Presentation on theme: "Exploring Mo17 maize in a way that explains today’s genetics Larry Morris, Jr. 1,2* ; Carolyn Lawrence 1,3,4 ; and Candice A.C. Gardner 1,3,5. 1.) Iowa."— Presentation transcript:
Exploring Mo17 maize in a way that explains today’s genetics Larry Morris, Jr. 1,2* ; Carolyn Lawrence 1,3,4 ; and Candice A.C. Gardner 1,3,5. 1.) Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011; 2.) University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87102; 3.) USDA-ARS, PIRU, Ames, IA 50011; 4.) USDA-ARS, CICGRU, Ames, IA Materials and Methods Books and Articles were gathered from personal communication and Interviews. Books used with this research are: Second Edition Specialty Corns by Arnal Hallauer, Breeding Field Crops Second Edition by John Milton Poehlman, and Compilation of North America Maize Breeding Germplasm by J.T Gerdes, C.F. Behr, J.G. Coors and W.F. Tracy from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Personal communication: 1.) Marty Sachs 2.) Mike Lee 3.) Carolyn Lawrence Interviews: 1.) Arnal Hallauer Gordon Hopkins x Little Yellow Corn Reid Yellow Dent Gold Mine Stiff Stalk Synthetic A USDA corn mixed with other varieties Krug (Landraces) Lancaster Surecrop (from Noah Hershey) C.I (Female) x C103 (Male) Mo17 (Dr. Zuber Stock) A, Hallauer C.Martin Ed Coe L. Darrah Mike Lee Goodman/Buckler IBM RI Parent Hake Lab Reference Jugenheimer, Robert. Corn Improvement, Seed Production, and Uses. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Kiesselbach, T.A. The Structure and Reproduction of Corn. Cold Spring Harbor, New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Poehlman, John. Breeding Field Crops Second Edition. Westport, Connecticut: AVI Publishing Company, INC., Troyer, Arnel R. Hallauer. Second Edition Specialty Corns. Library of Congress Card Number : CRC Press LLC, Gerdes, Behr, Coors, W.F. Tracy. Compilation of North America Maize Breeding Germplasm. Madison, Wisconsin: Crop Science Society of America, Inc., Acknowledgments Conclusion In conclusion, after genetically analyzing Mo17 in hake’s lab, samples from the original sources of Zuber stock was gathered so it could be sequenced and compared to one another. We found them to be similar which is good because now it is known that whatever endoplasm Zuber sent out is the complete d Mol7 hybrid line. Here is a good example of the impact the evolution era had with helping us better understand how to identify and compare traces species. As a result of those endeavors explored by the evolution era, genetic sequencing now not only provides the ability for us to trace linage, but also to trace heterosis among different maize populations, which is important for the future. Introduction Evolution Era During the early 1900’s breeders started to inbreed maize. Gregor Mendel studied inheritance and developed principles that collectively led to the science of genetics and the scientific fundamentals used by today’s plant breeders (1979). Soon after (1904), Dr. G.H. Shull and Dr. Edward East started to inbreed maize and found an important aspect. Shull developed a single cross hybrid of two inbred parent maize lines. What Shull noticed about this particular cross is its enhanced performance over open pollinated maize or either inbred parent; hybrid productivity exceeded that of open pollinated varieties. Dr. Donald F. Jones (1918) found out more about the functioning of hybrid crossing. The earliest inbred lines were very unproductive, and produced very seeds (progeny). It was difficult to maintain the parent lines. In order to obtain large numbers of hybrid progeny, he created the double cross, (the subsequent cross between two single crosses). Hybrid breeding was the basis for developing modern commercial corn and can be given the major credit for maize becoming the number one crop in the world. As a result Mo17 was created and became one of the decades most used parent for producing maize in America. Abstract Maize is the most abundant crop produced worldwide. Maize (corn) is amazing plant that contributes to society in many ways. For example, corn contributes to the bio-fuels that serve as an alternative fuel for vehicles, corn syrup is used in many snacks we eat, and corn is a feed for livestock. There are several major endosperm types of maize, including flint, floury, dent, sweet and popcorn. Breeders have the responsibility of providing corn for the world. Because the genome of a particular line designated Missouri 17 (Mo17) is currently being sequenced, its derivation is the focus of this work. Reviewed here is brief history of the evolution of maize and the lineage of Mo17. Discussion The following is a tree of lineage and background of Mo17. The top half is the pedigree of Mo17. All but one parent of Mo17 is Non Stiff Stalk (NSS) inbred line. Highlighted by a blue outline Reid Yellow Dent is the only parent that is Stiff Stalk Synthetic (SSS). Being a hybrid Mo17 is deprived by these SSS and NSS. These parents were distinguished by the practice of heterosis. Heterosis is the result offspring of two parents. The offspring takes better traits and performances than their parents. The bottom half explains where endoplasms were distributed. When Mo17 was sequenced by hake’s lab their source of endoplasm was trace back to A. Hallauer who got it from the original source Zuber (highlighted green). The problem was when Zuber gave Hallauer endoplasm when Zuber was not completely finish developing Mo17. From there Hallauer pasted on the endoplasm to Mike Lee’s and Hake’s lab for genetic sequencing. When genetic sequencing was complete in Hake’s lab they found out that the Mo17 endoplasm they received from Zuber was one that was assumingly the complete Mo17. With the sequencing finish experiments were run to compare the sequenced Mo17 with other Mo17 from other labs. When comparing was finish they found out that endoplasm in hake’s and Zuber’s lab shared common similarities, which is good because now they can assume that all other labs have the same endoplasm. So by using genetic sequencing they were able to trace and gather Mo17 endoplasm to be stored in one database. The conclusion will be about how genetics gathered Mo17 endoplasm into one source.