Suspects often confess ▫They want to tell how and why they are being misunderstood
What about stalking cases can make it Difficult to Investigate? Criminal acts in multiple jurisdictions On going crime with varying activity levels over several years May be hard to see whole pattern Few witnesses Little evidence Law Enforcement response can not guarantee it will stop
Why do they stalk? Rejection Obsession Power and Control Sexual Gratification (voyeurism) Planning to commit a crime (rapists)
POWER AND CONTROL USING COERCION AND THREATS USING ECONOMIC ABUSE USING MALE PRIVILEGE USING CHILDREN MINIMIZING DENYING AND BLAMING USING ISOLATION USING EMOTIONAL ABUSE USING INTIMIDATION Multimedia and Technology Unit Barry Warfield EKU Student 1999
Our response…. ▫Law enforcement officers should be expected to investigate stalking crimes in a manner that restores the victim’s sense of control and decrease the victims’ anxiety. ▫Safety planning with the victim Promising Practices: Law Enforcement Response U.S. D.O.J. 2001
Our response…. Working with stalking victims takes patience. Victims may downplay the seriousness of the behavior and it is your job to determine if a crime has been committed. It is a crime built on a series of actions, not one isolated incident, so the case must be built piece by piece like a puzzle. Therefore, documentation becomes the most important aspect of building the case.
Love Obsessional Involves no relationship between the parties; e.g. fan/ celebrity, unknown admirer in workplace or living environs. Most of this stalker’s initial contacts with a target are via correspondence. Enhanced risk factors include: excessive number of letters or contact by electronic mail and may state intention or evidence of travel directed to encounter the target. ( could last for years)
The Domestic Stalker or Simple Obsessional can be the most dangerous type of stalking case invariably a male seems to believe that a tortured relationship is better than no relationship at all comes from an abusive childhood is a control freak cannot take responsibility for their actions harbors hostilities towards women Gathers intelligence about his victim.
The Domestic Stalker or Simple Obsessional Breaks into the victim’s home Cyberstalking Watches the victim sleep. Will conduct electronic surveillance.
The Domestic Stalker or Simple Obsessional if the victim attempts to end the relationship the offender will respond with violence shrewd and actions are often untraceable will poison or kill pets phones anonymous threats when the offender has lost control he will stalk this puts him back in control
The Domestic Stalker or Simple Obsessional Watch for signs of…. ▫Increasing mobility and proximity ▫Increasing their familiarity with the victim ▫Probing, disregarding, or penetrating victim boundaries ▫Using more intrusive methods to access the victim ▫Becoming more controlling or demanding
Steps You Can Take Counter-Stalking: follow the stalker, preferably videotaping his movements in and around the victim’s place of employment, home, family, etc. Surveillance on victim’s home/work during hours she normally comes and goes -- videotape if possible. Follow the victim to school/work/daycare. Photograph all vandalism reported by the victim.
Stalking Policy/Protocol Dispatcher ▫Obtain critical status and victim safety information ▫Obtain relevant info from victim ▫Provide victim with critical info ▫Obtain Offender history or likelihood of danger
Stalking Policy/Protocol Initial Officer Response ▫Respond to the call ▫Approach the Scene ▫Conduct initial Interview ▫Interview Suspect ▫Federal Violation ▫Witness interview ▫Collect Evidence ▫Arrest and charge ▫Write Report ▫Give Victim essential information
Stalking Policy/Protocol Follow-up ▫Collect Evidence ▫Serve protective orders ▫Provide victim with essential information ▫Interview suspect Prosecution Consult with prosecutor and deliver case Supervisors Responsibility Manage cases Training Community education
Building Probable Cause Police Generated Evidence Collection ▫Surveillance ▫Security Video ▫Telephone Records ▫E-Mail ▫Reports of Prior Acts ▫Search Warrants ▫Interview - Interrogation
Good Offense Report Documents stalker’s repetitive behavior Creates articulation of victim’s fear, especially when stalker’s behavior would appear non- threatening to most people Supports criminal charges (if filed) Can enhance encouragement for stalker to plead guilty
Common “harassing” behaviors Vandalism Annoying or threatening phone calls Following or other violations of protective orders Actual assaults Sending unwanted letters Showing up at the victim’s home or work place
Common “harassing” behaviors Attempting to obtain private information about the victim from others Leaving “gifts” for the victim Disabling the victim’s car Taking mail from the victim’s mailbox Entering the victim’s home when the victim is not there Taking photographs of or “spying” on the victim Reporting the victim to authorities for crimes that did not occur
Search Warrants On the Suspect’s home/vehicle ▫Be alert for… Any photos of the victim These may have comments of drawings on them Photographs, diagrams, or drawings of the victim’s home or work place Writings, logs, or diaries kept by the suspect describing activity or thoughts about the victim Personal items belonging to the victim Video/cassette/digital files or tapes such as surveillance
Search Warrants On the Suspect’s home/vehicle ▫Be alert for… Books describing stalking techniques or having a subject matter dealing with stalking Any equipment that appears to have been used to stalk the victim, such as cameras, binoculars, etc.
Items from the Victim Any taped phone messages Any letters or notes written by the suspect to the victim Any objects sent to the victim or left for the victim
Idaho Coalition Against Domestic Violence Counter-Stalking Kit
CROSSING STATE LINES Crossing state lines or entering or leaving Indian Country with intent to injure, harass or intimidate an intimate partner… …person intentionally commits crime of violence and causes bodily injury... ▫– 18 USC §2261 (a)(1) Interstate Travel to commit Domestic Violence
CROSSING STATE LINES Intent to injure NOT required. Maximum penalty: Life in prison if victim dies 10 years if serious bodily injury or use of weapon 5 years for other crimes – 18 USC §2261 (a)(1)
INTERSTATE STALKING To cross a state line with the intent to kill, injure, harass or intimidate another person ▫The defendant places the person in fear of death of or serious bodily injury to, that person or a member of the person’s immediate family. Includes cyber stalking – course of conduct (2 or more acts) – 18 USC §2261 (a)
INTERSTATE TRAVEL TO VIOLATE AN ORDER OF PORTECTION To cross a state line with the intent to violate the portion of a valid protection order that prohibits or provides against violence, threats or harassment against, contact or communication with another person. – 18 USC §2262 (a)(1)
Reo Recommended reading: The Stalking of Kristin By George Lardner Book # - ISBN 0-87113- 613-9