2 Next Generation Science/common Core Standards Addressed! HS‐LS1‐5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]WHST.9‐12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS‐LS1‐3)
3 Bell Work! What do you know about sexual reproduction in animals? What do you know about reproduction in plants?Are there “girl” and “boy” plants?Do plants have “sex?”Do plants have genitalia?Do plants have sperm and egg?
5 Student Objectives 1. Describe the parts of a flower 2. Explain the purpose of a flower3. List some different types of flowers4. Describe the difference between monocot and dicot flowers
6 What Are the Parts of A Flower? Flowers are the most obvious part of most plantsThey are made of many intricate and important partsMost flowers contain male and female parts
7 Parts of a Flower1. Stamen – the male part of a flower; Made up of two parts:Filament – stalk of a stamen; Holds up the antherAnther – sack-like portion containing the pollenPollen – grain released by the flowers; Contains the spermFlowers containing only stamens are called staminate
8 2. Pistil – female part of the flower; Made up of three parts: Stigma – sticky organ which receives the pollen grainsStyle – a rod shaped middle part; Similar to the stalk of the stamenOvary – swollen base containing the eggs or ovulesFlowers having only female parts are called pistillate
9 3. Petals – the showy, colorful leaf-like structures which often attract animals or insects for pollinationWhen all the petals are fused together, it is called the corolla4. Sepals – beneath the petals; More leaf-like structures usually green in colorProtect the flower before it opensWhen all the sepals are fused together, it is called the calyx
10 Parts of a Flower Stamen Pistil Ovule Petals Sepals Receptacle Pedicel StigmaAntherStyleStamenPistilFilamentOvaryPrint off a copy of the this flower, white-out the labels and have the students label the parts as you present them in the slide show.OvulePetalsSepalsReceptacleSwollen base where are parts attachPedicelStem of the flower
11 What is the Purpose of a Flower? We use flowers for many practical purposes like food, clothing and medicine; We also use them for aesthetic purposes – to beautify our homesThe main purpose of a flower is to reproduce sexually with other flowers or with itselfThe first step of reproduction begins with pollination (the process of transferring pollen to stigma), and there are two types:
12 A) Cross-pollination is when the pollen of one plant lands on the stigma of a different plant; Keep in mind that the plants must be of the same species (for example, two dandelions)B) Self-pollination occurs when the pollen of the anther lands on the stigma of the same plantPollen is carried to plants by animals, wind, gravity, water and many other methods
13 Once the pollen reaches the stigma, it starts to grown down the style depositing the sperm in the ovaryWhen the sperm and egg combine, it is called fertilization
14 Pollination and Fertilization This picture shows self-pollination (pollen is being transferred from the anther to stigma of the same plant)Notice that one or more pollen grains will start to grow a tube down towards the ovaryThe sperm nucleus will then fuse with the nucleus of the egg(s) (ovule).
15 What Are Some of the Different Types of Flowers? Flowers come in many shapes, sizes and colorsNot all of them have all the structures mentioned beforeA. Complete flowers have all the major parts: stamens, pistils, sepals & petalsB. Incomplete flowers are missing one or more of these major parts; for example a flower could be missing sepals or pistils
16 C. Perfect flowers have both stamens and pistils on the same flower D. Imperfect flowers are missing either the stamens or pistilsHolly and squash are examples of imperfect flowers.Maples and Oaks have no petals.The flowers of grass have stamens and pistils but no stamens or petals.
17 How is a Monocot Flower Different From a Dicot Flower? A good way to tell the difference between a monocot and a dicot is to look closely at the flowersMonocots have flower parts in multiples of 3 (3,6,9,12)Dicots have flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 (4,12,16 or 5,10,15)Here, you can bring in samples of flower and have the students tell you whether the plant is monocot or dicot. Hopefully they will draw on the previous lesson where we talked about parallel versus netted veins, woody versus herbaceous stems, etc.
18 Summary What is the male part of a flower called? What are the two parts of the stamen and what do they do?What is a pistil? And what are its three parts?What is a staminate flower? Is it perfect or imperfect?How is the corolla different from the calyx?What part of the flower usually attracts pollinators?How is pollination different from fertilization?
19 Summary continuedWhat are some ways in which a plant can be pollinated?What are the two types of pollination and how are they different?Describe how the sperm gets to the egg of the flower?Can you have a perfect, incomplete flower and why?Can you have an imperfect, complete flower and why?How can you tell the difference between a monocot and a dicot flower?