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Ch 29/30 - The Making of a Land Plant I. The Problems of being a “land” plantland In Water (the easy life)On Land (the hard life)Land Plant Adaptations.

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Presentation on theme: "Ch 29/30 - The Making of a Land Plant I. The Problems of being a “land” plantland In Water (the easy life)On Land (the hard life)Land Plant Adaptations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch 29/30 - The Making of a Land Plant I. The Problems of being a “land” plantland In Water (the easy life)On Land (the hard life)Land Plant Adaptations 1. Supportive 1. Non-Supportive Cell walls with lignin, xylem, stems, turgor 2. Retains water 2. Lose waterVascular tissueVascular tissue, roots, cuticle, stomata 3. Reproduction easy 3. Reproduction hard a. Sperm swim in water b. Dispersal easy (float) c. Eggs will not dry out a. Sperm can not fly b. Young not dispersed c. Embryos need protection Pollen, flowers, fruit, sporopollenin, seed coats, protected embryo II. The Characteristics of Land Plant A. Growth at tips - apical meristemsapical meristems B.Multicellular with dependent embryos retained in female part of plant “embryophytes”“embryophytes” 1. Placental transfer cells (higher plants) 2. Foot (Lower plants) C. Walled spores made in sporangia composed of sporopollenin D. Multicelluar gametangia (antheridia & archegonia)(antheridia & archegonia) E. Alternation of Generation Multicellular sporophytes makes spores that grow into a multicellular gametopyte that makes gametes

2 Highlights of Plant Evolution BRYOPHYTES LYCOPHYTESMONILOPHYTESGYMNO & ANGIOSPERMS (charophytes )

3 Alternation of Generation Sporophyte Spores Gametophyte Multicellular Gametes Zygote Structures Zygote Gametes Spores Gametophyte Sporophyte Ploidy Diploid (2n) Haploid (n) (n) (2n) Process Mitosis Meiosis Fertilization Meiosis Mitosis Slide 14

4 Protected Embryos of the “Embryophytes” Embryo of a liverwort Embryo of a seed Protective Coat Placental transfer cells Foot Slide 1

5 Vascular Tissue Stem Xylem and Phloem in a vascular bundle Slide 1

6 Plant Clade Relationships Slide 1

7 The Bryophytes MossHornwort Leafy LiverwortThallose Liverwort Slide 2

8 Root Tip Leaf Bud Apical Meristem Tissue Slide 1

9 Phylum Lycophyta Club “Moss” Spore producing strobuli Lycopodium Slide 2

10 Leaf Evolution Non-Vascular ‘Scale” Microphylls Vascular Microphyll Scales Dichotomous branchingTissues fill in branching BranchingMegaphylls LYCOPHYTES All other vascular plants

11 Phylum Monilophytes - The Ferns

12 Phylum Monilophyte - The Horsetails Spore producing strobuli Equisetum “Scouring rushes”

13 Phylum Monilophyte - The Whisk Ferns Sporangia Dichotomous Branching Slide 2

14 Relationships of Sporophytes and Gametophytes MossFern Flowering Plant Slide 2

15 Types of Gymnosperms Ginkgo Cypress Cycad Juniper Sequoia Fir Yew Bristlecone pine Slide 2

16 Types of Angiosperms SLIDE 2

17 Life Cycle of a Conifer Slide 3

18 Life Cycle of a Flowering Plant Slide 2

19 The Evolutionary Relationships of the Plant Kingdom Slide 2

20 Moss Life Cycle Slide 2

21 Fern Life Cycle Slide 2

22 Moss AntheridiaMoss Archegonia Antheridia Archegonia Egg Cell Sperm Cells Slide 1

23 Fern Gametophyte with Developing Sporophyte Archegonium Antheridium Rhizoids (Why are they called “rhizoids” and not roots) Slide 3

24 Lycopodium Gametophyte Slide 3

25 Horsetail Gametophtye

26 Slide 3 Whisk Fern Gametophtye Why is it brown and not green?

27 What is the difference between a spore and a seed? Spores Seed 1.Unicellular 1. Multicellular 2.Haploid 2. Diploid 3.Asexual reproduction 3. Sexual reproduction 4.First cell of gametophyte 4. Part of the Sporophyte generation 5. Formed by meiosis (usually) 5. Formed by fertilization after mitosis Slide 1

28 Spores and Sporopollenin Slide 1

29 Sporophylls sporangia, forming cone like strobuli antheridium, archegonium, BryophytesLycophytesPterophytesGymnospermsAngiosperms Examples Vascular Tissue Alternation of Generation Sporophyte Morphology Gametophyte Morphology Spore Type Leaf Morphology Reproductive Structures Mosses liverworts hornworts No vascular tissue Gametophyte dominant, sporophyte dependent GametophoresGametophores, protonema, rhizoids, thallus Chpt 29Chpt 30Lower Plants “Seedless” Higher Plants “Seeds” Sporangium, capsule, stalk, foot, calyptra, peristome Homosporous No true leaves Antheridium, archegonium, sporangia Club Mosses CMG Xylem & phloem only in sporophyte Sporophyte dominant independent gametophyte Upright & horizontal stems, microphylls, sporophylls, strobuli IndependentIndependent, either photosynthetic, or underground heterotrophic Homosporous Microphylls Wisk ferns, Wisk ferns, WGWG Xylem & phloem only in sporophyte Sporophyte dominant independent gametophyte Fronds, Rhizomes, Roots, fiddleheads Heart – shaped,, photosynthetic archegonia & antheridiaHeart – shaped,, photosynthetic archegonia & antheridia or underground heterotrophicheterotrophic Megaphylls, (fronds) Sporangia, sori, sporophyll antheridium, archegonium, Homosporous Leaves, stems, roots, cones “Conifers” pines, firs, yews, cypress cycads, ginkos, junipers Xylem / Phloem, Gametophyte none Sporophyte with dependent gametophyte Sporophyte with dependent gametophyte Xylem / Phloem, Gametophyte none Leaves, stems, roots, flowers, All flowering plants Male- pollen Female- “surviving megaspore” Heterosporous Microspore-male Megaspore-female Flowers, seeds, fruit Needle-like Megaphylls Cones, (male & female) “naked seeds”, pollen Anth’s & Arch’s Heterosporous Microspore-male Megaspore-female Broad leaf Megaphylls Male- pollen Female- embryo sac The Plant Kingdom Horse tailsHorse tails HTGHTG Ferns,

30 Sporophylls sporangia, forming cone like strobuli antheridium, archegonium, BryophytesLycophytesPterophytesGymnospermsAngiosperms Examples Vascular Tissue Alternation of Generation Sporophyte Morphology Gametophyte Morphology Spore Type Leaf Morphology Reproductive Structures Mosses liverworts hornworts No vascular tissue Gametophyte dominant, sporophyte dependent GametophoresGametophores, protonema, rhizoids, thallus Chpt 29Chpt 30Lower Plants “Seedless” Higher Plants “SeedsHigher Plants “Seeds” Sporangium, capsule, stalk, foot, calyptra, peristome Homosporous No true leaves Antheridium, archegonium, sporangia Club Mosses CMG Xylem & phloem only in sporophyte Sporophyte dominant independent gametophyte Upright & horizontal stems, microphylls, sporophylls, strobuli IndependentIndependent, either photosynthetic, or underground heterotrophic Homosporous Microphylls Wisk ferns, Wisk ferns, WGWG Xylem & phloem only in sporophyte Sporophyte dominant independent gametophyte Fronds, Rhizomes, Roots, fiddleheads Heart – shaped,, photosynthetic archegonia & antheridiaHeart – shaped,, photosynthetic archegonia & antheridia or underground heterotrophicheterotrophic Megaphylls, (fronds) Sporangia, sori, sporophyll antheridium, archegonium, Homosporous Leaves, stems, roots, cones “Conifers” pines, firs, yews, cypress cycads, ginkos, junipers Xylem / Phloem, Gametophyte none Sporophyte with dependent gametophyte Sporophyte with dependent gametophyte Xylem / Phloem, Gametophyte none Leaves, stems, roots, flowers, All flowering plants Male- pollen Female- “surviving megaspore” Heterosporous Microspore-male Megaspore-female Flowers, seeds, fruit Needle-like Megaphylls Cones, (male & female) “naked seeds”, pollen Anth’s & Arch’s Heterosporous Microspore-male Megaspore-female Broad leaf Megaphylls Male- pollen Female- embryo sac The Plant Kingdom Horse tailsHorse tails HTGHTG Ferns,


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