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Fungi Identification a dichotomous key approach. budding cells few or no hyphae hyphae seen Microscopic appearance of colonies:

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Presentation on theme: "Fungi Identification a dichotomous key approach. budding cells few or no hyphae hyphae seen Microscopic appearance of colonies:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fungi Identification a dichotomous key approach

2 budding cells few or no hyphae hyphae seen Microscopic appearance of colonies:

3 colonies black colonies white cream pink red Macroscopic appearance of colonies: Aureobasidium Chapter 8 Yeas t

4 septate aseptate Hyphal appearance: Mucoraceous moulds

5 arthroconidia (other forms absent) Other forms (arthroconidia absent) Conidial appearance: Chapter 3

6 present absent Conidia formed in chains:

7 present absent Conidial chains in branches: CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7

8 chains formed singly on sides of hyphae or on short branches chains formed in succession at the same point, aggregating in masses Conidial chain arrangement: CHAPTER 4, 5, 6 CHAPTER 8 fruiting bodies present? CHAPTER 10 Positive for dermatophyte Negative for dermatophyte

9 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS colony dark brown or black colony white or cream Colony appearance: Neoscytalidium dimidiatum

10 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS Arthrospores regularly alternating with empty cells Arthrospores not separated by empty cells Arthrospore arrangement:

11 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS Wider than 2 microns Mostly microns wide Arthrospore Size: Coccidioides sppMalbranchea spp.

12 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS Colony with little aerial mycelium Colony floccose Colony morphology Geotrichum spp OR Trichosporon spp

13 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS Rapid growth (diameter >20mm in 1 week) Slow growth Culture growth speed: Onychocola canadensis

14 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS abundant, 4-8 microns wide, rounded appearance few, 2-5 microns wide, flat-ended Arthrospore numbers: Basidiomycete moulds Hyaline variant of Neoscytalidium dimidiatum

15 ARTHROSPOR IC MOULDS PresentAbsent Presence of blastoconidia: Geotrichum sppTrichosporon spp

16 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Macroconidia predominant Neither macro nor micro conidia present Pattern of conidia: Microconidia predominant

17 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Rough Surface of macroconidia: Smooth

18 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Present Presence of terminal beak on macroconidia Absent Microsporum gypseum Microsporum fulvum

19 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Large >50 microns Size of Macroconidia Smaller <50 microns Microsporum equinumMicrosporum canis

20 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Khaki-brown to greenish-yellow Some purple coloration Colony colour: White, cream or yellow Epidermophyton floccosum Trichophyton terrestre Trichophyton ajelloi Trichophyton rubrum (granular form)

21 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS floccose/velvety, white with red- brown reverse, peg-like microconidia Colony: OTHERWISE Colony morphology velvety/granular, cream with dark brown reverse, round microconidia Trichophyton rubrum

22 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Spiral hyphae, microconidia rare (foot isolate) Microconidia number: brown veins on colony reverse, spiral hyphae, microconidia common Trichophyton interdigitaleTrichophyton mentagrophytes

23 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS small and peg-like larger, oval (colony with brown reverse) Microconidia shape small, oval- round with a wide base

24 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS flat, white, velvety, bright yellow reverse floccose, white, reverse NOT yellow Colony Morphology: buff-cream, velvety, brown reverse with yellow edge Trichophyton erinaceiTrichophyton equinum

25 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Slow-growing (<10 mm/wk) Rapid (20-30mm/wk) Colony Growth Rate: Intermediate (10-15mm/wk) Trichophyton verrucosum (sporulating variants) Trichophyton rubrum (poorly-pigmented variants) Trichophyton interdigitale (downy form)

26 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS heaped, pink or yellow tinge, reverse yellow, reflexive branching at colony edge (slow) Colony Morphology reverse brownish, broad-based microconidia, formed at end of hyphal side branches Trichophyton soudanenseMicrosporum persicolor

27 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS granular/velvety, reddish colour, reverse dark- brown, clear white edge Colony Morphology granular/velvety, brown to cream, reverse dark-brown with colourless edge Trichophyton rubrum (granular form) Microsporum tonsurans

28 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Moderately Rapid (>15mm/wk) Growth Rate: Slow (<15mm/wk)

29 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Densely floccose Colony Morphology: Loosely floccose or velvet Trichophyton rubrum

30 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Reverse pale pinkish-brown, pectinate hyphae seen Colony Colour: Reverse yellow Microsporum audouinii

31 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Reverse intense orange-yellow, mostly no aerial hyphae Colony Colour: Reverse clear- yellow, mostly floccose Trichophyton interdigitale (nodular form) Microsporum canis

32 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS dark purple-brown, little or no aerial growth Colony Colour: white, grey or cream, floccose or folded Trichophyton violaceum

33 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS colony strongly folded Colony Morphology: colony almost microscopic, floccose Trichophyton verrucosum

34 DERMATOPHYT IC MOULDS Nail-head hyphae and favic chandeliers present, grows without thiamine Microscopic appearance: Nail-head hyphae and favic chandeliers absent, thiamine dependent Trichophyton concentricumTrichophyton schoenleinii

35 Order onygenales absent Presence of conidia: present Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

36 Order onygenales conidia large, spherical, rough-walled or tuberculate Conidia morphology: Not as described Histoplasma capsulatum

37 Order onygenales small <4 microns long Conidia size: longer than 4 microns

38 Order onygenales broad-based on acutely angled conidiophores Conidia arrangement: very narrow based, on sides of hyphae or on short stalks Geomyces pannorumBlastomyces dermatitidis

39 Order onygenales cinnamon-brown in centre, some conidia on swollen hyphal cells Colony morphology: white to cream in centre, conidia NOT on swollen hyphal cells Myceliopthora thermophilaChrysosporium keratinophilum

40 dematiaceous hyphomycetes Single-celled conidia Conidial forms: Multi-celled conidia

41 dematiaceous hyphomycetes mucoid, white or pale pink turning dark later Colony morphology: floccose or velvety, brown- olive colour

42 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia produced in clusters on the sides of the hyphae Conidia morphology: conidia produced in terminal rosettes on denticles Aureobasidium pullulansSporothrix schenkii

43 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia produced in chains Conidia morphology: conidia NOT in chains

44 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia chains long and rarely branching Conidia chain length and form: conidial chains short and heavily branched

45 dematiaceous hyphomycetes no growth or very poor growth at 37 C Growth requirements: good growth at 37 C and 40 C Cladeophialophora carrioniiCladeophialophora bantiana

46 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia rough- walled Conidial wall texture conidia smooth- walled Cladiosporium herbarum

47 dematiaceous hyphomycetes Most conidia round Conidial shape: Most conidia oval or lemon shaped Cladosporium sphaerospermum

48 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidial chains very short and compact Conidial chain length: conidial chains longer, more divergent Fonsecaea pedrosiCladosporium cladosporioides

49 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia elongate, less than 2 microns wide Conidia morphology: conidia broadly oval, more than 2 microns wide Rhinocladiella atrovirensRhinocladiella mackenziei

50 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia all two- celled and thin- walled Conidia cellularity: conidia with more than two cells Ochroconis gallopava

51 dematiaceous hyphomycetes some conidia with oblique or longitudinal septa in addition to transverse septa Conidia septa: conidia with transverse septa only

52 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia in chains, most often > 3, most conidia with apical beak Conidia morphology: conidia formed singly or in chains of 2-3, mostly without a beak Alternaria alternataUlocladium chartarum

53 dematiaceous hyphomycetes Conidia symmetrical Conidia morphology: Conidia oval or asymmetrical Curvularia lunata

54 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia oval with few septa and hila not protruding Conidial septa and hila: conidia oval with many septa and strongly protruding hila

55 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia mostly with five septa Number of septa: conidia mostly with three septa Bipolaris hawaiiensisBipolaris australiensis

56 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia widest near the base Conidia morphology: conidia NOT widest near the base, some worth projections on conidia walls Exserohilum mcginisii

57 dematiaceous hyphomycetes conidia with both the basal septum and apical septum dark Conidia morphology: conidia with basal septum only darker than the others Exserohilum longistratum Exserohilum rostratum

58 moulds with chains of dry conidia arising from phialides Present Presence of vesicles at the tip of conidiophore stalk Absent

59 aspergillus species complexes Some shade of green Colony colour: Not green

60 aspergillus species complexes elongated vesicle (>100 microns long) Vesicle shape: vesicles rounded Aspergillus clavatus

61 aspergillus species complexes colony uniformly yellow-green, stalks rough Colony morphology: Colony dark green, sometimes with yellow areas, stalks smooth Aspergillus flavus

62 aspergillus species complexes absent Presence of metulae (cell layer between vesicle and spore-forming phialides) present

63 aspergillus species complexes Over upper two-thirds of small flattened vesicle Distribution of phialides Over entire surface of large, round vesicle Aspergillus fumigatusAspergillus glaucus

64 aspergillus species complexes stalks pale brown, heads columnar in old cultures Colony morphology Stalks colourless, heads globose or irregular Aspergillus nidulansAspergillus versicolor

65 aspergillus species complexes Stalks rough, colony orange brown Colony morphology Stalks brown or yellow Aspergillus ochraceus Stalks colourless

66 aspergillus species complexes dull grey to charcoal Colony colour yellow to buff Aspergillus ustusAspergillus flavipes

67 aspergillus species complexes black or dark brown Colony colour: cinnamon-brown to sand-coloured Aspergillus niger white or pale cream Aspergillus terreusAspergillus candidus

68 other chain-forming enteroblastic moulds colony green Colony colour: colony not green Penicillium spp

69 other chain-forming enteroblastic moulds conidia large, round, with a flat scar Conidia morphology: conidia small, oval, with a minute scar Scopulariopsis brevicaulis

70 other chain-forming enteroblastic moulds colony pale purple Conidia colour: colony greenish-buff Purpureocillium lilacinumPaecilomyces variotti

71 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses white, grey, pink OR red colonies Colony colour: brown OR black colonies

72 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses remain white or pink without brown pigment Colour of old colonies: develop dark pigment

73 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses present Presence of macroconidia: absent (only unicellular microconidia present)

74 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses macroconidia straight with round ends Macroconidia morphology: macroconidia curved with pointed ends Fusarium lichenicola

75 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses macroconidia mostly two- celled Macroconidia morphology: macroconidia on polyphialides Fusarium dimerumFusarium semitectum

76 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses microconidia on short phialides Microconidia arrangement: microconidia on long phialides

77 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses microconidia elongated, some forming chains Microconidia morphology: microconidia ovoid to kidney- shaped, not in chains Fusarium proliferatum or Fusarium verticilloides Fusarium oxysporum

78 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses conidia mostly wider than 2 microns Conidia size: conidia narrower than 2 microns Fusarium solani Acremonium strictum

79 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses colonies mostly glabrous (at least near the edge) Colony morphology: colonies mostly floccose

80 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses long and tapering Phialide morphology: reduced to short outgrowths of hyphal cells short annelids with swollen bases Acremonium kiliense or Phaeoacremonium parasiticum Lecythophora mutabilisScedosporium prolificans

81 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses conidia large, microns long Conidia size: conidia smaller, microns long Scedosporium apiospermumPhaeoacremonium parasiticum

82 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses distinct collarettes present Presence of collarettes on conidiogenous cells: collarettes absent

83 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses minute and cylindrical Collarette morphology: flared or reflexed cup-shaped or funnel-shaped Phaeoacremonium parasiticumPleurostomophora richardsiaePhialophora verrucosa

84 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses two-celled yeasts abundant; large annellidic pegs Presence of two-celled yeasts: two-celled yeasts absent, minute annellidic pegs Hortaea werneckii

85 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses branched conidiophores of thick-walled segments Conidia arrangement: conidia borne on sides of hyphae, or on simple branches conidia borne on short annelids with swollen bases Exophalia spiniferaScedosporium prolificans

86 moulds with wet conidia adhering in masses grows at 40C; nitrate test negative (some conidia formed without obvious annellidic pegs) Growth features: no growth at 40C, nitrate test negative (annellidic pegs visible) Exophalia dermatitidisExophalia jeanselmei

87 mucoraceous moulds Yes Sporulation on Sabouraud’s Dextrose Agar No

88 mucoraceous moulds colonies floccose, rapid growth at 37C Colony morphology and growth: colonies floccose, no growth at 37C colonies membranous and waxy, slow growing

89 mucoraceous moulds spores produced outside a vesicle Spore formation: spores produced inside a sporangia Cunninghamella bertholletiae

90 mucoraceous moulds sporangia with funnel-shaped bases Sporangia morphology: sporangial base narrowing abruptly to a stalk Lichtheimia corymbifera

91 mucoraceous moulds stalks with a few side branches Stalk morphology: stalks unbranched

92 mucoraceous moulds one or two small sporangia just under main sporangia Branching of sporangia branches more widely spaced, often curved Rhizomucos pusillusMucor circinelloides

93 mucoraceous moulds colony 3-5mm deep, sporangia grey Colony morphology: colony filling the plate air space, sporangia black Rhizomucos pusillus

94 mucoraceous moulds stalks about 500 microns long, spores 4- 6 microns Stalk and spore morphology: stalks over 1000 microns long, spores 6- 8 microns Rhizopus microsporusRhizopus arrhizus

95 mucoraceous moulds sporangia black, rhizoids prominent at base of stalk Sporangia morphology and Presence of Rhizoids: sporangia pale or brownish, rhizoids absent Rhizopus stolonifer

96 mucoraceous moulds colonies pale yellow Colony colour colonies pale brown, some stalks with chlamydospores Mucor hiemalisMucor racemosus

97 mucoraceous moulds spores without conical papillae Spore morphology: spores with conical papillae Basidiobolus ranarumConidiobolus coronatus

98 mucoraceous moulds motile zoospores produced in liquid culture Nature of spores: mucoraceous sporangia produced on special media Pythium spp.

99 mucoraceous moulds sporangia on funnel-shaped bases Sporangia morphology: sporangia with apical tubular extensions sporangia round, rupturing without leaving a columella Apophysomyces elegans Saksenaea vasiformis Mortierella wolfii

100 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds within 2 weeks Production of fruiting bodies: after 2 weeks fruiting bodies absent

101 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds pale-walled fruiting bodies Fruiting body morphology: dark-walled fruiting bodies

102 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds colonies white to buff coloured Colony colour: colonies dark purple Aphanoascus fulvescensMonascus ruber

103 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds thick-walled ascocarps, covered in long brown hyphae Fruiting body morphology: Pycnidia, with thin smooth walls Chaetomium spp.Phoma herbarum

104 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds loose network of dark hyphae Fruiting body morphology: flattened, pale- coloured with gills black, with a definite wall Myxotrichum deflexumSchizophyllum commune

105 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds thick-walled ascocarps, containing asci Fruiting body morphology: Pycnidia, with thin smooth walls

106 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds large, mostly five-celled Ascospore morphology: small, two- celled, ascocarp wall of interlocking plates long, flexuous, with tapered ends Leptosphaeria senegalensisNeotestudina rosatiiPiedraia hortae

107 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds conidia large, two-celled when mature Conidia morphology: conidia small, one-celled, pycnidia with spines Lasiodiplodia theobromae Pyrenochaeta romeroi

108 moulds that produce macroscopic fruiting bodies and miscellaneous moulds colony flat or folded, velvety, with diffusing brown pigment Colony morphology: colony domed, densely floccose, without diffusing pigment Madurella mycetomatisMadurella grisea group

109 identification of yeasts minute colonies on glucose peptone agar Colony morphology: pink or red colonies on glucose peptone agar white or cream colonies on glucose peptone agar presumptive Malassezia furfur presumptive Rhodotorula spp OR Sporobolomyces spp

110 identification of yeasts Germ Tube test: positivenegative Candida albicans Candida dubliniensis Candida africana

111 identification of yeasts Presence of capsule: presentabsent presumptive Cryptococcus spp.

112 identification of yeasts Urease test: positivenegative presumptive Cryptococcus spp. OR Trichosporon spp OR Malassezia pachydermatis

113 identification of yeasts Presence of chlamydospores on cornmeal agar: presentnegative Candia albicans Candida dubliniensis

114 identification of yeasts Presence of arthrospores on cornmeal agar: presentnegative

115 identification of yeasts Presence of budding cells on cornmeal agar: present negative dichotomously branching hyphae present presumptive Trichosporon spp OR Saprochaete capitata Geotrichum candidum

116 identification of yeasts Pseudohyphae present: presentnegative presumptive Candida spp

117 dy/dx: Macroscopic Features Neoscatylidium dimidiatum Microscopic Features clinical significanc e skin and nail infections among immigrants from the tropics and sub-tropics. Not contagious (unlike dermatophytosis)


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