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Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 141 Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition HORTON MORAN OCHS RAWN SCRIMGEOUR.

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Presentation on theme: "Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 141 Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition HORTON MORAN OCHS RAWN SCRIMGEOUR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 141 Principles of BIOCHEMISTRY Third Edition HORTON MORAN OCHS RAWN SCRIMGEOUR

2 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 142 Chapter 14 - Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation The cheetah, whose capacity for aerobic metabolism makes it one of the fastest animals

3 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Superoxide Anions Superoxide anions (. O 2 - ) (a by-product of oxygen metabolism) can cause cell damage Superoxide dismutase catalyzes the very fast dismutation of 2 superoxide anions 2. O H + H 2 O 2 + O 2 Catalase decomposes the hydrogen peroxide 2 H 2 O 2 2 H 2 O + O 2

4 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 144 Fig 14.1 Coupled electron transport reactions catalyzed by NADPH oxidase Superoxide anions can be formed by an NADPH- dependent enzyme in plasma membranes (via a short electron transport chain shown below) NADPH + 2 O 2 NADP O H + 2 O 2 2. O 2 -

5 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Cytochrome P450 Cyt P450 is a hydroxylase (monooxygenase) that catalyzes the incorporation of an oxygen atom (derived from O 2 ) into an organic molecule Involved in many reactions: hydroxylations, oxidations, epoxidations, dealkylations Xenobiotics (foreign compounds such as drugs, anaesthetics, dyes pesticides) are substrates for cytochrome P450

6 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 146 Eukaryotic cytochrome P450 Cyt P450 is part of a two enzyme sequence that includes a flavoprotein dehydrogenase Dehydrogenase contains both FMN and FAD Overall reaction: hydroxylation of substrate RH RH + O 2 + NADPH + H + ROH + H 2 O + NADP +

7 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 147 Fig 14.2 Mammalian cytochrome P450 is an integral membrane protein Globular heme domain (blue shere) One or two transmembrane peptides

8 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Hydrogenase and Fumarate Reductase Fig 14.3 Sugar fermentation by C. pasteurianum. The transfer of electrons from reduced ferridoxin (Fd red ) to H + is catalyzed by hydrogenase

9 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 149 Fumarate Reductase E. coli can use fumarate as a terminal electron acceptor when growing anaerobically Fumarate reductase reaction is reverse of succinate dehydrogenase reaction Oxidation-reduction enzyme cofactors are aligned in the sequence below: (Q D and Q P are menaquinone molecules) Q D -Q P -[3Fe-4S]-[4Fe-4S]-[2Fe-2S]-FAD

10 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1410 Fig 14.4 Menaquinone (abbreviated Q)

11 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Oxidative Phosphorylation in Mitochondria Reduced coenzymes NADH and QH 2 from: (1) Aerobic oxidation of pyruvate by the citric acid cycle (2) Oxidation of fatty acids and amino acids Oxidative phosphorylation is the process by which NADH and QH 2 are oxidized and ATP is formed

12 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1412 Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (1) Respiratory electron-transport chain (ETC) Series of enzyme complexes embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which oxidize NADH and QH 2. Oxidation energy is used to transport protons creating a proton gradient (2) ATP synthase uses the proton gradient energy to produce ATP

13 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1413 Overview of oxidative phosphorylation Fig 14.5

14 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter The Mitochondrion Final stages of aerobic oxidation of biomolecules in eukaryotes occur in the mitochondrion Site of citric acid cycle and fatty acid oxidation which generate reduced coenzymes Contains electron transport chain to oxidize reduced coenzymes

15 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1415 Fig 14.6 Structure of the mitochondrion

16 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1416 Fig 14.6 (continued)

17 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1417 Location of mitochondrial complexes Inner mitochondrial membrane: Electron transport chain ATP synthase Mitochondrial matrix: Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Enzymes of the citric acid cycle Enzymes catalyzing fatty acid oxidation

18 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter The Chemiosmotic Theory Proposed by Peter Mitchell in the 1960’s (Nobel Prize 1978) Chemiosmotic theory: A proton concentration gradient serves as the energy reservoir for driving ATP formation

19 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1419 Respiration by mitochondria Oxidation of substrates is coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP Respiration (consumption of oxygen) proceeds only when ADP is present The amount of O 2 consumed depends upon the amount of ADP added

20 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1420 Fig 14.7 Coupled nature of respiration in mitochondria (a) O 2 consumed only with ADP, excess P i (b) (+) Uncoupler DNP (O 2 consumed without ADP)

21 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1421 Uncouplers Uncouplers stimulate the oxidation of substrates in the absence of ADP Uncouplers are lipid-soluble weak acids Both acidic and basic forms can cross the inner mitochondrial membrane Uncouplers deplete any proton gradient by transporting protons across the membrane

22 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1422 Fig ,4-Dinitrophenol: an uncoupler Because the negative charge is delocalized over the ring, both the acid and base forms of DNP are hydrophobic enough to dissolve in the membrane

23 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1423 Mitchell’s postulates for chemiosmotic theory 1. Intact inner mitochondrial membrane is required (to maintain a proton gradient) 2. Electron transport through the ETC generates a proton gradient (pumps H + from the matrix to the intermembrane space) 3. The membrane-spanning enzyme, ATP synthase, catalyzes the phosphorylation of ADP in a reaction driven by movement of H + across the inner membrane into the matrix

24 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter The Protonmotive Force Protonmotive force (  p) is the energy of the proton concentration gradient Protons that are translocated into the intermembrane space by electron transport, flow back into the matrix via ATP synthase H + flow forms a circuit (similar to an electrical circuit)

25 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1425 Fig 14.9 Analogy of electromotive and protonmotive force

26 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1426 Free-energy change from proton movement 1. Chemical contribution  G chem = nRT ln ([H + ] in / [H + ] out ) (n = number of protons translocated) 2. Electrical contribution:  =membrane potential  G elect = zF  (z = charge (1.0 for H + ), F =96,485 JV -1 mol -1 )

27 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1427 Protonmotive force (  p) From the two previous equations the protonmotive force (  p) is:  p =  - (0.059 V)  pH  = difference in charge across the membrane (V) in volts (  =  in -  out )  pH = pH in - pH out

28 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Overview of Electron Transport Five oligomeric assemblies of proteins associated with oxidative phosphorylation are found in the inner mitochondrial membrane Complexes I-IV contain multiple cofactors, and are involved in electron transport Complex V is ATP synthase

29 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1429 Table 14.1

30 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1430 A. Complexes I-IV Electrons flow through the ETC components in the direction of increasing reduction potentials NADH (strong reducing agent, E o’ = volts) O 2 (terminal oxidizing agent, E o’ = volts) Mobile coenzymes: ubiquinone (Q) and cytochrome c serve as links between ETC complexes Complex IV reduces O 2 to water

31 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1431 Fig Mitochondrial electron transport

32 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1432 Table 14.2

33 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1433 Table 14.3

34 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1434 Inhibitors can block electron transfer through specific complexes in the ETC Complex I: blocked by rotenone Complex III: blocked by antimycin A Complex IV: blocked by cyanide

35 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1435 B. Cofactors in Electron Transport Electrons enter the ETC two at a time via NADH Flavin coenzymes are then reduced (Complex I) FMN FMNH 2 (Complex II) FADFADH 2 FMNH 2 and FADH 2 donate one electron at a time All subsequent steps proceed by one e - transfers

36 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1436 Mobile electron carriers 1. Ubiquinone (Q) Q is a lipid soluble molecule that diffuses within the lipid bilayer, accepting electrons from I and II and passing them to III 2. Cytochrome c Associated with the outer face of the membrane, transports electrons from III to IV

37 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Complex I NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NADH dehydrogenase) Transfers electrons from NADH to Q NADH transfers a two electrons as a hydride ion (H: - ) to FMN Electrons are passed through Complex I to Q via FMN and iron-sulfur proteins

38 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1438 Fi Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex I Reduction of Q to QH 2 requires 2 e - About 4 H + translocated per 2 e - transferred

39 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Complex II Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (or succinate dehydrogenase complex) Accepts electrons from succinate and catalyzes the reduction of Q to QH 2 FAD of II is reduced in a 2-electron transfer of a hydride ion from succinate

40 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1440 Fig Electron transfer in Complex II Complex II does not contribute to proton gradient, but supplies electrons from succinate

41 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Complex III Ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase Transfers electrons to cytochrome c Oxidation of one QH 2 is accompanied by the translocation of 4 H + across the inner mitochondrial membrane Two H + are from the matrix, two from QH 2

42 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1442 Fig Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex III Four H + are translocated, two from the matrix and two from QH 2

43 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1443 Proposed Q cycle. Proposal for electron movement between between QH 2 and cytochrome c in Complex III One e - transferred to cytochrome c via the Fe-S protein Second e - transferred to cytochrome b then Q Three forms of Q are involved: QH 2, Q and the semiquinone anion. Q -

44 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1444 Fig Q cycle: Step 1

45 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1445 Q cycle: Step 2

46 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1446 Q cycle: Step 3

47 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Complex IV Cytochrome c oxidase Catalyzes a four-electron reduction of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) to water (H 2 O) Source of electrons is cytochrome c (links Complexes III and IV) Translocates H + into the intermembrane space

48 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1448 Fig Electron transfer and proton flow in Complex IV Iron atoms (hemes of cyt a) and copper atoms are both reduced and oxidized as electrons flow

49 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1449 Complex IV contributes to the proton gradient Net effect is transfer of four H + for each pair of e - O e - + 4H + 2 H 2 O 1. Proton translocation of 2 H + for each pair of electrons transferred (each O atom reduced) 2. Formation of H 2 O removes 2H + from the matrix (contributes to  p even though no proton translocation occurs)

50 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1450 Fig Proposed mechanism for reduction of molecular oxygen by cytochrome oxidase

51 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Complex V: ATP Synthase F 0 F 1 ATP Synthase uses the proton gradient energy for the synthesis of ATP An F-type ATPase which generates ATP Composed of a “knob-and-stalk” structure F 1 (knob) contains the catalytic subunits F 0 (stalk) has a proton channel which spans the membrane.

52 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1452 ATP Synthase components Passage of protons through the F o (stalk) into the matrix is coupled to ATP formation Estimated passage of 3 H + / ATP synthesized F o is sensitive to oligomycin, an antibiotic that binds in the channel and blocks H + passage, thereby inhibiting ATP synthesis

53 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1453 Structure of ATP synthase F 1 knobs: inner face of the inner mitochondrial membrane (subunit composition:  3  3  F o subunit composition: a 1 b 2 c 9-12 (c subunits form cylindrical, membrane-bound base)  3  3 oligomer of F 1 is connected to c subunits by a multisubunit stalk of  and  chains

54 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1454 Knob-and-stalk structure of ATP synthase

55 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1455

56 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1456

57 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1457

58 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1458

59 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1459

60 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1460

61 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1461 Mechanism of ATP Synthase There are 3 active sites, one in each  subunit The c-  unit forms a “rotor” Rotation of the  subunit inside the  3  3 hexamer causes domain movements in the  -subunits, opening and closing the active sites

62 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1462 ATPase mechanism (continued) The a-b-  3  3 unit is the “stator” (the F o channel is attached to  3  3 by the a-b-  arm) Passage of protons through the F o channel causes the rotor to spin in one direction and the stator to spin in the opposite direction

63 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1463 Fig (b)

64 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1464 Fig (c) Molecular structure of rotor and stator (part) of ATP synthase

65 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1465 Fig Binding-change mechanism of ATP synthase 1. ADP, P i bind to an open site 2. Inward passage of protons, conformation change, ATP synthesis from ADP and P i 3. ATP released from open site, ADP and P i form ATP in the tight site

66 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1466

67 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1467 Experimental observation of ATP synthase rotation Fluorescent protein arm (actin) attached to  subunits      subunits bound to a glass plate Arm seen rotating when MgATP added

68 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1468

69 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1469

70 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Active Transport of ATP, ADP and P i Across the Mitochondrial Membrane ATP is synthesized in the mitochondrial matrix ATP must be transported to the cytosol, and ADP and P i must enter the matrix ADP/ATP carrier exchanges mitochondrial ATP 4- for cytosolic ADP 3- The exchange causes a net loss of -1 in the matrix (draws some energy from the H + gradient)

71 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1471 Fig Transport of ATP, ADP and P i across the inner mitochondrial membrane Adenine nucleotide translocase: unidirectional exchange of ATP for ADP (antiport) Symport of P i and H + is electroneutral

72 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter The P:O Ratio molecules of ADP phosphorylated P:O ratio = atoms of oxygen reduced Translocation of 3H + required by ATP synthase for each ATP produced 1 H + needed for transport of P i, ADP and ATP Net: 4 H + transported for each ATP synthesized

73 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1473 Calculation of the P:O ratio #H + translocated/2e Since 4 H + are required for each ATP synthesized : ComplexIIIIIV For NADH: 10 H + translocated / O (2e - ) P/O = (10 H + / 4 H + ) = 2.5 ATP/O For succinate substrate = 6 H + / O (2e - ) P/O = (6 H + / 4 H + ) = 1.5 ATP/O

74 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Aerobic Oxidation of Cytosolic NADH Cytosolic NADH must enter the mitochondria to fuel oxidative phosphorylation, but NADH and NAD + cannot diffuse across the inner mitochondrial membrane Two shuttle systems for reducing equivalents: (1) Glycerol phosphate shuttle: insect flight muscles (2) Malate-aspartate shuttle: predominant in liver and other mammalian tissues

75 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1475 Fig Glycerol phosphate shuttle Cytosolic NADH transfers 2 e - to FAD, then Q

76 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1476 Fig (continued)

77 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1477 Fig Malate-aspartate shuttle (continued next slide)

78 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter Regulation of Oxidative Phosphorylation Overall rate of oxidative phosphorylation depends upon substrate availability and cellular energy demand Important substrates: NADH, O 2, ADP In eukaryotes intramitochondrial ratio ATP/ADP is a secondary control mechanism High ratio inhibits oxidative phosphorylation as ATP binds to a subunit of Complex IV

79 Prentice Hall c2002Chapter 1479


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