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Prometheus as “culture hero” deception sacrifice punishment fire/technology woman/Pandora old age citizenship.

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1 Prometheus as “culture hero” deception sacrifice punishment fire/technology woman/Pandora old age citizenship

2 Hesiod, Theogony And ready-witted Prometheus he bound with inextricable bonds, cruel chains, and drove a shaft through his middle, and set on him a long-winged eagle, which used to eat his immortal liver; but by night the liver grew [525] as much again as the long-winged bird devoured in the whole day. That bird Heracles, the valiant son of shapely-ankled Alcmene, slew; and delivered the son of Iapetus from the cruel plague, and released him from his affliction — not without the will of Olympian Zeus who reigns on high, [530] that the glory of Heracles the Theban-born might be yet greater than it was before over the plenteous earth. This, then, he regarded, and honored his famous son; though he was angry, he ceased from the wrath which he had before because Prometheus matched himself in wit with the almighty son of Cronos.

3 Theogony [535] For when the gods and mortal men were coming to a settlement at Mecone, at that time Prometheus put forward a great ox and set portions before them, trying to deceive the mind of Zeus. Before him he set flesh and inner parts thick with fat upon the hide, covering them with an ox stomach; [540] but for them he put the white bones dressed up with cunning art and covered with shining fat. Then the father of men and of gods said to him: “Son of Iapetus, most glorious of all lords, good sir, how unfairly you have divided the portions!” [545] WD 48 Prometheus the crafty deceived him; Sacrifice

4 So said Zeus whose wisdom is everlasting, rebuking him. But wily Prometheus answered him, smiling softly and not forgetting his cunning trick: “Zeus, most glorious and greatest of the eternal gods, take which ever of these portions your heart within you bids.” [550] So he said, thinking trickery. But Zeus, whose wisdom is everlasting, saw and failed not to perceive the trick, and in his heart he thought mischief against mortal men which also was to be fulfilled. With both hands he took up the white fat and was angry at heart, and wrath came to his spirit [555] when he saw the white ox-bones craftily tricked out: and because of this the tribes of men upon earth burn white bones to the deathless gods upon fragrant altars. But Zeus who drives the clouds was greatly vexed and said to him: “Son of Iapetus, clever above all! [560] So, sir, you have not yet forgotten your cunning arts!”

5 Th Fire WD So spoke Zeus in anger, whose wisdom is everlasting; and from that time he was always mindful of the trick, and would not give the power of unwearying fire to the ash trees for the race of mortal men who live on the earth. [565] But the noble son of Iapetus outwitted him and stole the far- seen gleam of unwearying fire in a hollow fennel stalk. For the gods keep hidden from men the means of life. Else you would easily do work enough in a day to supply you for a full year even without working; [45] soon would you put away your rudder over the smoke, and the fields worked by ox and sturdy mule would run to waste. But Zeus in the anger of his heart hid it, PB I hunted out and stored in fennel stalk the stolen [110] source of fire that has proved a teacher to mortals in every art and a means to mighty ends.

6 Th Zeus’ Revenge WD And Zeus who thunders on high was stung in spirit, and his dear heart was angered when he saw among men the far-seen ray of fire. [570] Forthwith he made an evil thing for men as the price of fire; for the very famous Limping God formed of earth the likeness of a shy maiden as the son of Cronos willed. [50] He hid fire; but that the noble son of Iapetus stole again for men from Zeus the counselor in a hollow fennel-stalk, so that Zeus who delights in thunder did not see it. But afterwards Zeus who gathers the clouds said to him in anger: “Son of Iapetus, surpassing all in cunning, [55] you are glad that you have outwitted me and stolen fire — a great plague to you yourself and to men that shall be. But I will give men as the price for fire an evil thing in which they may all be glad of heart while they embrace their own destruction.”

7 Th Woman/Pandora WD And as in thatched hives bees [595] feed the drones whose nature is to do mischief — by day and throughout the day until the sun goes down the bees are busy and lay the white combs, while the drones stay at home in the covered hives and reap the toil of others into their own bellies — [600] even so Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil. [60] And he bade famous Hephaestus make haste and mix earth with water and to put in it the voice and strength of human kind, and fashion a sweet, lovely maiden-shape, like to the immortal goddesses in face. [81] And he called this woman Pandora, because all they who dwelt on Olympus gave each a gift, a plague to men who eat bread.

8 Th Epimetheus WD [510] also she bore very glorious Menoetius and clever Prometheus, full of various wiles, and scatter-brained Epimetheus who from the first was a mischief to men who eat bread; for it was he who first took of Zeus the woman, the maiden whom he had formed. But when he had finished the sheer, hopeless snare, the Father sent glorious Argus- Slayer, [85] the swift messenger of the gods, to take it to Epimetheus as a gift. And Epimetheus did not think on what Prometheus had said to him, bidding him never take a gift of Olympian Zeus, but to send it back for fear it might prove to be something harmful to men.

9 Th Old Age/Jar WD And he gave them a second evil to be the price for the good they had: whoever avoids marriage and the sorrows that women cause, and will not wed, reaches deadly old age [605] without anyone to tend his years, and though he at least has no lack of livelihood while he lives, yet, when he is dead, his kinsfolk divide his possessions amongst them. And as for the man who chooses the lot of marriage and takes a good wife suited to his mind, evil continually contends with good; [610] for whoever happens to have mischievous children, lives always with unceasing grief in his spirit and heart within him; and this evil cannot be healed. [90] For before this the tribes of men lived on earth remote and free from ills and hard toil and heavy sicknesses which bring the Fates upon men; for in misery men grow old quickly. But the woman took off the great lid of the jar with her hands [95] and scattered, all these and her thought caused sorrow and mischief to men. Only Hope remained there in an unbreakable home within under the rim of the great jar, and did not fly out at the door; for before that, the lid of the jar stopped her, by the will of Aegis- holding Zeus who gathers the clouds.

10 Agents Prometheus metis, techne Man Prometheus & Epimetheus Zeus metis of sovereign father master Zeus & Olympians

11 Actions - Duel of Deception Theogony men & gods united Prometheus prepares sacrifice Zeus does not give fire Works and Days men & gods separated Zeus prepares gift Zeus hides fire

12 Parallels food hidden food needs labour men born from earth Sacrifice, thusia gift, trap, gaster fire new fire must be fed new men born from women Pandora

13 Defining Relationships

14 Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound trilogy of tragedies (pity and fear) Prometheus Bound, Prometheus Freed, Prometheus the Fire-Carrier not a son of Iapetus & Klymene but of Themis/Gaia 1-396Prometheus and the gods Prometheus, Zeus and Humans 887- endPrometheus and Zeus tyranny/freedom, compulsion-torture, citizenship,

15 For your own flower, flashing fire, source of all arts, he has purloined and bestowed upon mortal creatures. Such is his offence (hamartia); for this he is bound to make requital to the gods, [10] so that he may learn to bear with the sovereignty (tyranny) of Zeus and cease his man- loving ways. 36 Well, why delay and excite pity in vain? Why do you not detest a god most hateful to the gods, since he has betrayed your prerogative to mortals? Every job is troublesome except to be the commander of gods; [50] no one is free except Zeus.

16 I see, Prometheus; [145] and over my eyes a mist of tears and fear spread as I saw your body withering ignominiously upon this rock in these bonds of adamant. For there are new rulers in heaven, and Zeus governs lawlessly with [150] new laws; that which was mighty before he now brings to nothing. With all that before me, it seemed best that, joining with my mother, I should place myself, a welcome volunteer, on the side of Zeus; and it is by reason of my counsel that the cavernous gloom of Tartarus now hides ancient Cronus and his allies within it Thus I helped the tyrant of the gods [225] and with this foul payment he has responded; for it is a disease that is somehow inherent in tyranny to have no faith in friends. [230] As soon as he had seated himself upon his father's throne, he immediately assigned to the deities their several privileges and apportioned to them their proper powers. But of wretched mortals he took no notice, desiring to bring [235] the whole race to an end and create a new one in its place. Against this purpose none dared make stand except me — I only had the courage; I saved mortals so that they did not descend, blasted utterly, to the house of Hades.

17 Ocean I see, Prometheus; and I want to give you [310] the best advice, although you yourself are wily. Learn to know yourself and adapt yourself to new ways; for new also is the ruler among the gods. If you hurl forth words so harsh and of such whetted edge, perhaps Zeus may hear you, [315] though throned far off, high in the heavens, and then your present multitude of sorrows shall seem but childish sport. Typho 355 Hear the sum of the whole matter in the compass of one brief word — every art possessed by man comes from Prometheus Chorus [515] Who then is the helmsman of Necessity? Prometheus The three-shaped Fates and mindful Furies. Chorus Can it be that Zeus has less power than they do? Prometheus Yes, in that even he cannot escape what is foretold. Does it not seem to you that the tyrant of the gods is violent in all his ways? For this god, desirous of union with this mortal maid, has imposed upon her these wanderings. Maiden, you have gained a cruel suitor [740] for your hand. As to the tale you now have heard — understand that it has not even passed the introduction.

18 Prometheus He shall make a marriage that shall one day cause him distress. Io [765] With a divinity or with a mortal? If it may be told, speak out. Prometheus Why ask with whom? I may not speak of this. Io Is it by his consort that he shall be dethroned? PrometheusYes, since she shall bear a son mightier than his father. Danaids Fifth in descent from Epaphus, fifty maidens shall return to Argos, not of their own [855] free choice, but fleeing marriage with their cousin kin; while these, their hearts ablaze with passion, like falcons eagerly pursuing doves, shall come in pursuit of wedlock unlawful to pursue; but God shall grudge them enjoyment of their brides. [860] Pelasgian soil shall offer the maids a home, when, in the watches of the night, their husbands have been slain by a deed of daring wrought by the women's murderous blows. For each bride shall take the life of her lord, dyeing a two-edged sword in his blood — in such ways may Love come upon my enemies! [865] However, love's desire shall charm one of the maidens not to slay her mate; rather, her resolve will lose its edge; for she will make her choice between two evil names to be called coward rather than murderess. She it is who shall give birth in Argos to a royal line — [870] a long story is necessary to explain this clearly; of her seed, however, shall be born a man of daring, renowned with the bow, who shall deliver me from these toils.

19 In vain you trouble me, as though it were a wave you try to persuade. Never think that, through terror at the will of Zeus, I shall become womanish and, with hands upturned, aping woman's ways, [1005] shall importune my greatly hated enemy to release me from these bonds. I am far, far from that. basanos- torture

20 Protagoras’ story (mythos; Plato, Protagoras 320d-) Prometheus and Epimetheus Technical wisdom with fire 321d Now although man acquired in this way the wisdom of daily life, civic wisdom he had not, since this was in the possession of Zeus;vs. political wisdom 322c Zeus, fearing that our race was in danger of utter destruction, sent Hermes to bring respect and right among men, to the end that there should be regulation of cities and friendly ties to draw them together. Hermes brings justice (dikê) and shame (aidôs) 322c to all humans

21 Ovid, Metamorphoses 3, the stories of Cadmus, Diana and Actaeon, Semele and the Birth of Bacchus, Tiresias, and Pentheus and Bacchus

22 Actaeon “I am Actaeon, look, I am your master.Words failed his will; their baying filled the sky.

23 Semele Then her mortal frame could not endure the tumult of the heavens; that gift of love consumed her. Tiresias

24 Pentheus Acoetes With no hands left to stretch out to his mother, “look, mother,” he cried, and showed the severed stumps.

25 The roles of the three actors (hypokritai) in Euripides’ Bacchae. Prologue Dionysus Parodos Episode one Teiresias, 2 Pentheus, 3 Cadmus Stasimon one strophe, antistrophe, epode Episode two Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Attendant Stasimon two Episode three Dionysus, 2 Pentheus, 3 Messenger Stasimon three Episode four Dionysus, 2 Pentheus Stasimon Episode five Messenger Stasimon five Dionysus, 2 Agave, 3 Cadmus Exodos 1165-end NB The Coryphaeus is a solo singer in the Chorus.

26 Dionysus I, the son of Zeus, have come to this land of the Thebans — Dionysus, whom once Semele, Kadmos' daughter, bore, delivered by a lightning-bearing flame. And having taken a mortal form instead of a god's, [5] I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remnants of her house, smoldering with the still living flame of Zeus' fire, the everlasting insult (hubris) of Hera against my mother. [10] I praise Kadmos, who has made this place hallowed, the shrine of his daughter; and I have covered it all around with the cluster-bearing leaf of the vine.

27 [20] and I have come to this Hellenic city first, having already set those other lands to dance and established my rites there, so that I might be a deity (daimon) manifest among men. In this land of Hellas, I have first excited Thebes to my cry, fitting a fawn-skin to my body and [25] taking a thyrsos in my hand, a weapon of ivy. For my mother's sisters, the ones who least should, claimed that I, Dionysus, was not the child of Zeus, but that Semele had conceived a child from a mortal father and then ascribed the sin (hamartia) of her bed to Zeus, [30] a trick of Kadmos', for which they boasted that Zeus killed her, because she had told a false tale about her marriage. Therefore I have goaded them from the house in frenzy, and they dwell in the mountains, out of their wits; and I have compelled them to wear the outfit of my orgies. [35] And all the female offspring of Thebes, as many as are women, I have driven maddened from the house, and they, mingled with the daughters of Kadmos, sit on roofless rocks beneath green pines. For this city must learn, even if it is unwilling, [40] that it is not initiated into my Bacchic rites, and that I plead the defense (apologia) of my mother, Semele, in appearing manifest to mortals as a divinity whom she bore to Zeus.

28 Now Kadmos has given his honor and power to Pentheus, his daughter's son, [45] who fights against the gods as far as I am concerned and drives me away from poured sacrifices (spondai), and in his prayers makes no mention of me, for which I will show him and all the Thebans that I was born a god (theos). [51] If ever the city of Thebes should in anger seek to drive the Bacchae down from the mountains with arms, I, the general of the Maenads, will join battle with them. On which account I have changed my form to a mortal one and altered my shape into the nature of a man. [62-3] I myself will go to the folds of Kithairon, where the Bacchae are, to share in their dances.

29 Female-shaped sport in holy games with insolent thyrsoi. (hybris)

30 hubris 779 Already like fire does this insolence (hubris) of the Bacchae blaze up, a great reproach for the Hellenes He was insulted with insolence, for you did not consider him a god. Dionysus Yes, for I, a god by birth, was insulted by you. Kadmos Gods should not resemble mortals in their anger. Dionysus My father Zeus approved this long ago. How justly, yet excessively, [1250] lord Bromius the god has destroyed us, though he is a member of our own family.

31 Rhea - Kybele Blessed is he who, being fortunate and knowing the rites of the gods, keeps his life pure and [75] has his soul initiated into the Bacchic revels, dancing in inspired frenzy over the mountains with holy purifications (katharmos), and who, revering the orgies of great mother Kybele, [80] brandishing the thyrsos, garlanded with ivy, serves Dionysus. [120] O secret chamber of the Kouretes and you holy Cretan caves, parents to Zeus, where the Korybantes with triple helmet invented for me in their caves this circle, [125] covered with stretched hide; and in their excited revelry they mingled it with the sweet-voiced breath of Phrygian pipes and handed it over to mother Rhea, resounding with the sweet songs of the Bacchae;

32 Cadmus [170] Who is at the gates? Call from the house Kadmos, son of Agenor, who leaving the city of Sidon built this towering city of the Thebans. Oh house once fortunate in Hellas, [1025] house of the Sidonian old man who once sowed in the ground the earth-born harvest of the serpent snake You gave me, as they say, to Echion, the sown man But now I, great Kadmos, who sowed and reaped [1315] a most glorious crop, the Theban people, will be banished from the house without honor. Still it is foretold that I shall bring into Hellas a motley barbarian army. Leading their spears, I, having the fierce nature of a serpent, will bring my wife Harmonia, daughter of Ares, to the altars and tombs of Hellas. [1360] I will neither rest from my troubles in my misery, nor will I sail over the downward flowing Acheron and be at peace.

33 You see the wretched fate of Actaeon, who was torn apart in the meadows by the blood- thirsty hounds he had raised, [340] having boasted that he was superior in the hunt to Artemis. [680] I saw three companies of dancing women, one of which Autonoe led, the second your mother Agave, and the third Ino Where formerly dogs divided Actaeon among themselves.

34 Teiresias [255] You persuaded him to this, Teiresias. Do you wish, by introducing another new god to men, to examine birds and receive rewards for sacrifices? If your gray old age did not defend you, you would sit in chains in the midst of the Bacchae, [260] for introducing wicked rites. auspices - aves specio For two things, young man, [275] are first among men: the goddess Demeter — she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it [280] to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief. Dionysus will not compel women [315] to be modest in regard to Aphrodite, but in nature [modesty dwells always] you must look for that. For she who is modest will not be corrupted in Bacchic revelry.

35 Pentheus 508 You are well-suited to be miserable in your name. What rage, what rage does the earth-born race show, and Pentheus, [540] once descended from a serpent — Pentheus, whom earth-born Echion bore, a fierce monster, not a mortal man, but like a bloody giant, hostile to the gods. O grief (penthos) beyond measuring, one which I cannot stand to see, [1245] that you have performed murder with miserable hands. I hear that mixing-bowls stand full in the midst of their assemblies, and that they each creep off different ways into secrecy to serve the beds of men, on the pretext that they are Maenads worshipping; [225] but they consider Aphrodite before Bacchus. And they say that some stranger has come, a sorcerer, a conjuror from the Lydian land, [235] fragrant in hair with golden curls, having in his eyes the wine-dark graces of Aphrodite. He is with the young girls day and night, alluring them with joyful rites. But your body is not ill-formed, stranger, for women's purposes, for which reason you have come to Thebes. [455] For your hair is long, not through wrestling, scattered over your cheeks, full of desire; and you have a white skin from careful preparation, hunting after Aphrodite by your beauty not exposed to strokes of the sun, but beneath the shade.

36 [460] First then tell me who your family is. [465] Why do you bring these rites to Hellas? Dionysus Dionysus, the child of Zeus, sent me. Pentheus Is there a Zeus who breeds new gods there? [470] Seeing me just as I saw him, he gave me sacred rites. Dionysus [492] Tell me what I must suffer; what harm will you do to me? Dionysus [500] Even now he see my sufferings from close by. Pentheus Where is he? He is not visible to my eyes. Dionysus Near me; but you, being impious, do not see him. [516] Dionysus, who you claim does not exist, will pursue you for these insults. For in injuring us, you put him in bonds.

37 592 Did you see these stone lintels on the pillars falling apart? Bromius cries out in victory indoors. I have suffered terrible things; the stranger, who was recently constrained in bonds, has escaped me. Ah! [645] Here is the man. What is this? How do you appear in front of my house, having come out?

38 We fled and escaped [735] from being torn apart by the Bacchae, but they, with unarmed hands, sprang on the heifers browsing the grass. and you might see one rending asunder a fatted lowing calf, while others tore apart cows. [740] You would see ribs or cloven hooves tossed here and there; caught in the trees they dripped, dabbled in gore. Bulls who before were fierce, and showed their fury with their horns, stumbled to the ground, [745] dragged down by countless young hands. The garment of flesh was torn apart faster then you could blink your royal eyes. [822] What is this? Shall I then, instead of a man, be reckoned among the women? Women, the man is caught in our net. He will go to the Bacchae, where he will pay the penalty with his death. Dionysus, now it is your job; for you are not far off. [850] Let us punish him. First drive him out of his wits, send upon him a dizzying madness, since if he is of sound mind he will not consent to wear women's clothing, but driven out of his senses he will put it on. I want him to be a source of laughter to the Thebans, led through the city in [855] women's guise after making such terrible threats in the past.... He will recognize the son of Zeus, [860] Dionysus, who has been born in station most terrible and yet is most mild to men.

39 Oh look! I think I see two suns, and twin Thebes, the seven-gated city. [920] And you seem to lead me, being like a bull and horns seem to grow on your head. But were you ever before a beast? For you have certainly now become a bull. You alone bear the burden for this city, you alone. Therefore the labors which are proper await you. [965] Follow me. I am your saving guide: another will lead you down from there. [972-3] You are terrible, terrible, and you go to terrible sufferings, so that you will find a renown reaching to heaven. deinos

40 [1330]... changing your form, you will become a dragon, and your wife, Harmonia, Ares' daughter, whom you though mortal held in marriage, will be turned into a beast, and will receive in exchange the form of a serpent. And as the oracle of Zeus says, you will drive along with your wife a chariot of heifers, ruling over barbarians. [1335] You will sack many cities with a force of countless numbers. And when they plunder the oracle of Apollo, they will have a miserable return, but Ares will protect you and Harmonia and will settle your life in the land of the blessed.


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