Presentation on theme: "Trends for the energetic use of biomass Prof. Dr. Herbert Spindler Germany Fördergemeinschaft Ökologische Stoffverwertung e.V., Halle/Saale (FOEST) www.FOEST-Halle.de."— Presentation transcript:
Trends for the energetic use of biomass Prof. Dr. Herbert Spindler Germany Fördergemeinschaft Ökologische Stoffverwertung e.V., Halle/Saale (FOEST) www.FOEST-Halle.de
Content 0. Introduction 1.Use of biomass 2.Parameters of utilization 3.Importance of gasification 4.Future Fuels 5.Outlook
Background Against the background of the shortage of fossil fuels, which becomes ever more visible, the climate change, and the demand for sustainable development, the possibilities and limits of an energetic use of biomass are discussed. Because of the rapid increase of energy prices the bio-energy will become competitive in a short time. The gasification of biomass is to be seen as especially profitable, because the gasification technology is considered the basis of extremely pure liquid fuels, which are able to fulfil all waste gas norms. Therefore the biomass industry is an important support for the agriculture and the forestry.
Energetic Use of Renewable Raw Material Classification by technical state Primary processPrimary productUtilization combustion steam, heatelectricity, heating gasification combustion gaselectricity, syntheses fermentationbiogaselectricity, useable gas liquefactionbio-alcohol,motor drive (chemical & mechanical)bio-diesel, oilschemistry pyrolysis gases, liquids, cokewide range
Evaluation Combustion processes ( λ > 1 ) are controlled best. Large plants available. Efficiency factors relatively low due to thermodynamical reasons, limits reached. Gasification processes (thermal, 0 10 MW) fluid bed gasifiers are of advantage. High utilization potential. Fermentation (methane fermentation, microbial) is only partially an energetic utilization process (biogas), which originally served disinfection. Remarkable technical state, but compared to gasification small speed of reaction, low efficiency factor, great reactor volume required, and after-care of fermented liquid manure necessary. Liquefaction (alcoholic fermentation, extraction, compression) to bio-fuels (ethanol, RME) is facing technical and economical difficulties, but is funded by the EU. Mixing the products with conventional fuels is also tested. Pyrolysis (λ = 0) to a mixture of gas, liquid and low-temperature coke in very differently designed procedures as „slow“, „fast” and „flash“ pyrolysis. The varying products are processed in very different ways. Energetic Use of Renewable Raw Material
Process and Configuration Energy (External effects will not be taken into account) The expenditure of energy E for a target energy E T is E = E T + E W + E O + Δ E C = E P + Δ E C E T = Target energy: is the desired energy that is obtained from the energy input. E W = Lost energy, which is used up in addition E O = Operation energy, which has to be added for the flow of operation E P = E T + E W, Process energy: total energy that is needed so that the process can actually run at a given configuration. η s = E T /E P, specific efficiency factor, with which the conversion of process energy into target energy takes place (plant efficiency factor). If the process runs in stages 1 to n, then = η 1 *η 2... η n < 1. E C = Configuration Energy: cumulative energy needed to set the material frame for the energetic process and to run this process. ΔE C = Proportion of E C, that corresponds with the time in which E T is obtained.
Down draft fixed-bed gasifier plant for 560 kW el in „Civitas Nova“, Wiener Neustadt, Austria Betreiber: Energieversorgung Niederösterreich Errichtung und Planung: IUT GmbH, Harrislee Wissenschaftliche Begleitung (RENET AUSTRIA): TU-Wien, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hofbauer Wiss. Kooperationspartner: GNS GmbH,Halle/S.
Parameters for the Economy of Gasification Model for an electricity-based gasification of biomass Following parameters are introduced: C E = specific energy production costs in Euro/kWh C e = specific electricity production costs in Euro/kWh It is C e = C E / pl, with pl = electrical plant efficiency factor = G mot G = efficiency factor of gasification G = H uG v G /H uB m B = H uG a/H uB a = v G /m B = gas yield mot = motor-generator efficiency factor C P = C E /h r = specific costs of power in Euro/kW per operating hour = BC/FP = basic costs / fuel power BC= CC + OC + MC = costs of capital+ operating costs+ costs of materials FP = H uB m B = Heat value of fuel in MJ/kg by flow rate in kg/h MC contain costs for fuels (natural wood, wood waste, stalk materials straw dung, sewage sludge), auxiliary materials (catalysts, absorbents, solvents, filters), waste materials (ashes, waste water, waste gas)
C e small conventional C e = ca. 2 Ct/kWh (coal, nuclear electricity) At present time gasification C e = 10 – 20 Ct/kWh (Fichtner) BC minimal MC small, 0 if possible m B high FP high (at a given CC, OC, hence a given plant) Calorific value of gas H uG so far 4...5 MJ/Nm³; aim: H uG > 10 MJ/Nm H uB in MJ/kg (TS) = 18,5 wood, 16...17 stalk materials, 7...10 sewage sludge el 0,4 so far el = 0,15....0,2; V = 0,5...0.7; mot = 0,25...0,3 h r (max.) = 8766 h/a (calendar year)h r (norm.)< 7500 h/a Final aim: C e < 5 Ct/kWh Parameters for the Economy of Gasification Aims:
Parameters for the Economy of Gasification specific electricity production costs C e = spec. energy production costs (C E ) electr. plant efficiency factor ( pl ) Approach: aim: C E => small G mot = pl => high C E [€/kWh] = spec. costs of power C p [€/kW] operating hours [h] capital, operating, and material costs [€] fuel power [kW] ( = H uB m B ) C p [€/kW] = mot = motor-generator eff. factor (efficient engines, high demands on quality of producer gas) G = efficiency factor of gasification (high gas yield, high calorific value, air number λ minimal actual costs:C e = 0,1 to 0,2 €/kWh (Fichtner) Final aim : C e = 0,05 €/kWh
Electricity Production Costs The specific electricity production costs C e are defined as the sum of the costs (costs of capital + operating costs + costs of materials), which has to be expended to generate one kWh of electricity. Way of GenerationC e in EuroCent/kWh Renewablephoto-voltaic 50 – 60 biomass 10 – 12 wind 5 – 6 water 3 – 5 Conventionalnuclear energy 2 – 3 coal 2 – 3 gas 2 – 3
Utilization of the Product Gas from Thermal Gasification Origin: lean gas with H u = 4 – 12 (biogas 20, natural gas 30) MJ/Nm³ Way 1: Generation of electricity from fuel gas by means of BTPS (block-type thermal power stations) or gas turbines Cold gas efficiency up to 90% achieved, electrical plant efficiency up to 30% with engine efficiency up to 40%. Way 2: Generation of electricity by means of fuel cells, high efficiency is to be anticipated, requires conversion of the deployment components into hydrogen within or outside of the cell, efficiency of the generation of electricity up to 60%, prospectively up to 90% Way 3: Hydrogen economy, e.g. gas driven cars, problem: low energy density of hydrogen. Way 4: modern FT synthesis, requires H 2 :CO = 2 : 1, for basic reaction CO + 2 H 2 = -CH 2 - + H 2 O, highly purified synthesis gases and modern catalysts necessary.
Future Fuels 1. Generation: RME (bio-diesel), ethanol (alcohol additions) MtG (Methanol to Gasoline) 2. Generation: CtL (Coal to Liquid) GtL (Gas to Liquid) BtL (Biomass to Liquid) Reanimation of the Fischer-Tropsch method to produce synthetic fuel („Synfuel“) Steps: Production of synthesis gas (2 H 2, CO) Gas cleanup (dust removal, desulfurization) catalytic high-pressure synthesis (C 20+ -paraffins) Hydroprocessing (naphtha, kerosine, diesel, benzine) Properties of Synfuel: Very clean, high cetane number, non-polluting, but expensive Implementation is dictated by environmental standards/regulations: Only Synfuel will be able to fulfill future EU exhaust gas regulations in terms of emission of particulates, freedom from sulphur, NO x, CO, HC content Development trends for fuels in EU since 2000: based on mineral oil 50 ppm S about 2008: based on mineral oil < 10 ppm S as of about 2010: based on natural gas Synfuel (virtually S-free) as of about 2015: based on biomass Synfuel („Sunfuel“) as of about 2020:Hydrogen regenerative
Outlook The importance of biomass for energetic utilisation will increase. The fuel supply in the future will result at least partly from the utilization of biomass. Biomass will also play an important role as raw material in chemistry. We have already got concepts for bio-refineries. Promising is the connection of biomass with the use of coal The use of biomass will become economical with increasing costs for oil But is remains doubtful whether the main part of the future energy supply will be made up of renewable energy. Therefore, the most important line of future energy supply will be the saving of energy. Already W. Ostwald has postulated the „Energetic imperative“: Do not waste energy, but use it“ (1912)