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Benign Tumour of Uterus

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1 Benign Tumour of Uterus
Uterine fibroids Myomas ,Liomyomous

2 Definition Uterine fibroids develop from the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus (myometrium) and fibrous tiussue. It is the most common tumour in the women. A single cell reproduces repeatedly, eventually creating a pale, firm, rubbery mass distinct from neighboring tissue.whorle-like appearance with blood vessele at the prephery of tumour ,poor blood supply inside it

3 Risk factors other than being a woman of reproductive age Other factors include: Heredity. mother or sister had fibroids, Race. Black women are more likely to have fibroids than are women of other racial groups & fibroids at younger ages, and they're also likely to have more or larger fibroids obese women are at higher risk of fibroids, other studies have not shown a link.

4 a lower risk of fibroids
take oral contraceptives athletic women may have, pregnancy and giving birth may have a protective effect, but results remain unclear.

5 Causes Fibroids range in size from seedlings, undetectable by the human eye, to bulky masses that can distort and enlarge the uterus. They can be single or multiple, in extreme cases expanding the uterus so much that it reaches the rib cage. several factors: Genetic alterations. Many fibroids contain alterations in genes that code for uterine muscle cells. Hormones. It isa hormone(estrogen) dependent tumour Fibroids contain more estrogen and estrogen receptors than do normal uterine muscle cells. Other chemicals. Substances that help the body maintain tissues, such as insulin-like growth factor, may affect fibroid growth.

6 Sign& Symptoms A symptomatic Heavy menstrual bleeding
Prolonged menstrual periods or bleeding between periods Pelvic pressure or pain Urinary incontinence or frequent urination Constipation Backache or leg pains Rarely, a fibroid can cause acute pain when it outgrows its blood supply. Deprived of nutrients, the fibroid begins to die. Byproducts from a degenerating fibroid can seep into surrounding tissue, causing pain and fever. A fibroid that hangs by a stalk inside or outside the uterus (pedunculated fibroid) can trigger pain by twisting on its stalk and cutting off its blood supply. :

7 Fibroid location influences signs and symptoms
Submucosal fibroids. Fibroids that grow into the inner cavity of the uterus (submucosal fibroids) are thought to be primarily responsible for prolonged, heavy menstrual bleeding. Subserosal fibroids. Fibroids that project to the outside of the uterus (subserosal fibroids) press on bladder, causing urinary symptoms. If fibroids bulge from the back of uterus, they occasionally can press on rectum, causing constipation spinal nerves, causing backache.

8 Complications of fibroids;
1-Degenerations;hylain .necrosis, red degeneration ( pregnancy, menopause) ,calcifications 2-Sarcomatous changes;<0.05% 3-Rare:Parasitic changes; as attachment to omentum bowel l to gain blood supply, metastasis through blood vessels to vessel wall, Polycythmia associated with broud ligament fibroid

9 Affect of pregnancy on fibroid
Subinvolution ascending infection torsion

10 Affect of Fibroid on Pregnancy
Infertility Abortion PUC preterm labor Abruptio placentae abnormal Lie & position , increase rate of operative delivery PPH (uterine atony) . Red Degeneration 2nd trimester & menopause as abdominal pain fever ,tachycardia luococytosis tender abdomen ,there is no indication for myomectomy during pregnancy (uncontrolled bleeding) treated by rest IVF ,Opiat analgesia

11 Screening and diagnosis
Uterine fibroids are frequently found incidentally during a routine pelvic exam. you may feel irregularities in the shape of your uterus throughy abdomen, Suggesting the presence of fibroids.

12 Ultrasound Sometimes, fibroids are discovered during an ultrasound conducted for a different purpose, such as during a prenatal ultrasound If confirmation is needed to map and measure fibroids (transabdominal) or inside (transvaginal) to obtain images. Transvaginal ultrasound provides more detail because the probe is closer to the uterus. Transabdominal ultrasound visualizes a larger anatomic area..

13 Hysterosonography This ultrasound variation uses sterile saline to expand the uterine cavity, making it easier to obtain interior images of the uterus. This test may be useful if you have heavy menstrual bleeding despite normal results from traditional ultrasound


15 Hysterosalpingography
. if infertility is a concern fallopian tubes are open.

16 Hysteroscopy the walls of uterus and the openings of fallopian tubes.

17 Others Imaging techniques that may occasionally be necessary include computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other tests abnormal vaginal bleeding, a complete blood count (CBC) to determine if iron deficiency anemia because of chronic blood loss. blood tests to rule out bleeding disorders and to determine the levels of reproductive hormones produced by ovaries.

18 TREATMENT There's no single best approach to uterine fibroid treatment

19 A -Watchful waiting no signs or symptoms, watchful waiting (expectant management) could be the best course. They usually grow slowly and tend to shrink after menopause when levels of reproductive hormones drop

20 B-Medications Medications for uterine fibroids target hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle, treating symptoms such as heavy menstrual bleeding and pelvic pressure. They don't eliminate fibroids, but may shrink them. Medications include:

21 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) ago
Medications called Gn-RH agonists (Lupron, Synarel, others) act at the same sites that Gn-RH does. But when taken as therapy, a Gn-RH agonist produces the opposite effect to that of your natural hormone. Estrogen and progesterone levels fall, menstruation stops, fibroids shrink and anemia often improves. , less blood loss during surgery, and shorter operations. However, side effects; the shrunken, softened fibroids that result can be more difficult to detect and remove,. hot flash,osteoproses,costy,recurrance

22 *Androgens. Danazol, a synthetic drug similar to testosterone, has been shown to shrink fibroid tumors, reduce uterine size, stop menstruation and correct anemia. However, occasional unpleasant side effects such as weight gain, dysphoria (feeling depressed, anxious or uneasy), acne, headaches, unwanted hair growth and a deeper voice, make many women reluctant to take this drug.

23 medications. Oral contraceptives or progestins
can help control menstrual bleeding, but they don't reduce fibroid size. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which are not hormonal medications, are effective for heavy vaginal bleeding unrelated to fibroids, but they don't reduce bleeding caused by fibroids.

24 C-Surgery Three surgical approaches


26 This operation remains the only proven permanent solution for uterine fibroids. But hysterectomy is major surgery. It ends ability to bear children !- Hysterectomy

27 2_Myomectomy surgeon removes the fibroids, leaving the uterus in place. If want to bear children, this option. With myomectomy, as opposed to a hysterectomy, there is a risk of fibroid recurrence. #Patient who need myomectomy they should signed for hysterectomy which may needed at same time as emergency. #Stormy postoperative period as fever abdominal pain, systemic reaction to collected blood in cavity of removed myoma There are several ways a myomectomy can be done:

28 a-Abdominal myomectomy
. If you have multiple fibroids, very large or very deep fibroids.

29 b-Laparoscopic myomectomy
. If the fibroids are small and few in number

30 c-Hysteroscopic myomectomy
. This if the fibroids (submucosal) (hysteroscopy) is passed through vagina and cervix and into uterus

31 D-Myolysis Variations of myomectomy — in which uterine fibroids are destroyed without actually removing them — include: 1-Myolysis. In this laparoscopic procedure, an electric current destroys the fibroids and shrinks the blood vessels that feed them. 2-Cryomyolysis. In a procedure similar to myolysis, cryomyolysis uses liquid nitrogen to freeze the fibroids. The safety, effectiveness and associated risk of fibroid recurrence of myolysis and cryomyolysis have yet to be determined.

32 3-Uterine artery embolization
Small particles injected into the arteries supplying the uterus cut off blood flow to fibroids, causing them to shrink.. Advantages over surgery include: No incision Shorter recovery time Complications may occur if the blood supply to your ovaries or other organs is compromised.

33 4-Focused ultrasound surgery
MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS), approved by the Food and Drug Administration in October 2004, is a newer treatment option for women with fibroids. Unlike other fibroid treatment options, FUS is noninvasive and preserves uterus . This procedure is performed crafted MRI scanner they locate and destroy (ablate) fibroids inside uterus without making an incision. Focused high-frequency, high-energy sound waves are used to target and destroy the fibroids. Initial results with this technology are promising, but its long-term effectiveness is not yet known.



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