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Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology Plants Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology Plants Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology
Plants Unit 7 Chapters 22-25 Biology

2 Origin of Plants Evolved from organisms similar to green algae
First evidence in the fossil record was around 500 million years ago Did not have any leaves Psilophytes – earliest known plant fossil

3 Plant Characteristics
A multicellular eukaryote Produce its own food (glucose) by way of photosynthesis Use chlorophyll (green pigment) Thick cell walls made of cellulose Cuticle – waxy waterproof coating on the stems and leaves

4 Needed for survival Sunlight Water and Minerals Gas exchange
Used in photosynthesis to produce food Water and Minerals Gas exchange Require oxygen for cellular respiration and carbon dioxide for photosynthesis Movement of water and nutrients Use specialized tissues (vascular tissue)

5 Plant Life Cycle Alternation of generation
Two alternating phases, a diploid phase and a haploid phase Sporophyte Diploid phase that reproduces by asexual spores Gametophyte Haploid phase that reproduces sexually by producing gametes that fuse together by fertilization


7 Classification of Plants
4 groups that are based on: Water-conducting tissues Seeds Flowers Bryophyte (Nonvascular) Ferns and allies (Seedless vascular ) Gymnosperm (Seed vascular) Angiosperm (Seed vascular flowering plant)

8 Bryophytes Nonvascular Plants
Life cycle depends on water for reproduction Draws up water by osmosis Include: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

9 Bryophyte Types Mosses Liverworts Most common bryophyte
Rhizoids – long, thin cells that anchor them in the ground and absorb water and minerals from the soil Liverworts Gemmae – small multicellular reproductive structures used in asexual reproduction

10 Bryophyte Life Cycle Gametophytes Sporophyte
Dominant recognizable stage Carries out most of the plant’s photosynthesis Antheridia – produce the sperm (male) Archegonia – produce the egg (female) Sporophyte Depends on the gametophyte for water and nutrients

11 Vascular Plants Contain specialized tissue that conducts water and nutrients throughout the plant (vascular tissue) Tracheids – tubular cells that are specialized to conduct water; dead at maturity Xylem – transport subsystem that carries water upward from the roots Phloem – transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced in photosynthesis Sieve tube element – main phloem cells that are surrounded by companion cells

12 Vascular Plants Roots – underground organs that absorb water and minerals Stems – supporting structures that connect roots and leaves; carry water and nutrients between them Leaves – photosynthetic organs that contain one or more bundles of vascular tissue (veins)

13 Ferns and Allies: Seedless Vascular Plants
Include club mosses, horsetails, and ferns Ferns Rhizomes – creeping or underground stems Fronds – large leaves of ferns. Life cycle of ferns Diploid sporophyte is the dominant stage Sporangia – tiny containers of haploid spores Sori – group or cluster of sporangia


15 Seed Plants Divided into 2 groups Gymnosperms
Bear their seeds directly on the surfaces of cones Include: conifers, cycads and ginkgoes Angiosperms (Flowering plants) Bear their seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seed Include: grasses, flowering trees and shrubs, and all wildflowers and cultivated flowers

16 Adaptations of Seed Plants
Reproduce free from water by the use of: Flowers and cones Cones are the seed bearing structure of gymnosperms Flowers are the seed bearing structures of angiosperms Transfer of sperm by pollination Pollen grain – tiny structure that contains the entire male gametophyte Pollination – transfer of pollen to the female structure; can be transferred by wind, insects or small animals

17 Adaptations of Seed Plants
Protection of embryos in seeds Seed – an embryo of a plant that is encased in a protective covering (seed coat) and food supply (cotyledons); may have structures that aid in its dispersal Embryo – an organism in its early stage of development

18 Angiosperms – Flowering Plants
Flowers Reproductive organ; contains ovaries that surround and protect the seed Fruit Wall of tissue surrounding the seed Used to attract animals to disperse their seeds

19 Parts of a Flower Sepals and Petals Stamens Pistil (carpels)
Outermost floral parts that protect the developing bud Petals – brightly colored to attract vectors Stamens Male reproductive part Consists of a thin stalk (filament) and an oval sac that consist of pollen grains at the top (anther) Pistil (carpels) Female reproductive part Consist of a broad base (ovary) that contain one or more ovules, the stalk that comes from the ovary (style), and a sticky portion at the top (stigma) where pollen grains land


21 Diversity of Angiosperms
2 types: named for the number of cotyledons in the plants embryo Monocots (monocotyledon) Corn, wheat, lilies, orchids, and palms Dicots (dicotyledon) Roses, clover, tomatoes, oaks, and daisies

22 Comparison of Monocots and Dicots
Single cotyledon Parallel veins Flower parts are multiples of 3 Vascular bundles are scattered Fibrous roots Dicots Two cotyledon Branched veins Flower parts are multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular bundles are arranged in rings Taproot


24 Diversity of Angiosperms
Life spans are divided into 3 categories: Annuals Flowering plant that complete a life cycle within one growing season Marigolds, petunias, and pansies Biennials Complete their life cycle in two years Primrose, parsley, and celery Perennials Flowering plants that live for more than two years Asparagus, many grasses, palm trees, maple trees, and honeysuckle

25 Seed Plant Structure 3 principal organs: Roots Stems Leaves
absorb water and dissolved nutrients anchor plants in the ground Protect the plants against bacteria and fungi Hold plant upright against wind and rain Stems Transports nutrients between the leaves and the roots Leaves Photosynthetic systems of the plant

26 Seed Plant Structure 3 plant tissue systems: Dermal tissue
Outer covering of a plant Consist of a single layer of epidermal cells Vascular tissue transport system composed of xylem and phloem Ground tissue Cells that lie between the dermal and vascular tissues Functions in storage, adds flexibility and strengthens the plant Ground tissue consist of mainly parenchyma which contains chloroplast in the leaves; Collenchyma – help support and give flexibility; Sclerenchyma – extremely thick and rigid cell that helps strengthen the plant

27 Plant Growth Most plants have an open or indeterminate type of growth
i.e. they grow as long as they live Meristems – clusters of tissue that are responsible for growth throughout the plants life Meristematic tissue – undifferentiated cell that are produced by the meristems Apical meristem – increase the length of stems and roots

28 Roots Function: anchor the plant and absorb water and dissolved nutrients from the soil 2 main types of roots: Taproot Found mainly in dicots Primary root is long and thick Secondary roots remain small Example: oak and hickory trees Fibrous root No single root grows larger than the rest Help prevent erosion Example: grasses

29 Roots Root structure and growth
Root hairs – tiny cellular projections that increase the surface area through which water can be absorbed Cortex – spongy layer of ground tissue underneath the epidermis Root cap – protects the root as it forces its way through the soil


31 Stems 3 important functions: Nodes – point of leaf attachment
Produce leaves, branches, and flowers Hold leaves up to the sunlight Transport substances between roots and leaves Nodes – point of leaf attachment Internodes – regions between nodes Buds – contain undeveloped tissue that can produce new stems and leaves


33 Stems Monocot and Dicot Stems

34 Stems Growth of stems: Primary growth – growth in which the plant increase in height; occurs at the apical meristems; takes place in all seed plants Secondary growth – growth in which the stem increases in width; occurs in the lateral meristem Vascular cambium – produces vascular tissue Cork cambium – produces the outer covering of stems (bark)

35 Leaves Structure is optimal for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis Blade – thin, flattened sections of the leaf that is attached to the stem by a thin stalk (petiole) Functions: Photosynthesis, transpiration, and gas exchange

36 Leaves Transpiration – the loss of water through the leaves
Gas exchange occurs in the Stomata – porelike opening in the underside of the leaf Each stoma consist of two guard cells that control the opening and closing of the stomata


38 Transport in Plants Capillary action
The tendency of water to rise in a thin tube Adhesion – is the attraction between unlike molecules; property that causes capillary action

39 Plant Hormones Auxins – stimulate cell elongation
Cytokinins – stimulate cell division (growth) Gibberellins – produce dramatic increases in size in the stems and fruit Ethylene – stimulates fruits to ripen

40 Plant Responses Tropisms – plant responses to external stimuli
Gravitropism – plant responses to the forces of gravity Phototropism – tendency of a plant to grow toward light Thigmotropism – response of plants to touch

41 Plant Adapted for Specific Habitats
Xerophytes – plants that live in the desert biome Epiphytes – plants that are not rooted in soil but grow directly on other plants

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