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Welcome!. Building Vocabulary and Comprehension through Primary Read-Alouds Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome!. Building Vocabulary and Comprehension through Primary Read-Alouds Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome!

2 Building Vocabulary and Comprehension through Primary Read-Alouds Michael C. McKenna University of Virginia

3 Today’s Goals Understand why read-alouds are the best way to build vocabulary and comprehension in the primary grades Be able to plan, conduct, and follow- up a read-aloud. Examine differences between fiction and nonfiction read-alouds

4 Why are read-alouds the best way to build vocabulary and comprehension?

5 They may actually be the only way! Let’s look at some reasons.

6 Why Read-Alouds ? The teacher does the decoding. Natural contexts for words are provided. Authentic opportunities for modeling comprehension strategies occur. Student engagement is likely. Discussion is facilitated. Words and strategies can be reinforced in new contexts all year long.

7 But I can introduce vocabulary more efficiently without read-alouds.

8 But I can introduce vocabulary more efficiently without read-alouds. Maybe, but if you did, you’d have to create an entire curriculum. That’s why so little is done.

9 “Vocabulary levels diverge greatly during the primary years, and virtually nothing effective is done about this in schools.” (p. 29) Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp ). New York: Guilford. Andy Biemiller

10 But the kids know lots of words. Why not just focus on teaching them to recognize the ones they know?

11 Why not do both? If you ignore vocabulary, the Matthew effect can be terrible.

12 50K 40K 30K 20K 10K 0 K12 5,000 1,500

13 50K 40K 30K 20K 10K 0 K12 5,000 1,500 45,000 17,000

14 Oral vocabulary at the end of first grade is a significant predictor of comprehension ten years later. Cunningham, A.E., & Stanovich, K.E. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33,

15 But how can a few read- alouds make a dent in that huge number of words?

16 The cumulative effect might surprise you.

17 “Adding three root words a day is the average daily number of words learned by primary age children with the largest vocabularies.” (p. 37) Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp ). New York: Guilford. Andy Biemiller

18 “Adding three root words a day is the average daily number of words learned by primary age children with the largest vocabularies.” (p. 37) Biemiller, A. (2004). Teaching vocabulary in the primary grades.In J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp ). New York: Guilford. 3 words x 140 days  400 words per year

19 Why be so systematic? Why can’t the kids just rely on context?

20 Context may not be as powerful as you think. And besides, many kids don’t use it.

21 Four Types of Contexts 1.Directive (provides powerful clues) “Sue was talkative but Bill was taciturn.” 2. General (helps categorize a word) “She’d had measles, mumps, and varicella.” 3. Nondirective (offers very little help) “The dress was taupe.” 4. Misdirective (can be misleading) “He was huge, muscular, and adroit.” – Beck & McKeown (2004)

22 Teaching Students about Context  Remind them that context does not always provide strong clues.  Remember that many students may have difficulty making inferences about words from context.  Model the process when possible. – Beck & McKeown (2004)

23 But what about comprehension? How do you teach strategies to kids who can’t read?

24 The alternative is to wait until they can read. If you do that, it may be too late.

25 The Domino Theory Teach children to decode first, and put off vocabulary and comprehension instruction until later.

26 The Domino Theory Teach children to decode first, and put off vocabulary and comprehension instruction until later.

27 Smolkin & Donovan, 2002 “[R]esearch has almost universally supported the idea that reading aloud to children leads to improved reading comprehension.” (p. 144)

28 So which strategies do they need?

29 The National Reading Panel identified seven.

30 NRP Findings on Comprehension Many approaches have some level of research evidence. For example, stressing mental images and mnemonics can be effective. But seven instructional approaches have a clear scientific basis.

31 1.Comprehension monitoring 2.Cooperative learning 3.Graphic and semantic organizers (esp. those stressing text structure) 4.Question answering 5.Question generation 6.Summarization 7.Combinations of 1-6 Key Instructional Approaches

32 Can you really plan to focus on comprehension and vocabulary in the same read-aloud?

33 Yes. We’re not trying to accomplish everything at once. But we can still target both areas with each read-aloud.

34 What’s the difference between a fiction and a nonfiction read-aloud?

35 There are differences in both vocabulary and comprehension strategy use.

36 Let’s look at vocabulary first.

37 Nonfiction Read-Alouds  Take advantage of clusters of related terms  Stress the connections among words  Preteach a few key terms  Use research-based methods:  Feature analysis  Other types of charts  Graphic Organizers

38 pupa egg larvaadult

39 InsectsSpiders Some can flyNone can fly Some are poisonousAll are poisonous 6 legs8 legs

40 Fiction Read-Alouds  Since the words will not be related and will not be essential to comprehending, do not preteach them.  After the read-aloud, create clusters by linking a new word to familiar words.  Use research-based methods, such as  Silly Questions  Word Wizards

41 Even though words in a fiction read-aloud may be unrelated in meaning, you can still create meaningful clusters by using words already familiar to the children.

42 fortunate scowl wary Words Chosen From the Book

43 fortunate scowl wary Familiar Words Words Chosen From the Book lucky chance frown stare careful afraid

44 fortunate scowl wary Familiar Words Words Chosen From the Book lucky chance frown stare careful afraid

45 fortunate scowl wary Familiar Words Words Chosen From the Book lucky chance frown stare careful afraid

46 For a fiction read-aloud, how do I know which words to teach?

47 Target what Beck and McKeown call Tier Two words.

48 Two characteristics that make a word inappropriate for teaching: 1.We can’t define it in terms that the students know. 2.The students are not likely to find the word useful or interesting. – Beck & McKeown (2004)

49 word family A group of words formed from a single root word history historic prehistoric historical historian

50 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Usually content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go

51 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Usually content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go

52 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Usually content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go

53 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Often content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go

54 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Often content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go

55 Beck and McKeown’s Three Tiers Tier 3 Rare words 73,500 word families K-12 Often content-area related Examples: isotope, estuary Tier 2 Important to academic success 7,000 word families Not limited to one content area Examples: fortunate, ridiculous Tier 1 The most familiar words 8,000 word families Known by average 3rd grader Examples: happy, go “Goldilocks” Words – Stahl & Stahl, 2004

56 Now let’s look at comprehension.

57 Fiction Read-Alouds  Rely on such research-based techniques as  Time Lines  Story Maps

58 GoldilocksGoldilocksGoldilocks findseatsgoes cottageporridgeupstairs

59 Example of a Story Map SettingCharacters: Jack, his mother, the giant Place: Jack’s home, road, giant’s castle When and where did this story occur? Who is the main character? ProblemJack must sell cow but trades for beans Why did Jack trade? GoalTo see if bean stalk is worth the bad trade What did Jack do when he found the stalk? EndingJack steals from giant, flees, cuts down stalk What did Jack do in the giant’s castle? What did the giant do? What happened to the giant? Was Jack a good guy or a bad guy?

60 Fiction Read-Alouds  Stress  Imaging  Summarizing  Causation and Motive  Plot structure  Comprehension Monitoring  Discussions in which children are free to question you and each other

61 Nonfiction Read-Alouds  All strategies may be useful, but especially  Focusing on text structure  Graphic organizers  Comprehension monitoring (using “think- alouds to model “fix-up” strategies for confusing text)

62 Using “Fix-Up” Strategies Rereading Reading on Reflecting Seeking outside information

63 OK, I’ll give it a try. Where do I start? Let’s start with planning.

64 Planning a Read-Aloud  Choose engaging, well-illustrated books.  A number of words should be unknown to about half the students.  Choose 3 target words that are likely to be unfamiliar. (In fiction, these words will be unrelated; in nonfiction, they will be key terms.)  For nonfiction, decide how you will introduce the words  Keep track of the words you choose.

65 Planning a Read-Aloud  Decide which comprehension strategy you will target.  Decide how you will directly explain the strategy prior to the read-aloud.  If you’ve introduced the strategy before, review it prior to the read-aloud.

66 Direct Explanation of a Strategy Start by introducing the text. Then introduce the strategy. –Declarative Knowledge: What is the strategy? –Procedural Knowledge: How do I use the strategy? –Conditional Knowledge: When and why should I use the strategy? Model the strategy by thinking aloud. Help readers to practice the strategy. Read the text both to understand it and to practice the strategy. After the read-aloud, discuss both the text and the strategy.

67

68 Planning a Read-Aloud  Look for places to model comprehension strategies.  Unfamiliar references  Opportunities to form mental images  Chances to recap  Text that challenges prior assumptions  Mark key places in your book to remind you.

69 Planning a Read-Aloud  Plan to repeat the read-aloud.  Plan for small-group sessions (2-5 students).  Plan multiple exposures to vocabulary in the days following.

70 Before the Read-Aloud  Introduce (or review) the comprehension strategy.  Build prior knowledge.  Preteach key words if the read-aloud is nonfiction.  Focus children’s attention.

71 During the Read-Aloud  Be “performance oriented”; read with expression.

72 During the Read-Aloud  Include “rich, dialogic discussion.”  Activate prior knowledge.  Link the story to experiences of students.  Elicit responses from students.  Give synonyms or quick explanations of Tier Three words as you go. (Biemiller)

73 During the Read-Aloud  Display pictures after reading a page, not while reading it (Beck et al.)

74 During the Read-Aloud  Pause at the places you’ve chosen to model comprehension strategies.  Remember to prompt children about strategies that are becoming familiar.  Keep the children interacting, especially with nonfiction.

75 In a nonfiction interactive read-aloud, a teacher can...  Link a word to its context  Help children infer causal relationships  Tell about how texts are structured  Model the use of fix-up strategies Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

76 In a nonfiction interactive read-aloud, a teacher can...  Link a word to its context  Help children infer causal relationships  Tell about how texts are structured  Model the use of fix-up strategies Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

77

78

79 T:“In 1612, French explorers saw some Iroquois people popping corn in clay pots. They would fill the pots with hot sand, throw in some popcorn and stir it with a stick. When the corn popped, it came to the top of the sand and made it easy to get.” C1:Look at the bowl! T:Okay, now it’s hot enough to add a few kernels. C2:What’s a kernel? C3:Like when you pop. T: It’s a seed. C4: What if you, like, would you think … a popcorn seed. Like a popcorn seed. Could you grow popcorn? Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

80 T:Oh, excellent, excellent question! Let’s read and we’ll see if this book answers that question, and if not, we’ll talk about it at the end. Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

81 In a nonfiction interactive read-aloud, a teacher can...  Link a word to its context  Help children infer causal relationships  Tell about how texts are structured  Model the use of fix-up strategies Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

82 T:Alright, it hit the reef. Why did it hit the reef? Because it got... (no response from children). What did it say? It said there was C1:A storm. T:Storm, right. C2:They couldn’t see. T:Right, it did say that. Because they couldn’t see, and if they were out... C3: Were the people surprised? C4:The storm blew it into the rocks. T:Exactly.

83 In a nonfiction interactive read-aloud, a teacher can...  Link a word to its context  Help children infer causal relationships  Tell about how texts are structured  Model the use of fix-up strategies Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

84

85 T:“And 1000-year-old popcorn kernels were found in Peru that could still be popped.” Now. This guy is doing different... It’s kind of like two stories are going on. What is this part giving us? Cs: (together) Information T:It is. And what is this doing? C1:It is telling you. T:It’s giving us, right, steps of how to make the popcorn. C2: And he has a big old speech bubble. T:Yes, because he’s reading about this, remember? And so his speech bubble is him reading this book about this (pointing to pictures of native peoples).

86 In a nonfiction interactive read-aloud, a teacher can...  Link a word to its context  Help children infer causal relationships  Tell about how texts are structured  Model the use of fix-up strategies Smolkin & Donovan, 2002

87 T:“Insects live on the tree, too. This big cicada just crawled out of its brown, shell-like skin. For several years... (teacher pauses. The next word in the text is ‘it’)” Let’s start back here. “Insects live on the tree, too. This big cicada just crawled out of its brown, shell-like skin.” C1:(interrupting) We already read this. T:I know, but see, sometimes if you stop, it helps [to go back] It didn’t make sense just reading [further in the text]

88 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!

89 Critical Judgments “Reading beyond the lines” Inferential Implicitly stated facts “Reading between the lines” Literal Explicitly stated facts “Reading the lines”

90 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!  Elicit thoughtful responses.

91 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!  Elicit thoughtful responses.  Don’t just question–encourage questioning!

92 Question-Answer Relationships QARs Taffy Raphael

93 QARs Question-Answer Relationships In the BookIn Your Head Right ThereAuthor and You Think and SearchOn Your Own Raphael, 1986

94 Reciprocal Questioning ReQuest Tony Manzo

95 Reciprocal Questioning: ReQuest  One student asks the teacher as many questions as s/he can think of.  Teacher calls on students at random. Student asks teacher a question, teacher asks student a question, then calls on another student.  Teacher reflects each student’s question to another student.  Students call on other students to answer. Variations of Request...

96 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!  Elicit thoughtful responses.  Don’t just question–encourage questioning!  Practice summarizing.

97 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!  Elicit thoughtful responses.  Don’t just question–encourage questioning!  Practice summarizing.  Review the comprehension strategy.

98 After the Read-Aloud  Conduct a discussion.  Get beyond the literal level!  Elicit thoughtful responses.  Don’t just question–encourage questioning!  Practice summarizing.  Review the comprehension strategy.  In nonfiction, review the vocabulary.  In fiction, teach the vocabulary.

99 After the Read-Aloud  Keep track of the words you teach.  Make a chart with words, dates and books.  Look for chances to revisit words.  Record when you do.

100 fortunateIR scowlI willingIR resistI restfulI joyousI wanderIR gloomyI beamIR I = IntroduceR = Reinforce

101 After the Read-Aloud  For nonfiction, post graphic organizers.  For fiction, consider using research-based methods like  Word Wizards and  Silly Questions.

102 Be a Word Wizard! waryscowlridiculousfortunate Tom  Sue  Ed  Juan    Maria  Lakesha  Paul  Jack    – Beck & McKeown (2004)

103 Ask “silly questions.” – Beck & McKeown (2004) Would a fortunate person scowl?

104 How do I know when the kids actually know the new words?

105 Knowing a word isn’t all or nothing. It’s a matter of degree.

106 A Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledge A vague sense of the meaning Narrow knowledge with aid of context Good knowledge but shaky recall Rich, decontextualized knowledge, connected to other word meanings

107 A Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledge A vague sense of the meaning Narrow knowledge with aid of context Good knowledge but shaky recall Rich, decontextualized knowledge, connected to other word meanings

108 How do I know when the kids can actually apply comprehension strategies?

109 Give them chances in later read-alouds.

110 Scaffolding Strategy Use  As children become familiar with strategies, give them chances to apply those strategies during new read-alouds.  Prompt them to identify appropriate strategies at key points.  Ask them what a “good reader” would do.  Post a chart of key strategies in your classroom for referral.

111 That’s a lot to process. Can you sum it up? Sure.

112 Primary Read-Aloud Planner Planning Choose an engaging book. Decide what to do before, during, and after the read-aloud to build comprehension and vocabulary. Before Reading Prepare! Introduce a comprehension strategy. Develop prior knowledge. Focus attention. During Reading Guide! Model the strategy by thinking aloud. Ask and answer questions. Provide synonyms and explanations for Tier Three words. After Reading Extend! Discuss and respond. Summarize the book. Review the comprehension strategy. Teach the Tier Two words you chose.

113 OK, enough questions. Now get busy!


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