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The Fungi Kingdom Mycology - the study of fungi fungi - plural

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1 The Fungi Kingdom Mycology - the study of fungi fungi - plural
fungus - singular 4 Main Characteristics of Fungi 1) fungi are eukaryotic they have a nuclei & mitochondria 2) they are heterotrophs they depend on other organisms for food 3) they are multicellular 4) they cannot move on their own

2 The Fungi Kingdom 4 Reasons Fungi Are Different From Plants
1) fungi lack chlorophyll 2) fungi are not photosynthetic Saprophyte-feeds on dead/decaying organisms cannot produce their own food most are saprophytes some are parasites 3) they never reproduce by seeds 4) most fungi have cell walls made of chitin… Plant cell walls are made of cellulose

3 The Fungi Kingdom Parts of fungi:
network of thin thread-like structures (filaments) that form the “body” of fungus Hyphae – hypha - singular hyphae - plural hyphae contain cytoplasm hyphae grow and branch until they cover and digest the food source (upon which the fungi is growing).

4 The Fungi Kingdom Mycelium - a mass of hyphae mycelia - plural
The mycelium is usually hidden in the soil, in wood, or another food source Some hyphae may be divided by septa. mycelium.html A mycelium may fill a single ant, or cover many acres

5 What are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us?
The Fungi Kingdom What are we looking at when we see a… fungus-among-us? The part of the fungus that we see is only the “fruit” of the organism The ‘living’ body of the fungus is a mycelium

6 The Fungi Kingdom Fungi Reproduction:
1. Most fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually. 2. Most fungi reproduce by using spores (asexual) 3. Fungi spores are microscopic. EX: Mushrooms & puffballs release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores Reproduction is classified according to: 1) the way they form the spores 2) the shape of the structure in which spores are made

7 Asexual reproduction – production of various types of spores
*Sporangiophores- upright stalk with an enclosed sac ( bread mold) *Conidia - upright stalk with no enclosed sac (penicillin) *Fragmentation – hyphae dry out and shatter releasing individual cells that act like spores (athlete’s foot) *Budding – part of a yeast cell pinches itself off to produce small offspring

8 Sexual reproduction *Hyphae of different mating types fuse and give rise to a specialized structure that produces spores (diploid) *Most fungi are haploid throughout most of their life cycle When environmental conditions are favorable, asexual reproduction occurs rapidly. When unfavorable conditions stress the organism, sexual reproduction occurs and the offspring have an increased likelihood that they will be better suited for the environment.

9 The Fungi Kingdom 3 main Phyla 1. Phylum Zygomycota (Common molds)
Sporangium fungi reproduces by spores in the sporangia. Sporangia- structures found on the tips of hyphae that make spores Spraying with blue vitriol Ex: Bread Mold Bread mold produces spores in sporangia that stick up above the bread

10 The hyphae that anchor the mold to
the surface are called rhizoids. Digestive enzymes produced by rhizoids break down the bread to release nutrients. Other hyphae, called stolons grow across the surface of the bread (horizontally).

11 2. Phylum Basidiomycota – Club Fungi
Gets name from specialized reproduction structure resembling a club, called basidium – found on the underside of mushroom cap in the gills One mushroom may produce 1 billion spores Some are edible, some are toxic Examples: Mushrooms, puffballs, rusts, and shelf fungi Most elaborate life cycle of all the fungi

12 The spore bearing structure of basidiomycetes is an above-
ground structure called a basidiocarp. Mushrooms are basidiocarps. The basidiocarp consists of a stem called a stalk and a flattened top known as a cap. fungi.htm

13 The fruiting bodies of a basidiomycete form a ring in a meadow, commonly called "fairy ring.” The body of this fungus, its mycelium, is underground and grows outward in a circle. As it grows, the mycelium depletes the soil of nitrogen, causing the mycelia to grow away from the center, leading to the "fairy ring" of fruiting bodies where there is adequate soil nitrogen.

14 Examples of Basidiomycetes

15 Examples of Basidiomycetes
Shelf or bracket fungi

16 Examples of Basidiomycetes

17 Examples of Basidiomycetes
Earth stars Toadstool Death cap

18 Basidiomycetes usually reproduce sexually
by means of a fruiting body, also called a mushroom. Use the book, page 531, Figure 26-5 Draw and label the figure. List the steps 1-6 from the paragraph above.

19 3. Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi)
Ascomycetes produce 2 kinds of spores: 1. Asexual spores called conidia. 2. Ascospores are produced by sexual reproduction. Ascospores develop inside sacs called ascus. Ex. Yeast, powdery mildews, truffles, and morels *Saccharomycetes cerecisiae is the scientific name for a yeast that is used to make bread dough rise for bakers. It ferments grapes into wine and grain into beer.

20 Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi)
*Yeast ferment sugar to ethanol and carbon dioxide. *Yeast is also used in the commercial production of some vitamins and some human therapeutic proteins. *The fungal partner in most lichens is an ascomycete. Lichen – symbiotic relationship between algae and fungi

21 Truffle- a delicacy

22 Morel- a delicacy

23 Penicillium is a genus of ascomycete fungi
where we get the antibiotic penicillin.

24 Phylum Ascomycota (sac fungi)
Yeast Sir Alexander Flemming- Accidently discovered penicillin. Yeast cells go through budding.

25 Lichens

26 Lichens

27 Where do lichens belong in the classification of living organisms?
* Lichens are dual organisms, so they are difficult to place in a classification. * They represent symbiotic (mutualistic) relationships between fungi and green algae, fungi and cyanobacteria, or fungi and both. * The fungus is the dominant physical component of the lichen, and lichens are usually classified with the fungi. * Nevertheless, the association appears to have originated through fungi parasitizing algae and/or cyanobacteria.

28 Special Characteristics of Lichens
-they are pioneers -they produce acid to dissolve rocks -they don’t tolerate sulphur-dioxide in the air -as they die massively in case of air pollution, they are indicators of it.

29 Importance of Fungi 1. Many of them live in mutualism with the roots of trees. They can substitute root hairs as in the case of pine trees. 2. They can be decomposers. 3. They can cause diseases to plants, to animals or even humans. They can be edible or poisonous. They can be useful for the distilling and pharmaceutical industry. They help in the process of making breads, cheeses, and soy products like miso, tofu, tempeh, and soy sauces.

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