Figure 10 ‑ 1. Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Figure 10 ‑ 2. Some of Leeuwenhoek's "Animalcules" from the "Scurf of the Teeth" - Drawings of Bacterial Shapes. A and B appear to show rods, with C and D showing the movement of B; E shows cocci; F rods or filaments; and G a spiral. From Leeuwenhoek' s letter of 1683
Flagella staining to enhance visual image of flagella Cell wall staining to darken and define cell wall Negative staining to create darkened background which offers better visual contrast for cell or capsule Differential staining with contrasting dyes to provide visual separation within cell (e.g., Gram) A B Spore staining used to identify cytoplasmic endospores (e.g., malachite green, with heating) Capsule staining to visually emphasize exocellular layer of encapsulating polysaccharide material + Basic (+) dyes penetrate to cytoplasm Acid (-) dyes usually do not penetrate membrane without modification (e.g., esterification) - Inclusion staining used to visualize cellular inclusions (e.g., polyphosphate) Figure 10 ‑ 15. Staining Approaches
Figure 10 ‑ 16. The Biolog Test; 95 test compounds and a control well are included in each plate. The plate shown was used to identify a Gram negative bacteria as Leminorella grimontii based on comparing the pattern of positive (dark) and negative tests to results in a database
a. b. Figure 10 ‑ 17. Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) profiles showing different patterns for a) Serratia marcescens and b) Tsukamurella paurometabolum
Figure 10 ‑ 19. Phylogenetic Tree Indicating Evolutionary Branching and Distance between Groups based on rRNA Analysis. Fungi are represented by Coprinus (a mushroom), plants by Zea (corn), and Animals by Homo (humans)
Heterocyst Figure 10 ‑ 20. Anabaena, a Filamentous Cyanobacteria; with Heterocyst
Transmission Electron Image of Escherichia Eubacteria (Source: Revised from original TEM image photographed at the Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: http://lime.weeg.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/index.html) Escherichia coli, Transmission Electron Micrograph
Desulfovibrio sp. Sulfur-Reducing Eubacteria Figure 10 ‑ 26. Desulfovibrio. Note the bent rods (vibrios).
Bacillus sp. with Internal Spores (Source: pg. 1021, R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition, W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997) Bacillus sp. Eubacteria with Internal Spore (~34,000x TEM Image) (Source: pg. 1021, R.M. Atlas, Principles of Microbiology, 2nd Edition, W.C. Brown Publishers, 1997) Figure 10 ‑ 27. Endospores in Bacillus
Figure 10 ‑ 34. Free Swimming Ciliates: a) Paramecium, b) Aspidisca, and c) Euplotes.
a dc b Figure 10 ‑ 35. Vorticella, a Stalked Ciliate: a) feeding; b) with mouth closed, and myoneme visible (dark line in stalk); c) stalk extended, and d) seconds later, myoneme contracted to form corkscrew-shaped stalk.
Euglena sp. Euglenoid Algae (Source: B. Leander, Center for Ultrastructural Research, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Web Site: http://www.uga.edu/~caur/home.html) Figure 10 ‑ 38. Euglena
SEM Images of Various Diatom Shell Structures (Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: http://lime.weeg.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/index.html) Figure 10 ‑ 39. SEM Images of Various Diatom Frustules.
Mold with Budding Condidia Tip Structures (Source: Central Microscopy Research and Learning Facility, University of Iowa, 85 EMRB Iowa City, IA 52242, Web Site: http://lime.weeg.uiowa.edu/~cemrf/index.html) Figure 10 ‑ 42. Mold with Conidia