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Kingdom Plantae Chapters 22-25. What Plants Need to Survive Minerals, gas exchange, and movement of materials alternation of generations—one generation.

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Presentation on theme: "Kingdom Plantae Chapters 22-25. What Plants Need to Survive Minerals, gas exchange, and movement of materials alternation of generations—one generation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Kingdom Plantae Chapters 22-25

2 What Plants Need to Survive Minerals, gas exchange, and movement of materials alternation of generations—one generation produces spores and other produces gametes

3 Plants evolved from ancestors of modern algae When moved onto land had to evolve structures to acquire, transport, and conserve water. Also had to be able to reproduce sexually

4 Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Mosses and their relatives Green algae ancestor Flowers; Seeds Enclosed in Fruit Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue Evolution of Plants

5 Flowering plants 235,000 species Cone-bearing plants 760 species Ferns and their relatives 11,000 species Mosses and their relatives 15,600 species Diversity of Plants

6 Nonvascular Plants/ Bryophytes ex-mosses, hornworts, liverworts rhizoids-present instead of true roots --anchor plants to ground AND absorb water and minerals from soil by osmosis---no transport system for moving water and minerals. low-growing, found in moist and shaded areas can tolerate harsh environments

7 Vascular Plants: Ferns, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms 1.specialized vascular tissues to transport water, minerals, and nutrients—two types Phloem—conducts sugars away from leaves and stems Xylem---transport water and minerals from roots to other parts of plant

8 2. Leaf-structure that carries out most photosynthesis -contains vascular tissue in the form of veins 3. cuticle-waxy protective covering on leaves and stems --impermeable to water and gases required by plant

9 4. Stomata-openings in cuticle that allow for gas exchange and transpiration (evaporation of water)

10 5. Guard cells-border each stomate and control its size by expanding and contracting at proper times. Guard Cells Open StomateClosed Stomate

11 6. Roots-organ that absorbs water and minerals from soil, transports them to stem, & anchors plant into ground. actively growing portion of root is covered by a root cap root hairs-increase the surface area for water and nutrient uptake

12 Two main types of roots Taproot-large central root Fibrous roots-roots all about the same size

13 7. Stem-structural support for upright growth and transport of materials Types of stems 1.Herbaceous-flexible, soft, usually green 2. Woody-stiff, nongreen, contain layers of wood.

14 Seedless Vascular Plants ex-ferns, horsetails, clubmosses reproduce asexually by forming spores on underside of leaves --spores found in sporangia Next phase, Sexual reproduction, requires water --sperm swim to eggs highly divided leaves called fronds

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16 Seed Plants Adaptations that allow plants to reproduce without water 1. Flowers or cones -gametes grow within these 2. Transfer of sperm by pollination 3. Seeds that house embryo

17 Seed-contains zygote/embryo, food supply (endosperm), and protective coat (seed coat) to prevent drying out Seed coat embryo Food supply

18 Seeds Continued Allow offspring of plants to be dispersed to new locations-by wind, water, animals dormant stage of plant life cycle germination-early growth stage of plant embryo--occurs when conditions are right for growth (moisture and temperature)

19 Pollen contains the male gamete (sperm) pollination-pollen grain is carried to egg -by 1. Wind 2. Water 3. Animals

20 Gymnosperms gymnos=naked sperma=seed First group to have seeds most gymnosperms are conifers- seeds are produced in cones -ex-cedar, cypress, pine, & spruce

21 Needle-like leaves --shape is an adaptation to reduce surface area over which water is lost to evaporation female and male cones—most are wind pollinated where pollen is carried by wind from male cone to female cone adapted to cold climates-thick cuticle retain leaves year-round=evergreen

22 Angiosperms Flowering plants seed found within fruit Flower-reproductive structure brightly colored or heavily scented to attract pollinators that carry pollen from one flower to another -more direct than wind pollination

23 Flower Parts Sepals-modified leaves -male flower part-Stamen Filament Pg. 612 Anther Carpel-female flower part Petal ovule ovary stigma style

24 Stamen-male made of 1. Anther-pollen-containing sac 2. Filament-stalk of stamen Pistil/Carpel-female made of 1. Style-stalk of pistil 2. Stigma-sticky tip of style 3. Ovary-swollen lower portion -ovules-inside ovary

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26 Fruit made of ovary with thickened walls that contains one or more seeds and other flower parts adaptation for seed dispersal -when animals eat fruit and then defecate, seeds are passed -THIS IS THE REASON FRUITS EXIST many vegetables are fruits

27 Cotyledon-seed leaves of embryo store food

28 Plant adaptations aquatic carnivorous halophytes desert plants epiphytes chemical defenses Uses of Plants food, medicine, wood, rubber, clothing, etc.

29 Pitcher plants Sundew Venus Fly trap Carnivorous plants


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