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Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists D.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman © John Wiley & Sons, 2005 Chapter 10 – Microbial Groups.

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists D.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman © John Wiley & Sons, 2005 Chapter 10 – Microbial Groups."— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Biology for Engineers and Scientists D.A. Vaccari, P.F. Strom, and J.E. Alleman © John Wiley & Sons, 2005 Chapter 10 – Microbial Groups

2 Figure 10 ‑ 1. Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek

3 Figure 10 ‑ 2. Some of Leeuwenhoek's "Animalcules" from the "Scurf of the Teeth" - Drawings of Bacterial Shapes. A and B appear to show rods, with C and D showing the movement of B; E shows cocci; F rods or filaments; and G a spiral. From Leeuwenhoek' s letter of 1683

4 Figure 10 ‑ 3. Leeuwenhoek's Microscope

5 Figure 10 ‑ 4. Portrait of Louis Pasteur

6 Figure 10 ‑ 5. Pasteur's Swan-Neck Biological Flasks

7 Figure 10 ‑ 6. A 3-Dimensional Surface: Visualizing prokaryotic species as more stable (valleys), and hence more likely, combinations of characteristics, although intermediates may exist

8 Figure 10 ‑ 7. Example of a Simplified Dichotomous Key for Identifying Filamentous Organisms in Activated Sludge

9 Figure 10 ‑ 8. Rod-Shaped Bacteria: Pseudomonas

10 Figure 10 ‑ 9. Cocci: Staphylococcus

11 Figure 10 ‑ 10. Spiral-Shaped Bacteria: Rhodospirillum

12 Figure 10 ‑ 11. A Filamentous Bacteria Growing with Floc in an Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plant

13 Bacterial Cell Stalk 10 ‑ 12. Stalked Bacteria Growing on a Filament in Activated Sludge

14 Figure 10 ‑ 13. The Gram Stain Technique. This modification (one of many) is recommended for staining of activated sludge mixed liquor

15 Figure 10 ‑ 14. Bacterial Cell Wall and Membrane: a). Gram Positive; b). Gram Negative

16 Flagella staining to enhance visual image of flagella Cell wall staining to darken and define cell wall Negative staining to create darkened background which offers better visual contrast for cell or capsule Differential staining with contrasting dyes to provide visual separation within cell (e.g., Gram) A B Spore staining used to identify cytoplasmic endospores (e.g., malachite green, with heating) Capsule staining to visually emphasize exocellular layer of encapsulating polysaccharide material + Basic (+) dyes penetrate to cytoplasm Acid (-) dyes usually do not penetrate membrane without modification (e.g., esterification) - Inclusion staining used to visualize cellular inclusions (e.g., polyphosphate) Figure 10 ‑ 15. Staining Approaches

17 Figure 10 ‑ 16. The Biolog Test; 95 test compounds and a control well are included in each plate. The plate shown was used to identify a Gram negative bacteria as Leminorella grimontii based on comparing the pattern of positive (dark) and negative tests to results in a database

18 a. b. Figure 10 ‑ 17. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profiles showing different patterns for a) Serratia marcescens and b) Tsukamurella paurometabolum

19 Figure 10 ‑ 18. Denaturing Gradient Gel Extraction (DGGE) Track Profiles

20 Figure 10 ‑ 19. Phylogenetic Tree Indicating Evolutionary Branching and Distance between Groups based on rRNA Analysis. Fungi are represented by Coprinus (a mushroom), plants by Zea (corn), and Animals by Homo (humans)

21 Heterocyst Figure 10 ‑ 20. Anabaena, a Filamentous Cyanobacteria; with Heterocyst

22 Figure 10 ‑ 21. Light Absorption Characteristics of Phototrophic Bacteria

23 Figure 10 ‑ 22. Two Species of Beggiatoa in Samples from RBC Wastewater Treatment Plants; a Gliding Filamentous Sulfur Oxidizing Proteobacteria. Note internally deposited sulfur granules

24 a b Figure 10 ‑ 23. Sphaerotilus natans: a)pure culture showing sheath and PHB granules; and b)branching filament in activated sludge sample

25 Figure 10 ‑ 24. Characteristic Zoogloea ramigera floc from activated sludge

26 Figure 10 ‑ 25. Escherichia coli

27 Transmission Electron Image of Escherichia Eubacteria (Source: Revised from original TEM image photographed at the Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: Escherichia coli, Transmission Electron Micrograph

28 Desulfovibrio sp. Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria Figure 10 ‑ 26. Desulfovibrio. Note the bent rods (vibrios).

29 Bacillus sp. with Internal Spores (Source: pg. 1021, R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition, W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997) Bacillus sp. Eubacteria with Internal Spore (~34,000x TEM Image) (Source: pg. 1021, R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition, W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997) Figure 10 ‑ 27. Endospores in Bacillus

30 Figure 10 ‑ 28. Nocardia-like Filamentous Bacteria in Activated Sludge Foam (Gram stained preparation).

31 Figure 10 ‑ 29. Spirochetes in Activated Sludge

32 Figure 10 ‑ 30. Giardia

33 Figure 10 ‑ 31. Bodo in Activated Sludge.

34 Figure 10 ‑ 32. Amoeba in Activated Sludge.

35 Figure 10 ‑ 33. Arcella, a Testate Amoeba

36 Figure 10 ‑ 34. Free Swimming Ciliates: a) Paramecium, b) Aspidisca, and c) Euplotes.

37 a dc b Figure 10 ‑ 35. Vorticella, a Stalked Ciliate: a) feeding; b) with mouth closed, and myoneme visible (dark line in stalk); c) stalk extended, and d) seconds later, myoneme contracted to form corkscrew-shaped stalk.

38 Figure 10 ‑ 36. Podophyra, a Suctorean

39 Figure 10 ‑ 37. Cryptosporidium

40 Euglena sp. Euglenoid Algae (Source: B. Leander, Center for Ultrastructural Research, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Web Site: Figure 10 ‑ 38. Euglena

41 SEM Images of Various Diatom Shell Structures (Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: Figure 10 ‑ 39. SEM Images of Various Diatom Frustules.

42 Peridinium Dinoflagellate Algae Ceratium sp. Dinoflagellate (Source: pg. 550, L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley, and D.A. Klein, Microbiology, 4th Edition, WCB/McGraw-Hill, 1999) Figure 10 ‑ 40. Peridinium

43 Chlorella sp. Green Algae

44 Figure Scenedesmus sp. Green Algae Figure 10 ‑ 41. Scenedesmus

45 Mold with Budding Condidia Tip Structures (Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: Figure 10 ‑ 42. Mold with Conidia

46 Figure 10 ‑ 43. Nematode trapping fungus.

47 Figure 10 ‑ 44. The Combined Effect of Mycorrhyzal Fungus and Phosphate Fertilizer on Tomato Growth.

48 Figure 10 ‑ 45. Virus Capsids


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