Presentation on theme: "The Fungi Kingdom Mycology - the study of fungi fungi - plural"— Presentation transcript:
1The Fungi Kingdom Mycology - the study of fungi fungi - plural fungus - singular4 Main Characteristics of Fungi1) fungi are eukaryoticthey have a nuclei & mitochondria2) they are heterotrophsthey depend on other organisms for food3) they are multicellular4) they cannot move on their own
2The Fungi Kingdom 4 Reasons Fungi Are Different From Plants 1) fungi lack chlorophyll2) fungi are not photosyntheticSaprophyte-feeds on dead/decaying organismscannot produce their own foodmost are saprophytessome are parasites3) they never reproduce by seeds4) most fungi have cell walls made of chitin…Plant cell walls are made ofcellulose
3The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi: network of thin thread-like structures (filaments) that form the “body” of fungusHyphae –hypha - singularhyphae - pluralhyphae contain cytoplasmhyphae grow and branch until they cover and digest the food source (upon which the fungi is growing).
4The Fungi Kingdom Mycelium - a mass of hyphae mycelia - plural The mycelium is usually hidden in the soil, in wood, or another food sourceSome hyphae may be divided by septa.mycelium.htmlA mycelium may fill a single ant, or cover many acres
5What are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us? The Fungi KingdomWhat are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us?The part of the fungus that we see is only the “fruit” of the organismThe ‘living’ body of the fungus is a mycelium
6The Fungi Kingdom Fungi Reproduction: 1. Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.2. Most fungi reproduce by using spores (asexual)3. Fungi spores are microscopic.EX: Mushrooms & puffballs release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of sporesReproduction is classified according to:1) the way they form the spores2) the shape of the structure in which spores are made
7Asexual reproduction – production of various types of spores *Sporangiophores- upright stalk with an enclosed sac ( bread mold)*Conidia - upright stalk with no enclosed sac (penicillin)*Fragmentation – hyphae dry out and shatter releasing individual cells that act like spores (athlete’s foot)*Budding – part of a yeast cell pinches itself off to produce small offspring
8Sexual reproduction*Hyphae of different mating types fuse and give rise to a specialized structure that produces spores (diploid)*Most fungi are haploid throughout most of their life cycleWhen environmental conditions are favorable, asexual reproduction occurs rapidly. When unfavorable conditions stress the organism, sexual reproduction occurs and the offspring have an increased likelihood that they will be better suited for the environment.
9The Fungi Kingdom 3 main Phyla 1. Phylum Zygomycota (Common molds) Sporangium fungi reproduces by spores in the sporangia.Sporangia- structures found on the tips of hyphae that make sporesSpraying with bluevitriolEx: Bread MoldBread mold produces spores in sporangia that stick up above the bread
10The hyphae that anchor the mold to the surface are called rhizoids. Digestive enzymes produced by rhizoids break down the bread to release nutrients.Other hyphae, called stolons grow across the surface of the bread (horizontally).
112. Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gillsOne mushroom may produce 1 billion sporesSome are edible, some are toxicExamples: Mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, andshelf fungiMost elaborate life cycle of all the fungi
12The spore bearing structure of basidiomycetes is an above- ground structure called abasidiocarp. Mushrooms arebasidiocarps. The basidiocarpconsists of a stem called a stalkand a flattened top known as a cap.fungi.htm
13The fruiting bodies of a basidiomycete form a ring in a meadow, commonly called "fairy ring.” The body of this fungus, its mycelium, is underground and grows outward in a circle. As it grows, the mycelium depletes the soil of nitrogen, causing the mycelia to grow away from the center, leading to the "fairy ring" of fruiting bodies where there is adequate soil nitrogen.
17Examples of Basidiomycetes Earth starsToadstoolDeath cap
18Basidiomycetes usually reproduce sexually by means of a fruiting body, also called amushroom.Use the book, page 531, Figure 26-5Draw and label the figure. List the steps 1-6from the paragraph above.
193. Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi) Ascomycetes produce 2 kinds of spores:1. Asexual spores called conidia.2. Ascospores are produced by sexualreproduction. Ascospores develop insidesacs called ascus.Ex. Yeast, powdery mildews, truffles, andmorels*Saccharomycetes cerecisiae is the scientificname for a yeast that is used to make breaddough rise for bakers. It ferments grapesinto wine and grain into beer.
20Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi) *Yeast ferment sugar to ethanol and carbondioxide.*Yeast is also used in the commercialproduction of some vitamins and some human therapeutic proteins.*The fungal partner in most lichens is anascomycete.Lichen – symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi
27Where do lichens belong in the classification of living organisms? * Lichens are dual organisms, so they are difficult to place in a classification.* They represent symbiotic (mutualistic) relationships between fungi and green algae, fungi and cyanobacteria, or fungi and both.* The fungus is the dominant physical component of the lichen, and lichens are usually classified with the fungi.* Nevertheless, the association appears to have originated through fungi parasitizing algae and/or cyanobacteria.
28Special Characteristics of Lichens -they are pioneers-they produce acid to dissolve rocks-they don’t tolerate sulphur-dioxide in the air-as they die massively in case of air pollution,they are indicators of it.
29Importance of Fungi1. Many of them live in mutualism with the roots of trees.They can substitute root hairs as in the case of pine trees.2. They can be decomposers.3. They can cause diseases to plants, to animals or even humans.They can be edible or poisonous.They can be useful for the distilling and pharmaceuticalindustry.They help in the process of making breads, cheeses,and soy products like miso, tofu, tempeh, and soysauces.