Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

1 /o/ ~ /oh/ Skewed opposition depending on length Low back mergerIncrease phonetic distance Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh chain shift Canadian Shift.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "1 /o/ ~ /oh/ Skewed opposition depending on length Low back mergerIncrease phonetic distance Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh chain shift Canadian Shift."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 1 /o/ ~ /oh/ Skewed opposition depending on length Low back mergerIncrease phonetic distance Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh chain shift Canadian Shift Back vowel shift Back upglide chain shift Inland North: front /o/ Eastern seaboard: raise /oh/ South: add upglide The Life History of Linguistic Change William Labov, University of Pennsylvania ICHL Montreal August 2007

3 2

4 3 A sequence of linguistic changes Unstable condition AB Unidirectional Bidirectional A’B’ Causally linked Contingent alternatives Triggering event

5 4 Components of a sequence of linguistic changes 1.Triggering events: the first in the chain of causally connected events 2.Governing principles: constraints that determine the unidirectional character of changes 3.Forks in the road: alternate pathways of change that differentiate sister dialects 4.Driving forces: factors that lead to the continued incrementation of the changes 5.Re-analysis: the process that leads to the uniform distribution of the changes across the speech community.

6 5 Two ways of looking at the problems of language change 1.The actuation problem 2.Constraints problem 3.The transition problem 4.The embedding problem 5.The evaluation problem Triggering events Governing principles Forks in the road Driving forces Re-analysis Weinreich, Labov & Herzog 1968 Accounting for changes This presentation Accounting for sequences of changes

7 6 ANAE notation for the word classes of North American English

8 7 ANAE notation aligned with JC Wells’ word classes for American English

9 8 Triggering events

10 9 The Canadian Shift in the vowel system of Marsha M., 24 [1997], Montreal, TS659 backing of /æ/ lowering of /e/ merger of /o/ and /oh

11 10 The Canadian Shift in the vowel system of Hubert B., 17, Toronto, TS798 backing of /æ/ lowering of /e/ merger of /o/ and /oh

12 11 Source: The Atlas of North American English The Canadian Shift: mean values of Canadian Telsur subjects [N=25] compared to all others [N=414].

13 12 The Canadian Shift nested in the Low Back Merger area (ANAE Map 11.7) Low back merger isogloss

14 13 The Canadian Shift 1 2 3

15 14 The low back merger of /o/ and /oh/ in cot and caught, etc. (ANAE Map 9.1) The West Canada W. Pa. E.N.E.

16 15 aw OE ag vocaliza- tion of /g/ ah eah breaking rounding OF au ME av vocaliza- tion of /v/ a+u aN oht denasal- ization o __f,s, T,N length- ening thaw, straw, claw maw, saw, draw fought, taught thought, bought brawn, pawn hawk, laundry applaud, because off, cost, cloth, strong EME lawn, spawn /oh/  The development of /oh/ alC talk, call, all vocaliza- tion of /l/ vocaliza- tion of /x/ wa water, wash round- ing [ç:] mono- phthong- ization [au]

17 16 /o//oh/ cotcaught Dondawn hockhawk stockstalk oddawed codcawed SolSaul odd abilityaudibility... Minimal pairs contrasting /o/ and /oh/

18 17 /o/ /o/ -> /oh/ /oh/ tcot, tot, hot, got, dotcaught. bought, taut, fought dodd, hod, god, sodawed, hawed, gaud, sawed stoss, moss, floss, costsauce, exhaust, caustic zOz, positivecause, clause, hawser, paws ndon, don, pond ondawn, awn, yawn, lawn ldoll, moll, collarall, tall, maul, caller phop, pop, top, sop brob, hobdaub, bauble c& Scotch, botch, watch jlodge, dodge, Roger glog. hog, cog, dogauger, augment, augur, August kstock, hock, clockstalk, hawk, talk f{boff} off, doff, scoff,cough, T {Goth} cloth, moth, S gosh, bosh, tosh D bother z& mbomb, Tom, prom N {ping pong} strong. song, wrong # law, saw, flaw, thaw, claw Contrast of /o/ and /oh/ after tensing of /o/ apicalsapicals

19 18 A linguistic sequence /oh/ Low back merger Canadian Shift e æ oh o OE aw OE au OE ah OE eah OF au OF an OF a+u ME av OE oht ME a (:}u EME ç: ME ç (:}u ~ /o/ Mod E. off, lost, song Unstable condition

20 19 A linguistic sequence 1 /oh/ ~ /o/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Canadian Shift e æ oh o Triggering event Unstable condition

21 20 Governing principles

22 21 Garde’s Principle: Mergers cannot be reversed by linguistic means Herzog’s Corollary: Mergers expand at the expense of distinctions General principles of merger

23 22 A linguistic sequence 1 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Canadian Shift e æ oh o Unidirectional

24 23 In chain shifts, I. Long vowels rise. II. Short nuclei fall. II. Back nuclei shift to the front. --Labov, Yaeger & Steiner 1972 General principles of chain shifting

25 24 In chain shifts, I. Tense nuclei rise along a peripheral track II. Lax nuclei fall along a non-peripheral track General principles of chain shifting

26 25 Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the possibilities that are available from the speech organs; they tend to be as distant from their neighbors as possible while remaining easy to articulate and easy to perceive... Martinet 1955:62 (tr. WL), attributed to de Groot TCLP 1931:121 Martinet on maximal dispersion

27 26 /æ/ /o/ /oh/ A stable distribution of English low vowels: an outlier not recognized as a member of the /æ/ distribution mean F Hz

28 27 /æ/ /o/ /oh/ A stable distribution of English low vowels: an outlier not recognized as a member of the /æ/ distribution mean F Hz

29 28 An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /o/ merged with /oh/ so that the /æ/ outlier affects the central tendency of /æ/, /æ/ /o=oh/ mean F Hz

30 29 The Canadian Shift across subsystems /e/ /æ//o/ /oh/ Short vowels Long and ingliding vowels

31 30 A linguistic sequence 1 /oh/ ~ /o/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Canadian Shift e æ oh o Unidirectional

32 31 Forks in the road

33 32 Forks in the road of the Canadian Shift /e/ /æ//o/ /oh/ / /i/ /u/

34 33 The Pittsburgh Shift in the vowel system of Ken K., 35, TS 258

35 34 The Pittsburgh Shift in a Plotnik display of means of 21 dialects PI = Pittsburgh; WPA = Western Pennsylvania; CA = Canada; IN = Inland North; M = Midland; MA = Mid-Atlantic; PR = Providence; IS = Inland South low back merger lowering of /^/ no backing of /æ/ backing of /æ/ no lowering of /^/,CA

36 35 A linguistic sequence 2 /oh/ ~ /o/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift e æ oh o o Unidirectional Bidirectional

37 36 A linguistic sequence 3 /oh/ ~ /o/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift e æ oh o o unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional

38 37 Unrounding of /o/ in Western New England Boston Burlington RutlandManchester F2(o) < 1300 Hz F2(o) >= 1300 Hz

39 38 The merger of /o/ and /ah/ /oh/ OE aw OE auOE ah OE eah OF au a+u OF an ME av OE oht ME a : u EME ç: ME ç : u off cloth loss lost strong song …. father pa ma spa bra hah calm palm llama pasta taco Scarlatti Rama pajama Obama Bach Iraq ….. half bath past aunt dance ….. /ah/ EME A: ME ç X t salve halve /o/ [A][A]

40 39 A linguistic sequence 3 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift e æ oh o o unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional balm = bomb father = bother

41 40 A linguistic sequence 3 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift e æ oh o o unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional Inland North: fronting of /o, ah/

42 41 Fronting of /o,ah/ in the Inland North (ANAE Map 14.5).

43 42 Ked cud ah codcad cawed The Northern Cities Shift

44 43 The Northern Cities Shift head desk bosses busses block socks mat

45 44 A linguistic sequence /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift Inland North: fronting of /o, ah/ e æ oh o o e æh oh ah unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional

46 45 Raising of /oh/ in the Mid-Atlantic States: Providence to Baltimore Magenta symbols: F1(oh) < 700 Hz

47 46 A linguistic sequence 4 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift Back vowel shift Inland North: front /ah/ Eastern seaboard: raise /oh/ e æ oh o o e æ ah ah(r) oh(r) unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional

48 47 Three areas of resistance to the low back merger (ANAE Map 11.2)

49 48 A linguistic sequence 5 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift Back vowel shift Back upglide chain shift Inland North: front /ah/ Eastern seaboard: raise /oh/ South: add upglide to /oh/ e æ oh o o e æ ah ah(r) oh(r) oh [ç:] awæw unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional round- ing /o/ [ço] [Ao][Ao]

50 49 Merger of /o/ and /oh/ in cot and caught, Don and dawn, hock and hawk

51 50 NCS Back Vowel Shift Back Upglide Shift NCS Alternatives to the low back merger

52 51 NCS Back Vowel Shift Back Upglide Shift Pitts- burgh Shift NCS Low back merger and alternatives to the low back merger Canadidn Shift

53 52 Driving forces

54 53 Source: Eckert 2000 Gender and social category determination of five elements of the Northern City Shift in a Detroit suburban high school æ

55 54 Age *FemaleYears of 25 yrsGenderEducation Raising /æ/ 34* 8.6* /e/-/æ/ reversal 34* 26* /e/-/o/ alignment 112*** /^/-/o/ reversal * Social correlates of four measures of the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]

56 55 Three areas of resistance to the low back merger St. Louis corridor

57 56 The St. Louis corridor along Interstate I-55 Fairbury

58 57 Fronting of /o,ah/ in the Inland North (ANAE Map 14.5). 9 Telsur speakers from No. Illinois 9 Telsur speakers from the St. Louis corridor * * * ** * * * * * * * * * * * * *

59 58 Distribution of NCS measures in No. Illinois and the St. Louis corridor

60 59 A linguistic sequence 5 /oh/ ~ /o/ ~ /ah/ Merge /o/ - -> /oh/ Merge /o/ --> /ah/ Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh Shift Canadian Shift Back vowel shift Back upglide chain shift Inland North: front /ah/ Eastern seaboard: raise /oh/ South: add upglide to /oh/ e æ oh o o e æ ah ah(r) oh(r) oh aw æw unround- ing /o/ Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional Unidirectional Bidirectional round- ing /o/

61 60 The Pittsburgh Shift across subsystems /e/ /æ/ /o/ /oh/ Short vowels Long and ingliding vowels /o,oh/


Download ppt "1 /o/ ~ /oh/ Skewed opposition depending on length Low back mergerIncrease phonetic distance Northern Cities Shift Pittsburgh chain shift Canadian Shift."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google